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PUBLICATIONS 

OF  THE 

SCOTTISH   HISTORY  SOCIETY 

VOLUME   XXXII 


THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

VOL.  I 


JANUARY  1899 


PAPERS 

ILLUSTRATING  THE  HISTORY  OF 

THE   SCOTS  BRIGADE 

IN    THE    SERVICE    OF   THE 
UNITED     NETHERLANDS 

1572-1782 

Extracted  by  permission  from  the  Government 

Archives  at  The  Hague,  and  edited  by 

JAMES    FERGUSON 


VOL.  I 

1572-1697 


EDINBURGH 

Printed  at  the  University  Press  by  T.  and  A.  CONSTABLE 

for  the  Scottish  History  Society 

1899 


DR 
ISO 
£25 


CONTENTS 

PAGE 

GENERAL  INTRODUCTION, ix 

List  of  the  Successive  Colonels  of  the  Scots  Brigade,    .         .  xxxiv 

DIVISION   I 

The  War  of  Independence,  1572-1609. 

INTRODUCTORY  NARRATIVE,     .         .         .         •     ,   •         *         •         3 

(1.)  Preliminary  Extracts   from   the  Archives  of  Holland. 

1573-1587, .         .36 

(2.)  States  of  War.     1579-1609,.         .         .         .         .         .43 

(3.)  Commissions  granted  by  the  Council  at  the  East  side 
of  the  Meuse,  the  Governor-General,  the  Earl  of 
Leicester,  and  the  Council  of  State.  1581-1595,  .  76 

(4.)  Extracts  relating  to  the  claims  of  Colonel  Bartholomew 
Balfour  and  the  position  of  the  Scottish  Officers. 
1586-1594, 96 

(5.)  Papers  relating  to  the  Claims  and  Embassies  of 
Colonel  Sir  William  Stewart  of  Houston,  Sir 
William  Murray,  and  Others,  and  Reports  of  the 
Dutch  Embassies  to  England  and  Scotland  in 
1588,  1589,  and  1594.  1588-1595,  .  .  .115 

(6.)  Extracts  from  Resolutions  of  the  [States-General, 
Letters  of  Recommendation,  and  Requests  and 
Petitions  sent  to  the  Council  of  State.  1 594-1 609,  177 


vi  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

DIVISION    II 

The  Time  of  the  Twelve  Years  Truce,  1609-1621. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY  NARRATIVE,    :         .         .         .         .         .         .221 

(1.)  States  of  War.      1610-1618, 226 

(2.)  Extracts     from      Correspondence,      Recommendations, 

Resolutions,  Reports,  and  Requests.     1 609-1 611,   .     234 

(3.)  Extracts   relating   to   the   Services   and    Claims  of  Sir 
^          William    Balfour     and    Captain    Henry    Balfour. 

1611-1615,     . 250 

(4.)  Extracts     relating    to    the    Services    and    Claims    of 
Colonel   Lord    Buccleuch   and   his   Son    the   first 
I.  Earl  of  Buccleuch.     1611-1620,     ...         .     256 

(5.)  Resolutions,     Reports,     Requests,      Recommendations, 

etc.     1612-1620, .     270 

DIVISION    III 

The  Thirty  Years   War,  1621-1648. 

INTRODUCTORY  NARRATIVE,    .......     307 

(1.)  States  of  War.     1621-1648, .318 

(2.)  Resolutions,     Reports,     Requests,     Recommendations, 

,      etc.      1621-1629,   .         .         .          ....     335 

(3.)  Resolutions     relating    to    Captain    William     Douglas. 

1626-1629,     .         .         .  ...         .358 

(4.)  Further  Extracts  relating  to  the  Services  and   Claims 

of  Sir  William  Balfour.      1627-1 634,        .         .          .369 

(5.)  Extracts   relating   to  the  Claims  and  Services  of  the 

Earl  of  Buccleuch.      1623-1635,      .         .         .          .378 

(6.)  Papers   relating   to   the   Earl   of  Morton's   Regiment, 

commanded  by  Lord  Kinfauns.     1629-1630,  .         .     396 


CONTENTS  vii 

PACE 

(7.)  Resolutions,  Despatches,  etc.,  relative  to  recruiting  in 

England  and  Scotland.     1632-1 638,       .          .         .     406 

(8.)  Resolutions,     Reports,     Requests,     Recommendations, 

etc.     1630-1645,  .  .  .     438 


DIVISION    IV 

The  Age  of  William  of  Orange  and  the 
British   Revolution,    1649-1697. 

INTRODUCTORY  NARRATIVE,    .......     465 

(1.)  States  of  War.     1 649-1689,   .         .         .   '      .         .         .489 

(2.)  Papers  illustrating  the  Position  of  the  Brigade 
during  the  War  with  the  English  Commonwealth. 
1652-1653, 519 

(3.)  Papers  illustrating  the  Position  of  the  Brigade  during 

the  War  with  Great  Britain.     1664-1668,       .         .     521 

(4.)  Papers  relating  to  the  Despatch  of  the  Brigade  to 
England  on  the  occasion  of  the  Duke  of  Mon- 
mouth's  Rebellion.  1685, 536 

(5.)  Papers    relating    to    the    Recall    of  the    Brigade    by 

King  James  in  1688.     1688, 542 

(6.)  The    Revolution   of   1688,  and   the   period   in  British 

Service  to  the  Peace  of  Ryswick.     1689-1697,       .     566 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION 

THE  papers  embraced  in  this  and  the  subsequent  volumes 
consist  of  documents,  transcribed  in  Holland,  illustrating  the 
services  of  the  Scots  regiments  to  the  United  Netherlands 
during  the  long  period  of  more  than  two  hundred  years  for 
which  the  Scots  Brigade  formed  part  of  the  permanent  military 
establishment  of  the  Dutch  Republic,  except  for  an  interregnum 
of  about  ten  years  between  the  Revolution  of  1688  and  the 
Peace  of  Ryswick,  when  these  troops  were  in  British  pay,  and 
in  the  direct  service  of  Great  Britain  under  King  William  in. 
They  consist  of  two  classes :  (a)  Documents  from  the  archives 
of  the  United  Netherlands  at  the  Hague,  relating  to  part  of 
the  sixteenth,  the  seventeenth,  and  the  eighteenth  centuries ; 
and  (b)  the  Rotterdam  Papers,  a  collection  of  regimental 
papers  which  were  kept  in  the  regiments,  and  afterwards  pre- 
served among  the  records  of  the  Scots  Church  at  Rotterdam, 
from  which  they  were  removed  to  the  municipal  archives  at  the 
Town  Hall,  where  they  still  remain.  In  the  first  volume  are 
embraced  the  documents  from  the  Dutch  Government  archives 
relating  to  the  period  prior  to  the  service  of  the  Brigade  in 
Great  Britain  after  the  Revolution  of  1688  :  in  the  second  it  is 
proposed  to  include  the  further  documents  from  the  State 
archives  for  the  period  from  1697  to  the  final  merging  of  the 
Brigade  among  the  Dutch  national  troops,  and  the  departure 
of  the  British  officers :  and  in  the  third,  the  Rotterdam  Papers, 
which  form  a  separate  series,  will  be  printed. 

The  sources  from  which  the  papers  contained  in  the  first 
two  volumes  are  drawn  consist  of  several  series  of  records 
preserved  in  the  'Rijks  Archief  at  the  Hague.  They  include 


x  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

extracts  from  the  Resolutions  of  the  States-General,  from  the 
secret  resolutions  of  the  same,  from  the  *  Instruction  Books,' 
the  files  of  the  incoming  documents,  and  separate  portfolios 
of  requests,  from  the  diplomatic  correspondence,  the  secret 
diplomatic  correspondence,  and  the  reports  of  the  ambassadors 
given  to  the  States-General  on  their  return  to  the  Hague. 
They  also  include  extracts  from  the  resolutions  of  the  Council 
of  State,  from  the  collection  of  letters  sent  to  the  Council  of 
State,  from  the  commission  books  of  the  Land  Council  at  the 
east  side  of  the  Meuse,  which  preceded  the  Council  of  State 
(1581-84)  and  of  the  Council  of  State,  and  from  the  portfolios 
marked  Military  Affairs.  The  names  of  the  officers  are  taken 
from  the  States  of  War,  which  are  documents  made  up  with  the 
object  of  showing  the  military  establishment  for  the  time 
being,  and  the  proportion  in  which  its  expenses  fell  to  be 
defrayed  by  the  separate  provinces  which  constituted  the 
United  Netherlands. 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  archives  of  the  United  Netherlands 
at  the  Hague  do  not  furnish  illustrations  of  the  earlier  history 
of  the  Scottish  troops,  the  reason  being  that  it  was  only  after 
the  Union  of  Utrecht,  and  the  reconciliation  of  the  Walloon 
Provinces  with  the  King  of  Spain,  that  the  permanent  central 
government  of  the  outstanding  provinces  took  shape.  Previous 
to  this  the  Scottish  troops  were  either  in  the  service  of  Holland 
and  Zealand  alone,  or  in  that  of  the  States- General  of  the 
whole  associated  provinces  of  the  Low  Countries  during  the 
campaigns  against  Don  John  of  Austria.  As,  however,  special 
interest  attaches  to  the  early  services  of  the  Scots  in  the  war 
of  independence,  there  are  prefixed  to  the  papers  which  form 
the  proper  subject  of  the  volume,  a  series  of  extracts  from  the 
Resolutions  and  Pay  Lists  of  Holland  which  supply  the  blank. 
With  this  exception  the  mass  of  material  has  rendered  it 
necessary  to  confine  the  reproduction  to  the  archives  of  the 
United  Netherlands.  To  search  for  and  publish  the  whole 
documents  relating  to  the  Brigade  in  the  Low  Countries 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xi 

would  involve  ransacking  not  only  the  independent  archives 
of  Holland,  but  those  also  of  Zealand,  Guelderland,  and  pro- 
bably other  provinces,  and  certainly  those  of  the  great  garrison 
towns  like  Breda,  Bois-le-Duc,  and  Maestricht.  But  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  material  has  been  obtained  from  the 
Records  of  Holland,  which  has  been  found  valuable  for  pur- 
poses of  illustration  and  explanation,  while  the  annotation  in 
regard  to  the  personnel  of  the  officers  has  been  much  assisted 
by  extracts  from  the  Oath  Books  and  Commission  Books. 

The  extent  of  time  covered  by  the  subject,  and  the  clear- 
marked  character  of  the  periods  into  which  the  history  divides 
itself,  indicated  the  method  which  has  been  adopted  in  the 
arrangement  of  the  materials.  The  papers  have  been  collected 
in  sections  corresponding  to  distinct  historical  developments, 
and  a  short  historical  introduction,  noting  the  services  of  the 
Scots  regiments,  as  far  as  they  can  be  traced,  prefixed  to  each 
section.  The  documents  have  themselves  been  arranged, 
irrespective  of  the  series  of  Dutch  records  from  which  they 
come,  in  chronological  order,  subject,  however,  to  the  collecting 
together,  where  this  seemed  advisable,  of  those  relating  to  a 
particular  subject  or  the  claims  of  a  particular  individual. 

THE  SUCCESSION  OF  THE  REGIMENTS 

The  Scots  Brigade  in  Holland  began  by  the  enlistment  of 
separate  companies,  each  complete  under  its  own  captain.  At 
what  time  these  were  embodied  into  a  distinct  regiment  it  is 
difficult  to  say,  but  they  underwent  the  experience  afterwards 
undergone  by  the  Black  Watch,  and  by  every  administrative 
battalion  of  rifle  volunteers.  Colonel  Ormiston  is  referred  to  in 
1573.  In  1586  the  Scots  companies  were  divided  into  two 
regiments  under  Colonels  Balfour  and  Patten,  and  by  the  time 
of  the  Spanish  Armada,  if  not  indeed  before,  the  elder  regiment 
seems  to  have  had  its  complete  regimental  organisation.  The 
second  regiment  was  brought  over  complete  by  Lord  Buccleuch 
in  1603.  The  third  was  formed  on  a  readjustment  in  1628,  and 


xii  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

although  from  1655  to  1660  the  three  were  again  converted  into 
two,  and  between  1665  and  1672  the  third  regiment  became 
completely  Hollandised,  and  its  place  was  taken,  in  1673,  by  a 
newly  raised  one,  the  two  older  regiments  had  an  unbroken 
existence  from  1588,  if  not  from  1572,  and  from  1603 
respectively,  while  the  third,  dating  from  1673,  substantially 
represented  the  one  formed  in  1628.1 

But  while  from  1628  onwards  there  were  substantially  three 
permanent  regiments  in  service,  on  special  occasions  the  number 
was  increased.  Thus  in  the  campaign  against  Don  John  of 
Austria,  Stuart's  regiment  also  served,  and  from  the  allusion 
to  other  colonels,  it  would  seem  that  there  were  others  in  the 
pay  of  other  provinces.  In  1629  the  Earl  of  Morton's  regiment, 
commanded  by  Lord  Hay  of  Kinfauns,  served  at  the  siege  of 
Bois-le-Duc.  In  1697-98  three  additional  Scottish  regiments, 
Ferguson's,  Lord  Strathnaver's,  and  Hamilton's,  were  tempo- 
rarily employed,  replacing  the  English  Brigade,  and  again 
during  the  time  of  Marlborough  three  regiments  (Lord 
Portmore's,  Lord  Strathnaver's,  and  Hamilton's)  were  em- 
ployed, and  reduced  after  the  Peace  of  Utrecht.  Again  a 
fourth  regiment,  commanded  by  the  Earl  of  Drumlanrig, 
was  in  service  from  1747  to  1753. 

CAVALRY,  ETC. 

The  services  of  the  Scots  were  not  confined  to  the  infantry  arm. 
During  the  earlier  period  there  seem  to  have  been  at  least  two 
companies  (squadrons  or  troops)  of  Scottish  cavalry  and  some- 
times more  in  the  service  of  the  States.  Captain  Wishart  received 
a  commission  as  captain  of  horse-arquebusiers  in  March  1586, 
and  served  until  1615  or  1616,  when  his  company  appears  to 
have  been  transferred  to  Sir  William  Balfour,  who  commanded 
it  till  1628.  William  Edmond  received  a  commission  as 
captain  of  lancers  in  1588,  and  led  his  squadron  at  least 


See  List  of  Colonels,  pp.  xxxiv-xxxv. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xiii 

until  his  succession  to  the  command  of  the  infantry  regiment 
in  1699 ;  and  his  son  Thomas  came  from  the  infantry  to  a 
cavalry  command  in  1625.  Patrick  Bruce  was  commissioned 
as  captain  of  a  hundred  lancers  in  1593,  and  Thomas  Erskine 
and  Henry  Bruce  appear  as  cavalry  captains  in  1599.  Captain 
Hamilton,  a  gallant  Scottish  cavalry  captain,  fell  in  the  decisive 
charge  at  Nieuport  in  1600.  In  1604,  after  much  deliberation 
and  some  remonstrance,  the  States  accepted  the  offer  of  Archi- 
bald Erskine  to  raise  a  company  of  cuirassiers ;  and  the  troubles 
of  a  cavalry  captain,  the  anxieties  of  the  magistrates  of  Zwolle 
in  connection  with  his  troop,  and  the  questions  that  arose  on 
his  death  in  1608,  will  be  found  illustrated  in  the  papers.1  In 
1617  and  1620  Robert  Irving  and  William  Balfour  appear  as 
cavalry  captains,  the  former  probably  being  succeeded  by  the 
younger  Edmond,  and  at  the  close  of  the  Thirty  Years' 
War,  William  Hay  and  Sir  Robert  Hume  occupy  a  similar 
position. 

The  papers  also  disclose  the  names  of  artillerymen  and 
engineers,  while  of  the  infantry  officers  some,  such  as  William 
Douglas  and  Henry  Bruce,  distinguished  themselves  as  inventors 
and  scientific  sbldiers.  John  Cunningham  won  reputation 
as  an  artillery  officer  at  Haarlem,  nor  was  he  the  only  Scot 
who  commanded  the  artillery.  On  30th  June  1608,  James 
Bruce's  request  to  succeed  Peter  Stuart  was  refused.  Breda 
also  requested  that  James  Lawson,  a  Scot,  should  be  appointed 
cannoneer  of  the  city.  Samuel  Prop,  engineer,  appears  in  the 
States  of  War. 

MILITARY  ORGANISATION,  PAY,  ETC. 

The  numbers  of  the  companies  varied.  Originally  the 
ordinary  strength  appears  to  have  been  one  hundred  and  fifty 
for  each  ordinary  company,  and  two  hundred  for  the  colonel's 
(or  life)  company.  Of  the  one  hundred  and  fifty,  one  hundred 


Pp.  196,  204,  215,  and  275. 


xiv  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

were  musketeers  (or  harquebusiers)  and  fifty  pikemen.  In  1598 
the  companies  were  temporarily  reduced  to  one  hundred  and 
twenty  heads.1  How  long  the  pikemen  were  continued  is 
not  certain,  but  General  Mackay's  Memoirs  show  that  'old 
pikemen '  served  in  the  Scottish  campaign  of  1689-90.  (See 
documents  showing  establishment  under  William  the  Silent, 
p.  43,  Commissions,  pp.  82-93.)  The  sergeant-major  and  the 
provost-marshal  appear  in  1587,  the  'minister1  in  1597,  and 
the  lieutenant-colonel  and  quartermaster  in  1599.  The 
establishment  of  a  company  will  be  found  detailed  in  the  com- 
missions printed  on  pp.  76-95.  It  will  be  noted  that  in  some 
cases  one  or  two  pipers  are  mentioned,  and  in  others  none.  In 
1607  the  colonels  remonstrated  against  the  English  and  Scots 
companies  being  reduced  to  seventy  rank  and  file,  'pesle-mesle 
avec  la  reste  de  rarmee.12  In  1621  it  was  resolved  to  increase 
the  foreign  companies  to  one  hundred  and  twenty. 

The  number  of  companies  in  a  regiment  seems  to  have  varied, 
but  in  the  reorganisation  into  three  regiments  in  1628  it  was 
fixed  at  ten  companies.3  The  difficulties  that  attended  the 
supply  of  men  for  the  regiments,  and  the  competition  of  foreign 
states  in  the  British  recruiting  field,  are  illustrated  by  a  series 
of  documents  relating  to  the  recruiting  in  England  and  Scot- 
land between  the  years  1632  and  1638.4 

The  rates  of  pay  for  the  different  ranks  in  the  time  of  William 
the  Silent  are  shown  by  a  document  from  the  archives  of  the 
Council  of  State,  prefixed  to  the  States  of  War  of  1579-1609.5 
The  commissions  of  1586  and  subsequent  years  also  show  the 
agreed-on  pay,  and  indicate  a  method  of  payment  which  led  to 
many  questions.  Thus  for  Colonel  Balfour's  company  of  two 
hundred  men,  he  was  entitled  to  .£2200  of  forty  Flemish 
grotten  (or  groats  ?)  per  pound  per  month,  each  month  being 
calculated  as  consisting  of  thirty-two  days,  but  the  monthly 

1  Meteren,  fol.  311.  2  P.  241.  3  MS.  of  Holland. 

4  Pp.  406-437.     In  1641  there  was  presented  to  the  Scottish  Parliament  a 
letter  from  the  Prince  of  Orange  in  favour  of  officers  sent  over  '  for  re-enforcing 
their  regiments,  which  are  greatly  decayed  and  diminished . ' — Scots  Acts. 

5  P.  43- 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xv 

payment  was  only  made  each  forty-eighth  day,  and  the  balance 
of  one- third  of  the  pay  thus  retained  constituted  the  arrears 
which  led  to  so  many  claims  on  the  part  of  the  Scottish  officers, 
to  the  issue  of  letters  of  marque  by  the  King  of  Scotland  in  the 
case  of  Colonel  Stuart,  and  to  the  compromises  for  slump  sums 
or  annual  pensions,  in  his,  Sir  William  Murray's,  Colonel  Bal- 
four's,  and  other  cases.  In  1588  the  objections  of  the  Scottish 
captains  to  this  system,  and  their  insistence  on  obtaining  some 
security  for  the  settlement  of  their  arrears,  led  to  the  dismissal 
of  some  of  them  by  the  States- General,  and  to  the  others  being 
required  to  sign  a  declaration  expressly  stating  their  acquies- 
cence in  the  practice.1  In  1596,  however,  the  states  of  Holland 
improved  the  position  somewhat  by  paying  the  troops  for 
which  they  were  responsible  every  forty-second,  instead  of 
every  forty-eighth  day. 

When  in  1678  the  Brigade  had  been  fully  established  on 
its  reorganised  basis,  the  capitulation  of  that  year  expressly 
stipulated,  that  the  pay  of  the  soldiers  was  to  be  increased 
'  d'un  sous  de  plus  par  jour.1  In  1774  the  men  had  6  twopence 
a  week  more  pay  than  the  Dutch  troops/2  At  that  time  a 
captain's  pay  came  to  at  most  ^140  sterling  yearly,  a  colonel's 
was  not  above  £350,  and  a  lieutenant's  about  ^40,  while  that 
of  the  Swiss  companies  was  much  higher. 

The  appointments  of  subaltern  officers  seem  originally  to 
have  been  made  by  the  captains,  who  raised  and  brought  over 
the  companies.  Later  on  they  seem  to  have  been  made  by  the 
Prince  of  Orange,  who  also  filled  any  vacancy  in  the  higher 
ranks  occurring  in  the  field,  commissions  being  subsequently 
issued  by  the  States- General  confirming  his  appointment.3  In 

1  Pp.  97-105     See  also  Meteren,  fol.  311. 

2  StrictU)  es  on  Military  Discipline. 

3  See  terms  of  subalterns'  commissions,  printed  in  Two  Scottish  Soldiers  (D. 
Wyllie  and  Sons,  Aberdeen),  and  also  the  commissions  printed  in  the  appendix 
to  Major  Bernardi's  Memoirs.   The  commissions  thus  granted  by  the  prince  were 
registered  by  the  states  of  the  province  on  whose  '  repartition'  the  company  was. 
In  1688  the  captains  received  commissions  on  separate  parchments  from  the 
Prince  of  Orange  and  from  the  States-General  (Two  Scottish  Soldiers}. 


xvi          THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

1608  the  states  of  Holland  resolved  that  the  captains  on  their 
repartition  should  not  be  allowed  to  fill  vacancies  in  their 
lieutenancies  and  ensigncies  without  the  previous  consent  of  the 
states  or  of  the  committee,  who  reserved  the  right  of  appoint- 
ment, and  this  right  appears  also  to  have  been  exercised  by 
other  provincial  states. 

In  1588,  after  the  departure  of  the  Earl  of  Leicester,  the 
States  revised  and  reformed  their  whole  military  establishment, 
and  instituted  the  system  of  allocating  regiments  or  companies 
to  be  directly  paid  and  supported  by  the  different  provinces, 
which  is  referred  to  when  they  are  described  as  '  on  the  Re- 
partition '  of  Holland,  of  Zealand,  of  Guelderland,  or  of  any 
other  province.  '  Us  en  firenV  says  Meteren,  *  les  repartissions 
sur  chasque  province  selon  qu'elles  estoyent  quotisees  et 
qu'elles  contribuoyent  ens  charges  de  la  guerre,  selon  aussi  que 
chasque  Province  le  pouvoit  porter,  ce  que  causa  des  bons  et 
remarquables  effets.  Les  gens  de  guerre,1  he  adds,  '  pouvoyent 
asseurement  scavoir  en  quelle  Province  ils  pouvoyent  aller 
poursuiyvre  leur  payement,  tellement  que  s'il  y  avoit  quelque 
faute  en  cela  on  le  pouvoit  incontinent  scavoir  et  le  conseil 
d'Etat  y  pouvoit  remedier.1  In  addition  to  the  ordinary  con- 
tributions of  the  provinces,  extraordinary  contributions  were 
levied  on  the  more  wealthy  provinces,  and  the  revenue  derived 
from  them  was  administered  by  the  Council  of  State.  At  the 
end  of  each  year  the  central  authority  settled  accounts  with 
the  respective  provinces,  in  regard  both  to  the  ordinary  and 
to  the  extraordinary  contributions. 

One  result  of  this  somewhat  complicated  system  was  that 
the  regiments  were  frequently  divided  between  two  provinces, 
and  indeed  in  1655  the  states  of  Holland  resolved,  in  view  of 
the  fact  that  of  several  regiments  one  portion  stood  on  their 
repartition  and  another  on  that  of  other  provinces,  to  bring 
all  the  forces  on  the  Repartition  of  Holland  together  in  com- 
plete '  Holland  regiments ' ;  but  it  seems  doubtful  whether  this 
was  ever  fully  carried  out,  although  the  two  Scots  regiments 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xvii 

in  1655,  and  the  three  in  1662,  are  described  as  Holland 
regiments.  Certainly  in  the  latter  part  of  the  century  Mackay's 
regiment  was  on  the  Repartition  of  Guelderland,  and  in  1698 
one  regiment  at  least  was  on  the  repartition  of  more  than  one 
province. 

UNIFORM,  ARMS,  AND  EQUIPMENT 

The  appearance  of  the  Scottish  soldiers  in  the  early  years 
of  their  service  can  be  gathered  from  occasional  indications  in 
the  papers.  In  carrying  the  pike  in  the  Low  Countries,  they 
found  themselves  armed  with  a  weapon  similar  to  that  which 
in  the  hands  of  the  Scottish  spearmen  had  often  repelled  the 
charges  of  England's  chivalry.  The  Spaniards  regarded  the 
pike  as  la  senora  y  reyna  de  los  armas^  but  at  4  push  of  pike ' 
they  found  their  match  in  the  sturdy  English  infantry,  and  the 
4  sure  men '  of  the  Scots  Foot.  The  arquebuse  gave  place  to 
the  musket,  and  in  1689  one  at  least  of  the  regiments  was  in 
whole  or  in  part  fusiliers. 

In  1559,  Prince  Maurice  prescribed  a  uniform  equipment 
for  the  troops  in  the  service  of  the  States ; 1  and  the  approved 
weapons  seem  to  have  been  strictly  insisted  on.2  Thus  it  is 


1  'Parmy  1'Infanterie  ceux  qui  portoyent  des  Picques  debvoyent  avoir  un  Heaulme, 
tin  Gorgerin  avec  la  Angrasse  devant  et  derriere,  et  une  Espee.     La  picque  devoit 
estre  longue  de  dix-huict  pieds,  et  tout  cela  sur  certaines  peines  establies.     II 
falloit  pareillement  que  la  quatriesme  partie  de  ceux  qui  portoyent  des  Picques 
fussent  armes  de  garde  bas  jusques  au  coulde,  et  au  bas  de  larges  tassettes.     Les 
Mousquetaires  debvoyent  avoir  un  Heaulme,  une  Espee,  un  Mousquet  portant  une 
balle  de  dix  en  la  Livre,  et  une  Fourchette.     Les  Harquebusiers  debvoyent  avoir 
un  Heaulme,  une  Espee,  une  bonne  Harquebuse  d'un  calibre  qui  debvoit  porter 
une  balle  de  vingt  en  la  Livre,  mais  en  tirant  une  balle  de  24  en  la  Livre,  et 
chacun  avoit  ses  gages  et  sa  solde  a  1'advenant.     Nous  avons  trouve  bon  de  dire 
cecy,  afin  que  nos  successeurs  puissent  S9avoir  de  quelles  armes  on  s'est  servy  en 
ce  temps  en  Pays-Bas  en  ceste  guerre'  (Meteren,  fol.  451,   where  the  cavalry 
equipment  is  also  described.     See  also  fol.  416.     The  fourth  part  of  the  pikemen 
were  to  be  picked  and  seasoned  soldiers,  of  whom  Mackay  records  that  they 
stood  by  and  were  cut  down  with  his  brother,  their  colonel,  at  Killiecrankie, 
when  the  *  shot '  men  broke  and  fled). 

2  Resolutions  of  Holland. — '  1605,  Dec.  28th. — Circular  Letter  to  all  Colonels 
and  Capns  of  Foot.      The  States-Gen,   requiring  strengthening  of  the  forces 

b 


xviii         THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

noted  that  new  levies  were  good  men,  but  '  armed  after  the 
fashion  of  their  country.'' l  It  has  been  thought  that  the  High- 
land dress  was  worn  by  some  at  least  of  the  Scots  who  fought 
at  Reminant  in  1578,  and  it  would  seem  that  at  various 
periods  a  considerable  number  of  recruits  were  drawn  from  the 
Highlands.  In  1576  an  '  interpreter  for  the  Scottish  language ' 
was  appointed  in  connection  with  '  the  affair  and  fault  of  certain 
Scotsmen,'2  and  in  1747,  the  orders  had  to  be  explained  to 
some  of  the  men  of  Lord  Drumlanrig's  regiment  in  their  own 
language,3  because  they  did  not  understand  English. 

Even  in  the  days  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  'the  red  casaques'  of  the 
English  soldiers  had  attracted  attention  in  the  Low  Countries. 
From  at  least  the  time  of  the  reorganisation  in  1674,  the  Scots 
Brigade  was  clothed  in  the  national  scarlet.  In  1691,  Mackay's 
regiment  wore  red,  lined  with  red,  and  Ramsay's  red,  lined 
with  white.  Lander's  being  then  in  Scotland,  the  colour  of 
its  facings  has  not  been  recorded,  but  from  a  picture  of  an 
officer  serving  in  it  in  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
it  would  appear  that  then  at  least  its  facings  were  yellow. 
Curious  evidence  as  to  the  uniform  of  the  Brigade  in  1690  is 
preserved  by  a  Highland  tradition.  It  is  said  that  before 
Major  Ferguson's  expedition  to  the  Western  Isles  in  1690, 
the  people  of  Egg  were  warned  of  its  coming  by  a  man  who 


without  delay,  all  companies  to  be  brought  to  their  full  number  of  men,  conform 
the  state  of  war,  and  this  on  or  before  March  1st,  certainly  before  March  loth, 
new  style :  and  though  this  ought  to  be  done  at  the  expense  of  the  Cap118,  the 
States-Gen. ,  H.  Exy,  and  the  Council  of  State  have  resolved  that  for  this  once 
for  the  cost  of  transportation  shall  be  allowed  :  to  the  French,  English  and  Scots, 

8  guilders  for  each  soldier and  that  of  this  transportation-money  3/4th 

shall  be  paid  out  to  the  said  capns,  viz.  :  half  down  and  the  balance  on  arrival  of 
the  recruits,  who  must  be  able-bodied  men  of  arms,  properly  armed,  conform  to 
regulations,  also  with  side-arms,  and  the  musketeers  with  muskets  ;  the  muskets 
to  be  of  full  length  and  4  feet  long,  shooting  balls  of  12  in  the  pound  ;  no  boys 
or  elderly  men  shall  pass  muster,  and  the  servants  and  boys  of  the  Colonels 
shall  no  longer  be  counted  as  belonging  to  the  Companies,  for  them  they  have  to 
provide  from  their  pay  as  Colonel.' 

1  P.  272.  2  P.  39. 

3  Order  Book  of  Lord  Drumlanrig's  regiment. — Kinmundy  Papers. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xix 

had  the  gift  of  '  second-sight,1  and  that  those  who  were  taken 
prisoners  testified  to  the  accuracy  of  his  description,  seeing  the 
troops,  '  some  being  clad  with  red  coats,  some  with  white  coats 
and  grenadier  caps,  some  armed  with  sword  and  pike,  and 
some  with  sword  and  musket/ l  The  author  of  Strictures  on 
Military  Discipline,  comparing  the  position  of  the  Scots  with 
that  of  the  Swiss,  observed, '  They  enjoy  no  privilege  as  British 
troops,  except  the  trifling  distinction  of  being  dressed  in  red, 
taking  the  right  of  the  army  when  encamped  or  on  a  march, 
and  having  twopence  a  week  more  pay  for  the  private  men 
than  the  Dutch  troops  have.' 

'  The  question  of  rank,'  says  the  author  of  the  e  Historical 
Account,' '  which  in  military  affairs  is  a  serious  matter,  seems 
to  have  been  decided  between  the  English  and  Scots  by  the 
antiquity  of  the  regiments,  perhaps  rather  by  the  seniority  of 
the  colonels,  but  as  royal  troops,  both  always  ranked  before 
the  troops  of  the  United  Provinces  or  those  belonging  to 
German  princes,  which  right  never  was  contested  with  regard 
to  the  Scots  Brigade  until  the  year  1783.'  Dr.  Porteous  the 
chaplain,  in  his  '  Short  Account,'  takes  higher  ground  and  says : 
'  Being  royal  troops,  they  claimed,  they  demanded,  and  would 
not  be  refused  the  post  of  honour  and  the  precedence  of  all 
the  troops  in  the  service  of  the  States.  Even  the  English 
regiments  yielded  it  to  the  seniority  of  the  Scots  Brigade. 
This  station  they  occupied  on  every  occasion  for  two  hundred 
years,  and  in  no  instance  did  they  appear  unworthy  of  it. 
They  never  lost  a  stand  of  colours ;  even  when  whole  battalions 
seemed  to  fall,  the  few  that  remained  gloried  in  preserving 
these  emblems  of  their  country.' 2 


1  Lord  Archibald  Campbell's  Records  of  Argyll. 

2  Vol.  ii.   will  contain  illustrations  of  two  occasions  on  which  the  matter 
of  precedency  was  raised  in  questions  with  allied  or  temporarily  serving  troops, 
one  being  with  Danish  and  one  with  electoral  troops. 


xx  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

RELATIONS    OF   THE    REGIMENTS    TO    THE    DUTCH    GOVERNMENT 
AND   THE    BRITISH    MONARCH 

There  were  always  elements  of  difficulty  and  delicacy  in  an 
arrangement  by  which  the  subjects  of  one  state  served  in  a 
body   as   soldiers   of  another.      The   Netherlands   looked   to 
Austria,  to  France,  and  to  England  in  succession  for  a  ruler 
whom  they  might  substitute  for  the  King  of  Spain.     Queen 
Elizabeth  was  too  astute  to  accept  the  sovereignty ;  but  through 
the  substantial  aid  she  afforded,  the  impignoration  to  her  of 
the  cautionary  towns,  and  the  appointment  of  her  favourite  as 
Governor- General  and  Cap  tain -General,  she  as  nearly  as  possible 
in  fact  annexed  the  Netherlands  after  the  death  of  William 
the  Silent.     But  the  rule  of  the  Earl  of  Leicester,  ineffective 
in  the  field,  and  productive  of  heartburnings  and  jealousies  in 
the  council  and  the  camp,  rendered  the  States  very  suspicious 
of  further  foreign  interference.     Thus  when,  in   1592,  King 
James  asserted  his  position  as  equivalent  to  that  of  his  haughty 
cousin  of  England — whose  idiosyncrasies  he  is  found  palliating 
to  the  representatives  of  the  States,  as  weaknesses  of  her  sex — 
by  granting  a  commission  to  Colonel  Balfour  to  command  all 
the  Scots  troops  in  the  Dutch  service,  the  States  refused  to 
recognise  it,  and  affirmed  their  determination  that  none  could 
serve  in  their  lands  on  any  other  commission  than  that  of  the 
States- General.1     In  1604  they  again  refused  to  receive  Lord 
Buccleuch  as  '  general  of  his  nation '  as  recommended  by  King 
James,  although  it  was  pressed  as  due  to  Scotland,  and  appro- 
priate, there  having  been  a  general  of  the  English  troops,  and 
the  Scots  being  raised  to  an  equal  strength  with  the  English.2 
In  1653  the   complete  conversion  of  the  British  troops  inta 
'  national  Dutch '  was  canvassed,  and  in  1665  it  was  carried  out ; 
but  after  the  reorganisation  under  William  Henry  of  Orange, 
when  the  new  English  Brigade  was  formed,  and  the  old  Scots 
was  increased   and  resumed   its   own  national  character,  the 
combined  British  Brigade  was  definitely  placed  under  the  com- 

1  Pp.  106-113.  2  Pp.  188-193. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxi 

mand  of  a  British  officer,  whose  rank,  pay,  and  precedence  were 
clearly  fixed  by  the  capitulation  of  January  1678,  entered  into 
by  the  Prince  of  Orange  as  Captain-General  and  the  Earl  of 
Ossory.    It  was  expressly  stipulated  that  the  general  should  be 
a  natural  subject  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  and  that,  should 
his  Majesty  call  the  regiments  to  his  service  at  home,  the  States 
should  allow  them  to  be  embarked  at  a  port  to  be  selected. 
When,  however,  the  critical  occasion   arrived  and  the  king 
sought  to  exercise  the  right  of  recall  in  1688,  the  States  refused 
to  let  the  regiments  go,  or  to  recognise  the  binding  character 
of  the  capitulation,  founding  with  some  special  pleading  on 
what  appears  to  have  been  a  failure  on  the  part  of  the  Dutch 
government  to  fully  carry  out  its  terms  in  reference  to  the 
increase  of  the  pay.     But  the  troops  were  recognised  in  Britain 
as  a  part  of  the  British  army,  and  the  officers'*  commissions  sub- 
sisted in  spite  of  a  change  from  the  one  establishment  to  the 
other.     'While,1  says  the  'Historical  Account,'  'the  British 
regiments  were  in  the  pay  of  Holland,  the  officers1  commissions 
were  in  the  name  of  the  States,  and  it  was  not  thought  necessary 
they   should   have  other  commissions,  even  when  they  were 
upon  the  establishment  of  their  own  country,  until  vacancies 
happened,  in  which  case  the  new  commissions   were  in  the 
king's  name.     Thus  when  Colonel  Hugh  Mackay  came  over  to 
England  on  the  recall  of  the   Brigade  in  1685,  King  James 
promoted  him  to  the  rank  of  major-general,  not  considering 
him  the  less  as  a  colonel  in  his  army  that  his  former  commission 
was  in  the  name  of  the  States.     And  when  the  same  General 
Mackay,  who  held  his  regiment  by  a  Dutch  commission,  was 
killed,  the  regiment  was  given  a  few  days  after  to  Colonel 
./Eneas  Mackay,  whose  commission1   is  English,   and  in  the 
name  of  King  William  and  Queen  Mary.1 

1  This  commission  is  said  in  a  note  to  be  no  w  ( 1 794)  in  possession  of  his  grandson, 
Colonel  /Eneas  Mackay,  with  several  other  commissions  of  officers  of  the  Brigade 
in  the  same  form  and  style. 

Colonel  Hugh  Mackay,  who  had  received  a  commission  as  Major-General 


xxii          THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

The  officers  of  the  Brigade  had  to  take  an  oath  on  receiving 
their  commissions  as  captains  or  in  higher  rank.  In  1588, 
they  were  also  required  to  sign  a  declaration  stating  their 
acquiescence  in  the  system  of  pay.  In  1653,  during  the  war 
with  the  English  Commonwealth,  a  new  form  of  oath  was 
devised,  and  again  in  1664  in  the  war  with  Great  Britain, 
when  the  regiments  were  temporarily  converted  into  '  national 
Dutch,'  the  officers  were  required  '  in  addition  to  the  usual 
military  oath,"1  to  take  one  to  the  effect  that  they  were  under 
no  obligation  to  obey,  and  would  not  obey  any  commands 
except  those  of  the  States-General,  and  the  States  their  pay- 
masters, or  others  indicated  in  the  said  oath  of  fealty,  and  that 
they  acknowledged  none  but  the  States  as  their  sovereign  rulers. 
It  is  also  noted  that  the  new  commissions  then  issued  were  in 
Dutch. 

Upon  the  reorganisation  of  the  Brigade  under  William 
Henry  of  Orange,  and  General  Mack  ay,  it  was  placed  on  a 
more  distinctive  footing  as  British  troops  than  ever  before. 
The  British  standing  army  was  in  its  infancy,  and  the  Scots 
and  English  Brigades  in  Holland  formed  a  very  large  pro- 
portion of  its  strength.  Their  position  in  the  Netherlands 
was  analogous  to  that  of  Douglas's  (the  Earl  of  Dumbarton's) 
regiment,  now  the  Royal  Scots,  and  of  others  in  the  service  of 
France.  As  Douglas's  regiment  became  the  1st  of  the  Line, 
and  two  of  the  English-Dutch  regiments  that  were  formed  in 
1674  and  came  over  in  1688,  the  5th  and  6th,  so  the  three 
Scottish  regiments,  had  they  remained  in  British  pay  after 
1697,  would  have  ranked  very  high  in  the  British  army  list. 


from  King  James  in  1685,  took  oath  on  Feb.  9th,  1686  on  a  commission  as 
Major-General  of  Infantry  before  the  President  of  T.  H.  M.  For  the  terms  of 
the  commission  at  this  period,  see  Two  Scottish  Soldiers  (App.),  where  three  of 
General  Ferguson's  are  printed.  While  he  commanded  the  Cameronians,  to  which 
he  was  transferred  from  the  Scots-Dutch  in  1692,  in  virtue  of  a  commission  in, 
English  form  granted  by  William  and  Mary  in  1693,  he  received  one  in  Dutch 
in  1698  as  captain  of  a  company,  that  regiment  being  temporarily  in  Dutch  pay 
in  1697-99. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxiii 

It  may  indeed  be  questioned  whether  the  old  regiment  dating 
from  the  days  of  William  the  Silent  might  not  have  claimed 
precedence  even  over  the  Royal  Scots,  on  the  ground  that 
while  that  regiment's  descent  is  clear  and  continuous  from  the 
union  of  a  Scots  regiment  in  France  with  the  survivors  of 
Gustavus  Adolphus's  Scots  troops,  its  earlier  traditions,  though 
august  and  ancient,  are  more  or  less  mythical.  Certainly  the 
old  and  the  second  regiments  would  have  been  at  least  on  an 
equal  footing  with  the  3rd  Buffs — formerly  the  old  English 
Holland  regiment — while  the  third  was  entitled  to  rank  along 
with  the  fifth  and  sixth. 

In  the  eighteenth  century  the  position  of  those  serving  in 
the  Brigade  as  entitled  to  all  the  privileges  of  British  subjects 
was  emphatically  recognised.  'Even  the  children,'  says  Dr. 
Porteous  the  chaplain,  in  his  '  Short  Account,'  '  born  in  the 
Brigade  were  British  subjects  without  naturalisation  or  any 
other  legal  act.  The  men  always  swore  the  same  oaths  with 
other  British  soldiers,  and  by  an  Act  of  Parliament,  27  Geo.  n. 
the  officers  were  obliged  as  members  of  the  British  state 
serving  under  the  Crown  to  take  the  same  oaths  with  officers 
serving  in  the  British  dominions.  The  beating  orders  issued 
by  the  War  Office  were  in  the  same  terms  with  those  for  other 
regiments  :  "  To  serve  His  Majesty  King  George  in  the  regiment 

of  foot  commanded  by  "  accordingly  all  the  men  were 

enlisted  to  serve  His  Majesty,  not  the  States.  Their  colours, 
their  uniform,  even  the  sash  and  the  gorget  were  those  of  their 
country,  and  the  word  of  command  was  always  given  in  the 
language  of  Scotland.' 

Such  was  their  footing,  until  in  1782  the  States-General 
resolved,  '  That  after  the  first  of  January  1783,  these  regiments 
shall  be  put  on  the  same  footing  in  every  respect  with  the 
national  troops  of  Holland,  and  the  officers  are  required  to 
take  an  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  states  of  Holland  and  renounce 
their  allegiance  to  Great  Britain  for  ever  on  or  before  the  above- 
mentioned  day.  Their  colours,  which  are  now  British,  are  to 


xxiv  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

be  taken  from  them  and  replaced  with  Dutch  ones,  and  they 
are  to  wear  the  uniform  of  the  Provinces  ;  the  word  of  command 
is  to  be  given  in  Dutch ;  the  officers  are  to  wear  orange  sashes, 
and  carry  the  same  sort  of  spontoons  as  the  officers  of  other 
Dutch  regiments.'  By  the  oath  prescribed  for  the  officers  they 
were  bound  to  affirm  that  during  their  service  they  would  'not 
acknowledge  any  one  out  of  these  Provinces  as  their  sovereign.' 
This  time  there  was  no  recovery  for  the  Brigade.  Fifty-five  of 
the  officers  refused  to  take  the  oath,  resigned  their  commissions 
in  March  1783,  and  came  over  to  Britain.  They  were  placed 
on  half-pay  without  delay,  and  in  1793  His  Majesty  King 
George  in.  '  being  pleased  to  revive  the  Scots  Brigade,'  a 
regiment  of  three  battalions,  'the  Scotch  Brigade'  of  the 
British  service,  subsequently  numbered  as  the  old  94th  regi- 
ment of  the  line,  was  raised,  to  which  they  were  appointed. 

RECURRENCE    OF    SAME    NAMES    AMONG   THE    OFFICERS 

In  one  respect  the  Scots  Brigade  was  peculiarly  Scottish. 
Probably  no  military  body  ever  existed  in  which  members  of 
the  same  families  were  so  constantly  employed  for  generations. 
'  The  officers,'  says  Dr.  Porteous,  '  entered  into  the  service  very 
early ;  they  were  trained  up  under  their  fathers  and  grand- 
fathers who  had  grown  old  in  the  service  ;  they  expected  a  slow, 
certain,  and  unpurchased  promotion,  but  almost  always  in  the 
same  corps,  and  before  they  attained  to  command  they  were 
qualified  for  it.  Though  they  served  a  foreign  state,  yet  not 
in  a  distant  country,  they  were  still  under  the  eye  of  their 
own,  and  considered  themselves  as  the  depositaries  of  her 
military  fame.  Hence  their  remarkable  attachment  to  one 
another,  and  to  the  country  whose  name  they  bore  and  from 
whence  they  came ;  hence  that  high  degree  of  ambition  for 
supporting  the  renown  of  Scotland  and  the  glory  of  the 
Scots  Brigade.'  The  discipline  of  the  Brigade,  enforced  with 
far  less  severity  than  was  customary  in  the  German  and 
Swiss  regiments  in  the  same  service,  was  acknowledged,  and  the 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxv 

author  of  the  '  Historical  Account '  observes  that  '  the  rule 
observed  in  the  Brigade  of  giving  commissions  only  to  persons 
of  those  families  whom  the  more  numerous  class  of  the  people 
in  Scotland  have  from  time  immemorial  respected  as  their 
superiors,  made  it  easy  to  maintain  authority  without  such 
severity.'  The  Scots  officers  also  took  care  to  let  the  foreigners 
under  whom  they  served  know  that  the  methods  of  enforcing 
discipline  in  vogue  in  Continental  armies  would  not  do  with 
Scottish  soldiery,1  for  '  Scotsmen  would  not  easily  be  brought 
to  bear  German  punishments.1  '  Gentlemen  of  the  families,1 
says  the  writer  of  the  Strictures, '  of  Balfour  Lord  Burley,  Scott 
Earl  of  Buccleuch,  Preston  of  Seton,  Halkett  of  Pitfirran,  and 
many  of  different  families  of  the  name  of  Stewart,  Hay, 
Sinclair,  Douglas,  Graham,  Hamilton,  etc.,  were  among  the 
first  who  went  over,1  and  a  glance  through  the  States  of  War 
shows  how  repeatedly  many  of  these  names  recurred  in  the 
Brigade  throughout  its  service.  These  lists  indicate  that  the 
counties  on  the  shores  of  the  Forth,  and  in  particular  Fife, 
had  the  closest  connection  with  the  brigade,  but  Perthshire, 
Forfar,  Aberdeenshire,  and  the  Highlands,  more  especially  after 
General  Mackay  entered  it,  and  other  parts  of  Scotland  had 
their  representatives  under  its  colours.  No  name  was  more 
honourably  or  more  intimately  associated  with  its  fortunes 
than  that  of  Balfour,  which  in  the  first  century  of  its  existence 
supplied  at  least  seventeen  or  eighteen  captains,  among  whom 
were  Sir  Henry  Balfour  and  Barthold  Balfour,  both  colonels 
of  the  old  regiment  in  the  sixteenth  century,  Sir  David  Balfour 
and  Sir  Philip  Balfour  (son  of  Colonel  Barthold),  both  colonels 
•of  the  second  and  third  regiments  during  part  of  the  Thirty 
Years'  War,  and  another  Barthold  Balfour,  who  fell  in  command 
of  the  second  regiment  at  Killiecrankie.  In  the  later  years 
four  Mackays,  Major-General  Hugh  of  Scourie,  killed  at  Stein- 
kirk  ;  Brigadier-General  ^Eneas,  his  nephew,  who  died,  as  the 
result  of  wounds  received  at  Namur ;  Colonel  Donald  killed  at 

1  Strictures  on  Military  Discipline. 


xxvi        THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

Fontenoy,1  son  of  the  Brigadier ;  and  Colonel  Hugh  Mackay, 
held  at  different  times  the  command  of  the  same  regiment. 
The  second  regiment  had  three  colonels  of  the  name  of 
Halkett,  and  the  third  one.  Two  Hendersons,  brothers,  in 
succession  commanded  the  second  regiment,  and  another,  a 
generation  later,  the  third.  The  names  of  Erskine,  Graham, 
and  Murray  occur  twice,  and  those  of  Douglas,  Stewart, 
Scott,  Colyear,  and  Cunningham  thrice  among  the  command- 
ing officers.  To  enumerate  the  other  members  of  these 
and  other  families,  such  as  Coutts,  Livingstone,  Sandilands, 
L'Amy,  Lauder,  who  held  commissions,  would  be  endless,  but 
at  one  time  the  colonel,  lieutenant-colonel,  and  major  of  one 
regiment  were  all  Kirkpatricks,  being  probably  a  father  and 
his  two  sons.  Twice  the  colonel  and  lieutenant-colonel  of  one 
regiment  were  both  brothers  of  the  name  of  Mackay.  That 
this  family  character  was  not  confined  to  the  old  regiments,  but 
extended  to  those  temporarily  in  service  in  1697-98,  is  shown  by 
the  fact  that  when  Colonel  Ferguson's  regiment  left  the  Dutch 
service  in  1699,  there  were  five  of  his  name  among  its  officers,2 
while  another  was,  in  1694,  promoted  a  captain  in  Lander's. 

THE    BRIGADE    AS    A   MILITARY   SCHOOL 

Scarcely  less  remarkable  was  the  Brigade  as  a  training 
ground  for  officers  who  gained  reputation  in  after-life  in  the 
service  of  Great  Britain  and  of  foreign  countries.  Some  of  the 
Dutch  officers  served  in  the  civil  wars ;  several  of  Marlborough's 
major-generals  and  brigadiers  came  over  as  captains  and 
field-officers  in  1688,  and  it  is  remarkable  what  a  proportion 
of  those  serving  under  the  colours  in  that  fateful  year  after- 
wards attained  to  high  commands.3  But  the  phenomenon  was 
marked  in  later  years.  Writing  in  1774  the  author  of  the 
Strictures  enumerates  Colonel  Cunningham  of  Entricken, 

1  Or  Tournay. 

2  List  of  Officers  in  'Abstract  of  the  Money  due   to   Colonel  Ferguson's 
Regiment  on  the  Establishment  from  the  I4'.h  April  1699  to  the  1st  December 
1700.'— Kinmundy  Papers.  3  Pp.  479-481. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxvii 

'  whose  behaviour  at  Minorca  and  on  other  occasions  did  him 
much  honour,'  General  James  Murray,  brother  of  Lord 
Elibank,  Governor  of  Quebec  after  the  death  of  Wolfe,  and 
known  as  '  Old  Minorca,'  from  his  gallant  defence  of  that 
island,  Sir  William  Stirling  of  Ardoch,  General  Graham  of 
the  Venetian  service,  Colonel  (then  Lieutenant-General) 
Graham,  secretary  to  the  Queen  of  Great  Britain,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Francis  M'Lean,  Lieutenant-General  in  the  Portuguese 
service,  Simon  Fraser,  Lieutenant- Colonel  of  the  24th  regiment 
and  Quarter-Master-General  in  Ireland,  who  fell  as  a  General 
at  Saratoga,  Thomas  Stirling,  Lieu  tenant-Colonel  of  the  42nd, 
the  Honourable  Alexander  Leslie,  Lieutenant- Colonel  of  the 
64th,  James  Bruce,  David  Hepburn,  the  Honourable  John 
Maitland,  brother  of  the  Earl  of  Lauderdale,  James  Stewart, 
son-in-law  of  the  Earl  of  Marchmont  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  of 
the  90th,  Major  Brown  of  the  70th,  James  Dundas  of  Dundas, 
Sir  Henry  Seton,  Bart.,  and  Colonel  Sir  Robert  Murray  Keith. 
To  these  should  be  added  Robert  Murray  of  Melgum,  after- 
wards General  Count  Murray l  in  the  Imperial  service. 

INCIDENTAL    FEATURES    OF    THE    DOCUMENTS 

The  general  character  of  the  service,  and  the  conditions 
under  which  the  Scots  lived,  fought,  and  were  paid  in  the  Low 
Countries  can  only  be  gathered  from  a  perusal  of  the  papers 
themselves.  It  has  been  shrewdly  said  that  the  Dutch  were 
more  careful  to  record  matters  of  money  than  feats  of  arms,  and 
to  the  actual  services  in  the  field  the  official  papers  contain 
only  few  direct  references.  But  here  and  there  such  references 
occur,  and  the  date  of  a  widow's  petition,  or  a  marked  change 
in  the  personnel  of  a  State  of  War,  dots  the  i's  and  strokes  the 
t's  of  a  dry  allusion  in  an  old  folio  to  some  forgotten  skirmish ' 
or  the  carnage  of  a  great  battle.  The  pension  lists,  and  the 
applications  of  widows  (among  whom  those  of  Sir  Robert 


1  Count  Murray  was  either  Robert  Murray  or  his  son.     The  son  was  certainly 
in  the  Austrian  service.     Whether  the  father  was  is  uncertain. 


xxviii        THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

Henderson  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Allan  Coutts  were  most 
importunate),  also  illustrate  how  the  Scottish  officers  inter- 
married with  the  people  among  whom  they  lived,  and  occa- 
sionally with  Italian  and  Spanish  gentlewomen  and  noble 
ladies  of  Brabant  and  Flanders.  Specially  interesting  also  are 
the  letters  of  the  Scottish  sovereigns, — particularly  that  of 
King  James  on  the  battle  of  Nieuport  in  1600,1 — and  King 
Charles's  solicitude  for  the  ransom  of  the  Scottish  prisoners 
taken  at  Calloo  in  1638.2  The  appointment  by  the  States- 
General  of  two  of  their  number  to  attend  the  funeral  of 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Henderson,  '  with  the  short  mantle,'  in 
the  same  year,  indicates  exceptional  gallantry  on  the  part  of 
one  of  a  family  which  had  already  shed  its  blood  and  given 
its  life  for  the  cause  of  which  Holland  was  the  guardian.3  Now 
and  then  a  flash  of  humour  enlivens  the  story  of  eager  spirits 
and  niggard  paymasters,  as  when  '  to  this  suppliant  the 
answer  must  for  the  present  be  "Patience."'  A  pleasant 
feature  is  the  occasional  recommendations  by  some  of  the 
provincial  municipal  authorities  of  the  Scottish  captains 
stationed  in  their  cities,  and  although  there  are  occasional 
complaints  of  the  conduct  of  the  troops, — owing  generally  to 
the  pay  being  in  arrears, — and  a  warning  by  an  English  com- 
mander, in  1615,  as  to  the  feeling  getting  up  between  a  Scots 
and  a  Dutch  company,  two  of  whose  soldiers  had  had  a  fracas,4 
the  general  relations  of  the  Scots  with  the  Dutch  population 
seem  to  have  been  consistently  friendly  and  cordial.  Indeed, 
during  the  Twelve  Years'  Truce  one  of  the  complaints  of  the 
inspecting  officers  was  the  extent  to  which  the  soldiers  left 
their  garrisons  to  work  for  the  country-people ;  while  another 
subject  of  animadversion  was  the  occasional  enlistment  of 
•  Dutchmen  to  fill  vacancies  in  the  companies.  A  frequent 
offence  was  the  passing  off  of  outsiders  to  bring  up  the 
numbers  of  the  company,  in  order  to  pass  review  at  full 
strength  on  a  sudden  inspection,  and  one  unfortunate,  Robert 

1  P.  1 80.  2  P.  449.  3  P.  449.  4  p.  279. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxix 

Stuart,  was  sentenced  to  be  hung  in  1602  for  too  successfully 
thus  passing  off  six  sailors  in  the  ranks  of  an  infantry  com- 
pany.1 The  absence  of  officers  in  Scotland  for  too  long  a  time 
is  also  commented  on,  and  the  result  of  John  de  Witt's  report 
on  Captain  Gordon's  company  in  1609  was  its  being  disbanded. a 
A  melancholy  account  is  given  of  the  state  of  Erskine's 
cavalry  squadron  in  1606,3  and  among  the  papers  is  an  apology 
for  insubordination  by  some  of  Wisharfs  troopers  tendered  to 
a  court-martial.4  The  proceedings  of  the  court-martial  on 
Sergeant  Geddie,  charged  with  murder  in  1619,  are  also 
interesting ; 5  and  the  spirit  of  the  old  Scottish  family  feud  is 
illustrated  by  David  Ramsay's  energetic  protest,  in  1607, 
against  the  slayer  of  his  relative  '  coming  in  his  sight,1 6  as  well 
as  by  Lord  Buccleuch's  claim  for  justice  in  respect  of  the 
slaughter  of  Captain  Hamilton.7  The  experiences  of  the 
surgeon  are  indicated  by  Dr.  Balcanqual's  petition  in  1618  ;8 
and  the  regard  of  the  troops  for  their  chaplain  is  shown  by 
the  Reverend  Andrew  Hunter's  long  service,  his  receipt  of  an 
increase  of  pay  in  1604,  his  Latin  memorials  of  1611  and  1618, 
and  the  interesting  and  honourable  letter  of  the  colonels  in 
1630,  in  which  they  ask  a  further  allowance  for  his  widow,  and 
state  their  readiness  '  to  provide  for  our  own  minister.' 9  The 
divorce  of  Captain  Scott,10  the  marriage  of  Captain  Lindsay 
with  the  released  lady,11  and  the  lawsuit  of  Captain  Waddell 
with  the  Countess  of  Megen 12  and  the  pupil-heir  of  the  great 
house  of  Croy,  recalling  as  it  does  the  happier  experiences  of 
Quentin  Durward,  all  find  their  way  into  the  national  archives. 
The  claims  presented  by  Scottish  officers  on  account  of  the 
arrears  of  their  pay,  or  of  that  due  to  relatives  whom  they  repre- 
sented, and  the  deliberations  of  the  States  upon  such  claims 
constitute  a  very  large  amount  of  the  documents  preserved. 
The  main  question  appears  to  have  been  to  what  extent  the 
United  Netherlands,  as  constituted  by  the  Union  of  Utrecht, 
were  responsible  for  services  rendered  to  the  whole  of  the 

1  P.  185.       2  P.  236.       3  P.  204.         4  P.  272.        5  P.  299.        «  p.  208. 
7  P.  199.       8  P.  292.       9  P.  438.       10  P.  291.       n  P.  351.       J2  p4  357 


xxx          THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

Netherlands  before  the  separation  of  the  reconciled  provinces. 
This  is  the   substantial  question   raised   in   Colonel   Stuart's 
claims,  and  in  those  of  Sir  William  Balfour  as  the  heir  of  his 
father.  Sir  Henry.     It  required  the  issue  of  letters  of  marque, 
authorising  Colonel  Stuart  to  recoup  himself  at  the  expense  of 
Dutch  shipping,  to  bring  the  States- General  to  a  serious  con- 
sideration of  his  claims  for  services,  which,  whether  technically 
rendered  to  the  '  nobles,  Prelates,  and   burgesses  sitting   at 
Antwerp,'  to  '  the  nearer  union,'  or  to  the  States  of  Holland 
and  Zealand,  were  equally  instrumental  in  securing  the  liberty 
and  independence  of  the  Dutch  Republic.     His  claims  and 
those  of  Sir  William  Balfour  alike  ended  in  a  compromise; 
and  the  system  of  liquidating  liabilities  and  securing  fidelity 
by  a  large   balance  of  deferred   pay  was  fruitful  of  similar 
claims  and  compromises  with  others,  such  as  the  heir  of  Lord 
Buccleuch,  who  compounded   his  father's   arrears,  as   to  the 
liability  for  which  there  had  been  no  question,  for  a  pension, 
the  promise  of  a  regiment,  and  at  least  temporary  freedom 
from    the    maintenance   of  a   near    though    unacknowledged 
relative,  who  ultimately  took  her  place  among  the  Scott  clan 
as  '  Holland's  Jean.'     Among  the  papers  relating  to  Colonel 
Stuart's  claims  will  be  found  two  most  interesting  reports  by 
Dutch  ambassadors  of  their  visits  to  England  and  Scotland, 
containing  passages  delightfully  illustrative  of  the  character  of 
4  Queen  Bess,'  of  the  court  and  conduct  of  King  James,  and  of 
the  general  relations  between  the  Protestant  powers.1     One  of 
the  most  valuable  documents  in  a  historical  sense,  and  most 
interesting  to  the  student  of  character  and  manners,  is  the 
graphic  narrative  of  the  Dutch  ambassadors  who  attended  the 
baptism  of  King  James's  son,  Prince  Henry.2 

AUTHORITIES    FOR    HISTORY    OF    THE    BRIGADE 

A  word  should  be  added  as  to  the  special  authorities  for  th£ 
History  of  the  Brigade,  which  are  frequently  referred  to  in 
1  Pp.  121  and  132.  2  P.  154. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxxi 

this  and  the  narratives  prefixed  to  each  period  into  which  the 
papers  have  been  assorted.  In  1774  there  was  published 
*  Strictures  on  Military  Discipline,  in  a  series  of  letters,  with  a 
Military  Discourse :  in  which  is  interspersed  some  account  of 
the  Scotch  Brigade  in  the  Dutch  Service,  by  an  Officer.1  This 
officer  is  said  to  have  been  Colonel  James  Cunningham  ;x  and 
the  book  advocates  reforms  in  the  equipment  and  pay  of  the 
Brigade,  the  restoration  of  complete  recruiting  in  Scotland, 
and,  indeed,  the  enlargement  of  the  force  and  the  association 
with  its  infantry  battalions  of  a  proportion  of  the  other  arms. 

In  1794,  this  was  followed  by  '  An  Historical  Account  of 
the  British  Regiments  employed  since  the  Reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  and  King  James  i.  in  the  Formation  and  Defence  of 
the  Dutch  Republic,  particularly  of  the  Scotch  Brigade.'  It 
was  written  just  at  the  time  when  King  George  'had  been 
pleased  to  order  that  these  regiments  should  be  embodied 
anew,'  and  gives,  in  about  a  hundred  pages,  a  concise  and 
fairly  complete  account  of  the  services  of  the  Brigade.  The 
information  contained  in  the  Dutch  papers,  however,  corrects 
it  in  some  points,  and  the  writer  has  fallen  into  the  common 
mistake  of  not  observing  that  King  William  handed  over  six 
and  not  merely  three  Scots  regiments  to  the  Dutch  Govern- 
ment in  1697,  and  of  confounding  the  three  old  regiments  with 
the  three  temporarily  in  the  Dutch  service  at  that  time  and 
during  the  war  of  the  Spanish  Succession.  The  error  is  a 
,  natural  one,  for  when  the  Brigade  returned  at  the  Peace  of 
Ryswick  Walter  Philip  Colyear  commanded  one  of  the  old 
regiments,  while  his  brother  Sir  David  Colyear,  raised  to  the 
peerage  as  Lord  Portmore,  was  colonel  of  one  of  the  addi- 
tional ones,  taken  into  service  in  1701. 

In  1795  there  was  also  published  'An  Exhortation  to  the 
Officers  and  Men  of  the  First  Battalion  of  the  Scotch  Brigade. 
Delivered  at  the  Castle  of  Edinburgh  on  the  7th  of  June  1795, 


1  See  Steven's  History  of  the  Scotch  Church  at  Rotterdam,  p.  261. 


xxxii        THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 

a  few  days  before  the  battalion  received  their  colours,  to  which 
is  added  a  Short  Account  of  the  Brigade  by  William  Porteous,. 
D.D.,  chaplain  to  the  battalion.1  The  author  of  the  '  Historical 
Account'  had  compared  the*  position  of  the  officers  of  the 
Brigade  in  Holland  after  the  war  with  Great  Britain  began 
to  that  of  officers  who  had,  in  the  execution  of  their  duty  and 
without  any  fault  or  error  on  their  part,  fallen  into  the  hands 
of  the  enemy,  and  had  contended  that  '  whatever  the  means 
may  have  been  by  which  a  British  regiment  has  fallen  into  the 
enemy's  hands,  it  cannot  be  in  the  power  of  that  enemy  to- 
extinguish  or  abolish  it.1  In  addressing  the  newly-formed 
battalion,  the  chaplain  used  words  which  indicate  that  its- 
embodiment  was  regarded  in  Great  Britain  not  as  the  creation 
of  a  new  but  as  the  resurrection  of  an  old  regiment.  '  Our 
ears,1  said  Dr.  Porteous,  '  have  been  accustomed  to  hear  of  the 
fame  of  the  Scotch  Brigade ;  of  the  moderation,  sobriety,  and 
honesty,  as  well  as  of  the  courage  and  patience  of  this  corps  ; 
you  have  not  to  erect  a  new  fabric,  but  to  build  on  the  reputa- 
tion of  your  predecessors,  and  I  am  confident  you  will  not 
disgrace  them.1  His  '  Short  Account,1  while  covering  much  the 
same  ground  as  the  '  Historical  Account,1  contains  some  ad- 
ditional particulars.  There  is  also  a  short  notice  of  the  Brigade 
appended  to  Grose^  Military  Antiquities,  and  a  note  upon  it 
in  Steven's  History  of  the  Scotch  Church  at  Rotterdam. 

Among  the  papers  of  Mrs.  Stopford  Sackville,  at  Drayton- 
House,  Nottinghamshire,  is  a  copy  of  a  document  (after  1772)r 
6  Facts  relative  to  the  Scotch  Brigade  in  the  Service  of  Holland.' 

There  are  of  course  allusions  to  the  services  of  the  Scots  in 
the  many  English,  Dutch,  French,  Spanish,  and  Italian  histories 
of  the  War  of  Independence.  For  the  time  of  Prince  Mauricer 
the  best  authority  is  Orler's  Lauriers  de  Nassau,  and  for  that 
of  his  brother  the  Memoires  de  Frederick  Henry  Prince 
d?  Orange.  For  the  campaigns  of  William  Henry,  the  Memoirs 
of  Bernardi  and  of  Carleton,  the  Life  of  William  III.,  and  the 
History  of  Holland  supply  a  limited  amount  of  information. 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION  xxxiii 

The  Editor  has  to  record  his  sense  of  the  assistance  he  has 
received  from  Dr.  Mendels  and  M.  d'Engelbronner  who  tran- 
scribed the  documents  at  the  Hague,  and  whose  intelligent 
researches  have  greatly  aided  the  work  of  annotation,  and  par- 
ticularly from  Colonel  de  Bas,  the  keeper  of  the  Archives  of  the 
Royal  House  of  Orange  at  the  Hague,  who  supplied  valuable 
information  as  to  the  succession  of  the  regiments  in  the 
eighteenth  century ;  and  also  to  express  his  grateful  thanks 
to  many  friends  and  correspondents  in  Scotland  and  elsewhere, 
too  numerous  to  enumerate,  who,  by  supplying  particulars  as 
to  their  ancestors  who  served  in  the  Brigade,  or  otherwise, 
have  enabled  him  in  many  cases  to  identify  the  individuals 
whose  names  appear  in  the  States  of  War.  Similar  acknow- 
ledgments are  due  to  Mr.  J.  Rudolff  Hugo,  and  to  the 
Rev.  J.  Ballingall,  Rhynd,  Perthshire,  who  have  undertaken 
the  labours  of  carrying  out  and  revising  the  translation  of 
the  Dutch  documents. 

It  had  originally  been  intended  to  print  the  Dutch  text  as 
well  as  the  English  translation  of  the  Dutch  documents,  but 
the  volume  of  material  was  so  great  that  on  careful  considera- 
tion the  Council  were  satisfied  that  they  must  confine  them- 
selves to  printing  the  English  translation  of  Dutch  originals, 
and  the  French  text  alone  of  documents  in  French.  For  the 
convenience  of  scholars  the  complete  transcripts  of  the  original 
Dutch  here  translated,  and  of  other  documents,  including  the 
lists  from  the  Commission  and  Oath  Books,  which  the  Editor 
has  used  in  the  preparation  and  annotation  of  these  volumes, 
will  be  deposited  and  preserved  in  the  Advocates'  Library, 
Edinburgh.  J.  F. 

KINMUNDY,  ABERDEENSHIRE, 
nth  Novr.  1898. 


XXXIV 


THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE  IN  HOLLAND 


LISTS  OF  THE  COLONELS  OF  THE  REGIMENTS  OF  THE 
SCOTS  BRIGADE 

A — THE  THREE  OLD  REGIMENTS  OF  THE  SCOTS  BRIGADE 
I.  1572-1688.  i 


1573 
1574-1580 

1585 

[Ormiston]  2 
Sir  Henry  Balfour3 
[Cunningham]  4 

1586 

Barthold  Balfour  5 

1594 

Alexander  Murray 

1599 

Sir  William  Edmond 

1603 

1606 

Sir  William  Brog 

1612 

1622 

1628 

1629 

1633 

1636 
1639 

Sir  James  Sandilands 
James  Erskine 

I) 

1640 

1646 

'655 

1660 

Walter  Scott 

1UUU 

1662 

1673 

Henry  Graham 

1675 

1677 

Hugh  Mackay 

1680 

1684 

1685 
1688 

Lord  Buccleuch 

Sir  Robert  Henderson 
Sir  Francis  Henderson 
Sir  John  Halkett 
Sir  David  Balfour 


Sir  Archibald  Douglas 
John  Kirkpatrick 


Barthold  Balfour 


Earl  of  Buccleuch 
Sir   James    Livingstone, 
Lord  Almond 


Sir  Philip  Balfour 

Sir  William  Drummond 


John  Henderson 
Louis  Erskine 


Sir  Alex.  Colyear 
James  Douglas 

John  Wauchope 
George  Ramsay 


1689 
1692 


/Eneas  JVTackay 


II.   1688-1697. 

i  George  Lauder 


Sir  Charles  Graham 


1  The  dates  from  1594  are  those  of  the  commissions,  and  the  lines  below  the  names  of 
Sir  William  Drummond  (Earl  of  Roxburgh)  and  Louis  Erskine  denote  a  break  in  the  con- 
tinuity of  the  regiments,  which  otherwise  is  complete.     In  1655  the  three  regiments  were 
formed  into  two.     In  1675  Colyear  was  appointed  first  colonel  of  a  new  regiment  raised 
during  the  preceding  year  to  replace  Louis  Erskine's,  which  under  de  Fariaux  had  be- 
come wholly  Dutch. 

2  Appears  as  colonel  in  the  Pay  Lists  of  Holland. 

3  Appears  in  Pay  Lists  of  Holland. 

4  Referred  to  in  the  Resolutions  of  Holland. 

5  The  date  1586  is  that  of  the  first  mention  as  colonel. 


LISTS  OF  THE  COLONELS 


XXXV 


III.   1698-1782. ] 


1698 

Robert  Murray 

George  Lauder 

Walter  Philip  Colyear. 

1716 

A.  Halkett 

1719 

John  Cunninghame. 

1730 

James  Cunninghame 

J733 

Lamy 

1741 

Villegas 

1742 

D.  Mackay 

1745 

Marjori  banks 

1746 

Charles  Wm.  Stewart 

1747 

C.  Halkett. 

1754 
1758 

J.  Stuart 

J.  Gordon. 

1773 

H.  Mackay 

1775 

J.  Houston 

1776 

R.  Dundas. 

157— 
1586 


1629 


B— REGIMENTS  TEMPORARILY  IN  THE  SERVICE  OF  THE  STATES 


William  Stuart 
Aristotle  Fatten. 


Earl  of  Morton's 
(commanded  by  Lord 
Hay  of  Kinfauns) 


1697-99 


1701 

1704 
1706 

1709 
1710 
171— 
1717 

1747-1753 


James  Ferguson 

John,  Lord  Strathnaver 

George  Hamilton. 

Sir    David     Colyear, 
Lord  Portmore  2 
John  Dalrymple  4 
William  Borthwick 
John  Hepburn 
James  Douglas 

John,  Lord  Strathnaver3 

John,  Marquis  of  Lorn5 
John,  Marquis  of  Tulli- 
bardine 

James  Wood 

George  Hamilton. 

Henry  Douglas,  Earl 
of  Drumlanrig 

1  From  a  list  kindly  supplied  by  Colonel  F.  de  Bas,  and  compared  with  one  made  by 
M.  d'Engelbronner. 

The  three  regiments  were  subsequently  (1786-89)  respectively  numbered  22,  23,  and 
24.  Twenty-two  being  the  regiment  commanded  by  Sir  Henry  Balfour,  Sir 'William 
Brog,  and  General  Mackay ;  23  Lord  Buccleuch's,  and  24  the  Earl  of  Buccleuch's  and 
Lord  Almond's. 

2  Lord  Portmore  1699,  Earl  of  Portmore  1703.     Cf.  p.  507,  n.  4. 

3  Afterwards  igth  Earl  of  Sutherland. 

4  Afterwards  Earl  of  Stair.  5  Afterwards  Duke  of  Argyll. 


DIVISION  I 
THE   WAR   OF   INDEPENDENCE 

1572-1609 


INTRODUCTORY 

IN  the  year  1572  the  landing  of  the  Sea  Gueux  at  the  Brill 
proved  that  the  Netherlands,  though  lying  crushed  and  bleed- 
ing under  the  iron  heel  of  the  Duke  of  Alva,  had  been  stunned 
but  not  conquered.  It  was  followed  by  a  widespread  uprising, 
and  by  the  influx  of  English  aid.  At  what  precise  moment 
the  first  Scottish  company  disembarked  upon  Dutch  soil  it  is 
impossible  to  say,  but  it  would  seem  that  the  Scots  were  not 
behind  their  southern  neighbours.  Count  Louis  of  Nassau  was 
beleaguered  in  Mons  by  the  veterans  of  Alva,  Kirkcaldy  of 
Grange  was  holding  Edinburgh  for  Queen  Mary.  '  Le  Prince 
d'Orange,1  says  Le  Petit,  c  pour  venir  seconder  le  Comte 
Ludovic  son  frere  estant  dans  Mons  en  Hainaut  ne  manquoit 
de  devoir  a  lever  gens  de  toutes  partes  tant  en  Allemagne, 
Angleterre  qu'  Ecosse  et  France/  On  the  21st  of  June,  the 
Scottish  Privy  Council,  on  account  of  the  famine  in  Edinburgh, 
*  detenit  aganis  our  Sovereign  Lord,1  and  in  order  that  '  the  idle 
men  and  soldiers  be  not  drawn  to  any  desperate  necessity,  but 
may  have  commodity  to  serve  and  live  either  within  the  realm, 
or  to  pass  to  the  wars  in  Flanders  or  other  foreign  countries,"* 
issued  a  proclamation  ordering  all  such  to  quit  the  city  by  the 
evening  of  the  23rd.  Before  the  first  year  of  the  long  struggle 
that  was  to  be  crowned  with  success  closed,  Scots  were  fighting 
side  by  side  with  the  Dutch  burghers  on  the  ramparts  of 
beleaguered  Haarlem. 

After  the  first  assault  on  20th  December,  the  Prince  of 
Orange  threw  reliefs  with  supplies  into  the  town,  including 
some  Scots.1  Again,  in  the  end  of  January  1573,  the  Scots, 
under  the  command  of  Balfour,2  were  among  the  force  of 

1  Mendoza  and  Meteren. 

2  On  i6th  September  1572,  the  Regent  Mar,  in  the  name  of  King  James,  had 
granted  a  passport  and  recommendation  to  '  Henricus  Balfourius  noster  civis, 
nobili  loco  natus,  et  qui  in  statu  rerum  domi  turbulento  semper  meliores  partes 
•est  se'cutus'  .  .  .  'cum  cohortem fere ducentorum  militumad  clarissimumAuraniae 
principem  ducturus  esset.3 — P.  C.  Reg. 


4  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

four  hundred  who  cut  their  way  over  the  frozen  lake,  with 
eighty  sledges  laden  with  munitions  and  food.1  It  was  to 
John  Cuningham,  a  Scotsman,  that  the  besieged  committed 
the  command  of  the  battery  which  they  directed  upon  the 
great  cavalier  which  the  Spaniards  had  constructed,  and  so  well 
did  he  work  his  guns  that  in  half  a  day  he  '  put  this  cavalier  to 
the  ground,  for  which ^  says  the  historian,2  6  he  acquired  great 
honour  in  the  town.'  The  Spaniards  endeavoured  to  restore  it 
and  brought  up  artillery,  but  Cuningham  each  time  destroyed 
it  completely.  On  the  15th  of  April,  Captain  Balfour  with 
his  Scots  made  a  '  camisade '  or  night  attack  on  the  Spanish 
lines  at  Russemburch,  forced  them,  defeated  a  large  body  of 
troops,  and  carried  back  four  standards.  Towards  the  close  of 
the  siege,  when  the  Spaniards  were  debating  whether  to  renew 
an  assault  that  had  been  repulsed,  a  Scottish  sergeant  threw 
himself  from  the  wall  and  staved  off  the  attack,  by  assuring 
Don  Frederick,  on  pain  of  his  life,  that  the  town  could  not 
hold  out  long  on  account  of  the  want  of  food.  Scots  also 
took  part  in  the  last  unsuccessful  attempt  at  relief.  When 
finally  the  day  of  capitulation  came,  the  fate  of  the  Scots 
was  at  first  uncertain.  The  French  were  beyond  the  pale 
of  mercy,  for  they  had  already  been  spared  at  Mons;  the 
Germans  were  recognised  as  '  neutrals,  and  free  to  serve 
any  prince  they  pleased,1  and,  according  to  Le  Petit,  it  had 
been  declared  to  the  Scots  that  mercy  had  been  given  them. 
Meteren  says  that  they  and  the  English  held  themselves 
assured  c  des  belles  promesses.1  But  the  Spaniards,  once  in 
possession,  held  that  the  Scots  and  English  as  well  as  the 
French,  were  subjects  of  princes  with  whom  the  king  was  in 
peace  and  confederation,  and,  therefore,  they  were  '  tous 
justiciez,  les  gentilhommes  par  Tespee,  les  autres  par  la  corde, 
ou  plongez  en  mer.13  More  than  eighteen  captains  and  ensigns 
with  all  the  rest  of  the  Walloon,  Scottish,  and  English  troops, 
to  the  number  of  500,  thus  perished.  'En  la  ville,1  says 
Meteren,  'furent  tues  plus  de  2000  hommes,  outre  quelque 
peu  qui  eschapperent  secretement  et  le  Capitaine  Ecossois 
Balfour,  qui  eschappa  sous  promesse  d'attenter  quelque  chose 
contre  la  vie  et  personne  du  Prince  d'Orange  comme  il  le 
1  Mendoza.  2  Le  Petit.  3  Renom  de  France. 


INTRODUCTORY  5 

declarat  luymeme  ail  dit  Prince,  disant  aussi,  que  puis  qu'il  en 
avoit  un  remords  de  conscience,  qiTil  estimoit  n'etre  pas  tenu  en 
une  si  mauvaise  promesse.1  For  the  remorse  he  carried  with 
him  for  a  feigned  compliance  with  a  dishonourable  proposal, 
Balfour  was  to  atone  by  a  record  of  distinguished  service,  and 
eight  years  later  by  an  honourable  death  fighting  against  great 
odds.1 

The  Spaniards  entered  Haarlem  on  the  14th  of  June.  On 
the  6th,  the  Scottish  Privy  Council  had  granted  a  licence  to 
4  Captain  Thomas  Robesoun'  to  levy  300  men  for  the  'defence 
of  Goddis  trew  religioun  aganis  the  persecutiouris  thairof '  in 
the  Low  Countries.  He  was  obliged  to  give  a  bond  that  he 
would  comply  with  certain  conditions,  his  cautioner  being 
John  Monteith  of  Kerse.  The  conditions  were :  '  That  he  shall 
not  lift  or  transport  any  captains,  members  of  bands,  or  soldiers 
presently  in  the  king^s  service  without  special  licence  from  the 
Regent ;  that  he  cause  the  like  number  of  culverins,  hagbuts, 
and  other  hand-guns,  morions,  and  corselets  to  be  brought 
again  into  the  realm  before  1st  February  next  to  come ;  that 
he  shall  cause  his  men  live  upon  their  own  charges  without 
oppression  till  they  are  transported,  and  that  he  and  they 
shall  not  be  partakers  with  any  Scottish  subjects  against 


1  There  is  some  authority  for  the  view  that  the  vehicle  of  this  proposal  was 
James  Hamilton  of  Bothwellhaugh,  the  assassin  of  the  Regent  Murray,  who  is 
said  to  have  scouted  a  suggestion  made  to  him  to  deal  similarly  with  Admiral 
Coligny,  but  whose  name  appears  in  connection  with  Spanish  intrigues  for  the 
removal  of  the  Prince  of  Orange.  De  Lettenhove  says : — *  Lorsque  James 
Hamilton  s'etait  rendu  a  Amsterdam  pres  du  Due  d'Albe  c'etait  pour  conferer 
avec  Alboinos  et  lui  indiquer  un  capitaine  ecossais,  fort  courageux  et  propre  a  cette 
entreprise,  qui  se  trouvait  avec  les  Gueux  a  Harlem  et  qui  se  rendit  a  Delft, 
peut  etre  pour  prendre  part  aux  troubles  et  pour  y  profiler  du  desordre.  A 
defaut  de  ce  Capitaine  Hamilton  cut  recours  et  sans  plus  de  succes  a  un  autre 
Ecossais  qui  ramait  a  Nantes  sur  les  galeres  de  Charles  ix.'  And  on  January  I4th, 
I577>  Wilson  wrote  to  Lord  Burghley  (St.  Pap.  For.),  *  Hamilton  who  escaped 
out  of  prison  from  Brussels,  and  with  whom  Don  John  promised  Mr.  Harvey 
that  he  would  not  deal,  has  received  money  of  him  to  persuade  the  Scots  to 
revolt  by  whom  he  was  delivered  out  of  prison,  and  for  whom,  especially  for 
Balfour,  the  Colonel,  and  some  others,  he  got  pardon  of  the  Duke  of  Alva  at  the 
taking  of  Haarlem,  with  condition  that  the  said  Balfour  should  then  kill  the 
Prince  of  Orange  by  one  means  or  another.'  On  1st  May,  Wilson  reported  to 
Walsingham  that  Colonel  Balfour  had  promised  to  '  work  the  feat '  of  getting  a 
Scot  into  England  with  letters  from  Don  John  to  the  Scottish  Queen. 


6  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

others ;  that  they  shall  not  in  passing  to  the  Low  Countries 
invade  or  pillage  any  subjects  or  friends  and  confederates  of 
this  realm;  that  they  shall  noways  serve  with  any  Papists 
against  the  Protestant  professors  of  the  Evangel  of  Jesus 
Christ ;  that  he  shall  not  muster  his  men  within  sixteen  miles 
of  Stirling  Castle  under  a  penalty  of  5000  merks  ;  and  that  he 
should  be  answerable  for  the  full  redress  of  all  plundered  goods.1 

On  16th  July  similar  licences  were  granted  to  Captain  John 
Adamson,  whose  cautioner  was  John  Adamson,  burgess,  Edin- 
burgh, and  to  Captain  Diones  Pentland,  whose  cautioner  was 
James  Sandelandis  of  Calder,  who  were  also  taken  bound  not 
to  enrol  on  the  south  side  of  the  Forth.  The  English  agents 
in  reporting  Captain  Robeson's  licence  to  their  own  Govern- 
ment drew  attention 1  to  it  as  an  illustration  of  '  how  the 
nation  is  given  to  stray  abroad,  some  into  Sweden  and  some 
into  Flanders,  whither  more  will  to  the  Prince  of  Orange  if 
they  had  comfort  given  them.' 

The  fall  of  Edinburgh  and  the  Peace  of  Perth  had  now 
deprived  many  Scotsmen,  '  both  King's  men '  and  '  Queen's 
men,'  of  employment  at  home,  and  the  Spaniards  were  to  find 
that  the  methods  exemplified  at  Haarlem  were  the  most 
injudicious  that  could  be  employed  against  the  Scots.  They 
would  have  been  wiser  if  they  had  followed,  as  the  Dutch 
were  to  do,  the  policy  of  the  Emperor  Charles  v.,  '  qui  ne 
vouloit  pas  qu'on  irritast  les  Escossois,  sachant  bien  que  les 
Escossois  estoient  pauvres  mais  gens  vaillants  qui  n'avoient 
pas  beaucoup  a  perdre.' 2 

The  arrival  of  500  Scots  was  indeed  reported  to  England 
along  with  the  news  of  the  fall  of  Haarlem,  and  an  anonymous 
letter  from  Stirling,  of  July  26th,  depicts  the  state  of  feeling, 
which  soon  bore  fruit  in  substantial  succours.  '  The  calamity 
of  that  good  country  (Flanders)  is  not  only  lamented  by  them, 
but  goodwill  borne  to  relieve  part  of  their  burden.  Some 
number  of  men  of  war  are  already  repaired  thither,  others 
upon  the  arriving  of  his '  (the  Prince  of  Orange's)  '  servant, 
Captain  Ormiston,  are  in  preparation,  but  the  third  sort  are 
desirous  to  hazard  themselves  if  they  were  certain  of  his  plea- 
sure and  what  assured  entreatment  they  might  look  for.  They 


1  State  Papers,  Foreign.  2  Meteren,  fol.  310. 


INTRODUCTORY  7 

are  not  such  as  have  been  hired  by  wages  in  former  wars,  but 
rather  some  in  the  rank  of  nobility  who  have  done  valiant 
service  in  the  cause  of  religion  and  repressing  civil  sedition 
here.1  For  that  purpose  is  Captain  Montgomery,  a  gentleman 
of  approved  truth  and  good  credit,  directed  towards  him  to 
understand  the  condition  of  their  affairs,  and  to  return  speedily 
with  resolution  of  his  pleasure.' 

On  2nd  August,  Robert  Montgomery  wrote  to  Killigrew 
thanking  him  for  his  good  offices,  stating  that  he  was  '  directed 
by  the  Regent  to  go  towards  Flanders  to  offer  the  Prince  of 
Orange  1000  horsemen  and  2000  footmen  to  assist  him  in  the 
general  cause  under  Lord  Cathcart,  and  praying  that  he  would 
inform  the  Queen,  so  that  if  they  should  arrive  upon  any  of  her 
coasts  in  their  voyage  they  might  find  her  favour  and  goodwill.* 

On  September  12th,  Thomas  Morgan  wrote  to  Lord  Burghley 
from  Zealand  that  '  400  Scots  had  arrived  at  Zierickzee  who 
made  an  attempt  on  Barrow,  but  the  Dutch,  who  should  have 
backed  them,  having  fled  away,  they  had  to  retire.'  Next  day,  he 
reported  that  '  Montgomery  of  Scotland  is  come  to  the  Prince 
to  make  offer  of  service  with  2000  light  horse.  Two  hundred 
Scots  have  arrived  in  Zealand,  who  say  that  seven  ensigns 
more  are  coming.12  The  arrival  was  reported  to  the  enemy  at 
Bruges,  with  the  information  that  their  leader  was  '  ung 
homme  de  belle  taille  avec  la  barbe  quelque  peu  rossette.'a 
This  was  probably  Ormiston,  who  appears  in  the  pay-lists  of 


1  Although  from  the  tone  of  some  authors,  it  would  seem  that  Englishmen 
serving  in  foreign  armies  were  always  *  volunteers'  and  Scotsmen  *  mercenaries,' 
the  position  of  both  was  the  same,  except  in  regard  to  the  English  troops  sent 
over  by  Queen  Elizabeth  under  the  treaty  by  which  she  obtained  possession  of  the 
cautionary  towns.     Otherwise  both  nations  sent  spontaneous  help,  troops  of 
both  received  Dutch  pay,  and  in  later  years  both  the  English  and  Scots  Brigades 
were  on  the  same  footing.    If  King  James  was  unsuccessful  in  asserting,  in  1594, 
his  claim  to  give  his  own  commission  to  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Scots, 
this  was  no  doubt  owing  to  the  experience  the  States  retained  of  the  Earl  of 
Leicester.     The  parallelism  in  other  respects  is  curiously  complete.     As  Stanley 
and  Rowland  Yorke  betrayed  Deventer  and  the    Zutphen   Sconces,  and   the 
English  garrisons  delivered  Gertruydenberg  and  Alost,  so  Patton  and  Sempill 
betrayed  Gelder  and   Lier,  and  Boyd  joined  with  the   Prince  of  Chimay  in 
handing  over  Bruges  to  the  Prince  of  Parma. 

2  State  Papers,  Foreign. 

3  For  the  earliest  recorded  names  of  Scottish  officers,  see  the  Pay-lists  of 
Holland,  infra. 

Report  from  Flushing,  made  at  Bruges,  8th  September  1573: — *  Le  rappor- 


8  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

Holland  as  colonel  in  1573-74.  In  1575  he  had  been  suc- 
ceeded by  Colonel  Henry  Balfour,  among  the  chequered 
incidents  of  whose  career  appears  to  have  been  the  slaughter 
of  his  predecessor  in  a  duel.1  A  month  later,  Bingham 
reported  from  Delft,  '  1600  Scots  have  arrived  in  Holland  and 
Zealand,  and  the  Lord  of  Caker  is  bruited  to  be  coming  with 
1000  horsemen.  The  league  between  the  Prince  and  the  Scots 
grows  very  great,  and  there  is  motion  of  marriage  for  the 
young  King  of  Scotland  to  the  Prince's  daughter.1 

The  principal  event  of  1574  was  the  famous  siege  and  relief 
of  Leyden.  From  Delft  the  Prince  of  Orange  was  organising 
succour,  and  the  Grand  Commander  Requesens  massed  large 
forces  in  the  vicinity  of  Bommel,  Gorcum,  and  Louwensteyn 
to  threaten  the  Dutch  from  that  side.  But  all  the  places 
were  well  provided,  and  seven  companies  of  Scots  under 
Colonel  Balfour  were  so  stationed  round  them  to  hinder  his 
enterprises  by  piercing  the  dykes,  and  otherwise,  that  he 
accomplished  nothing.2  Nor  although  Spanish  intrigue  was 
busy  did  it  succeed  in  doing  more  than  disclosing  its  de- 
signs to  the  Scottish  colonel,3  while  other  Scots  companies 

teur  dit  en  premier  lieu  que  Samedi  dernier,  entre  huict  et  neuf  heures  du 
matin  il  est  arrive  de  Flessinghe.  La  ou  il  ait  veu  descendre  quelque  quantite 
d'Escochois  mesme  que  depuis  vendredi  et  samedy  il  en  seroit  bien  arrive,  que 
a  la  Vere  que  Flessinghes  bien  huict  cens  dont  les  cinq  cens  serroyent  arrives  a 
Flessinghes,  ne  sachant  le  nom  de  leur  chef  forsque  s'estoit  ung  homme  de  belle 
taille,  avec  la  barbe  quelque  peu  rossette. 

'Demande  s'il  n'avoit  entendu  de  la  part  que  Ton  vouloit  envoyer  les  dits 
Escochois  dit  avoir  entendu  de  Betremieu  de  Dunder  qu'ilz  attendoyent  le  conte 
de  la  Marche  avec  xve  hommes  de  Ghetye  a  autre,  et  quand  il  seroit  arrive  qu'ilz 
volloyent  aller  assigier  Termuden. ' — Appendix  to  Renom  de  France. 

Some  of  the  Scots  were  sent  in  October  to  share  in  the  investment  of  Middel- 
burgh.— Le  Petit. 

1  1574.    Lettres  de  remission  du  Capitaine  Henry  Balfour  de  ce  qu'il  avait  tu6 
Andreas  Ormeston  couronnel  des  Capitains  Escossois  au  camp  pres  de  la  Bommel 
le     jour  d'Avril  1574.  (Registre  des  d6peches,etc. ,  du  Prince  Guillaume  d'Orange. ) 

2  The   Grand  Commander,   says   Mendoza,   sent   Hierges   into  the   Isle  of 
Bommel  with  infantry  and  light  cavalry,  '  tant  pour  gaster  le  pays  en  couppant 
les  grains,  comme  pour  executer  quelque  menee  qui  se  tramoit  la  ville  de  Bommel 
ou  estoient  en  garnison  quelques  compagnies  d'Escossois  avec  le  Colonel  Balfour 
1'un  de  ceux  qui  leur  avoit  commande  dans  Harlem  mais  cette  entreprise  ne 
sortit  aucun  effect.' 

3  Sp.  Papers,  September  1574.— *  They  talked  amongst  themselves,  however, 
about   Captain    Ellis   [Villiers  ?]  going   to   Bomel   and   there   arranging  with 
Colonel  Balfour  for  him  and  his  men  when  they  leave  there  to  go  to  Rotterdam 


INTRODUCTORY  9 

shared  in  Boisot's  gallant  efforts  to  succour  the  beleaguered 
city.1 

In  1575  the  Scottish  companies  suffered  severely.  In  the 
end  of  July  Hierges  with  a  strong  force  appeared  before 
Oudewater,  which  was  held  by  a  small  garrison  of  two  French,  one 
German,  and  one  Scottish  company,  whose  captain  was  absent.2 
Le  Petit  says  that  the  Scots  abandoned  an  outlying  fort  at  the 
sluice  of  the  canal,  without  setting  fire  to  it  or  withdrawing 
the  stores,  as  they  should  have  done ;  but  under  the  French 
captain,  St.  Marie,  a  gallant  defence  of  the  town  was  made,  and 
the  Scottish  lieutenant  was  killed  on  the  ramparts  along  with 
Captain  St.  Marie  at  the  final  assault.  The  garrison  had  con- 
sisted of  400  men  according  to  the  Dutchman  Meteren,  and  of 
2800  according  to  the  Spaniard  Mendoza,  but  both  agree  that 
the  Spaniards  swept  into  the  town,  in  Mendoza^s  words,  '  avec 
tel  massacre  et  effusion  de  sang  que  dedans  ne  resterent  que 
vingt  hommes  en  vie.1  From  Oudewater  Hierges  passed  on  to 
Schoonhoven,  which  was  held  by  700  French,  Dutch,  and 
Scottish  soldiers.  The  defences  were  weak  and  the  townsmen 
unpatriotic,  and  the  garrison,  who  awaited  for  a  whole  day  the 
assault  at  a  breach  300  paces  in  length,  accepted  an  honour- 
able composition.  These  losses  were  followed  by  the  famous 
attack  in  which  the  Spaniards  forced  their  way  on  foot  through 
the  sea  to  the  isle  of  Schouwen  in  spite  of  the  fire  of  the 
Zealand  ships  and  the  troops  drawn  up  to  oppose  them  on 


or  Delft  or  wherever  Orange  might  be,  in  order  to  capture  or  kill  him.  They 
would  also  surrender  one  of  these  towns,  and  on  their  doing  these  two  things  the 
colonel  and  the  captains  were  to  have  20,000  crowns  cash,  and  as  much  more 
for  the  men.  In  case  they  fail  to  capture  Orange,  but  surrender  the  town,  they 
are  only  to  receive  15,000  crowns  amongst  the  whole  of  them  ;  whilst  if,  on  the 
contrary,  they  capture  him  and  do  not  surrender  the  town,  they  are  to  have 
30,000  between  them.  In  addition  to  this,  the  colonel  asks  for  a  pension  of 
1000  crowns,  and  the  captains  300  with  an  employment.  They  would  sign  an 
agreement  as  desired.  Guaras  says  Ellis  [Villiers]  is  a  man  of  experience,  and 
has  served  Orange  for  a  long  time,  but  he  and  the  rest  of  the  English  are 
dissatisfied  with  him.' 

1  Le  Petit.     Meteren,  in  relating  the  unsuccessful  attempt  of  the  Zealanders 
upon  Antwerp,  who  had  bribed  thirty  Spanish  soldiers  in  the  castle,  says,  '  Ceux 
du  Chasteau  et  de  la  Ville  estoient  deja  en  armes  car  ils  furent  advertirent  par 
un  capitaine  Escossois  qui  y  estoit  prisonnier.' 

2  Le  Petit.     Meteren  says  the  Scots  company  was  'sous  Dincwerc.' 


10  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

land.  A  panic  seized  the  French,  Scots,  and  English  troops, 
the  gallant  Admiral  Boisot  was  killed,  and  the  fugitives  took 
refuge  in  a  fort  half  a  league  from  Ost-Duiveland,  and  in 
Vianen.1  Vianen  soon  fell,  and  the  Spaniards  pressed  on  to 
Bomene,  which  was  held  by  600  old  soldiers,  Scots,  French, 
and  English  under  Monsieur  de  Ly.  After  it  had  been 
bombarded,  a  proposal  was  made  for  a  capitulation,  but  some 
Spanish  soldiers  were  overheard  saying  that  'these  hens  and 
rebels  should  be  thrown  from  the  walls  into  the  sea  as  the 
only  consideration  they  deserved,'  and  it  was  resolved  to  resist 
to  the  last.  The  first  assault  was  repulsed,  and  when  at  last 
the  Spaniards  gained  the  place  they  put  all  who  were  in  it 
to  the  edge  of  the  sword.  The  strength  of  the  Scottish  com- 
panies had  now  been  reduced  by  a  half.2 

There  was,  however,  no  difficulty  in  filling  the  reduced  ranks. 
On  2nd  January  1576,  the  Spanish  authorities  were  informed 
that '  some  Scottish  soldiers  had  landed  at  Brill,  no  doubt  a 
portion  of  the  2000  men  which  Colonel  Balfour  went  to  raise 
in  Scotland,1  and  the  siege  of  Zierickzee,  beleaguered  till  mid- 
summer, was  prolonged  by  the  Scottish  and  English  reinforce- 
ments received.3  The  Archives  of  the  House  of  Orange  record 
that  so  late  as  the  1st  of  June  its  relief  was  attempted  by 
4  2000  hommes  d'Ecosse ' ;  but  the  letter  sent  to  the  town  had 
been  intercepted,  the  besieged  did  not  co-operate,  f  et  venans 
nos  gens  au  lieu  destine  ils  furent  tellement  repoussez  par  les 
ennemis  que  nous  y  perdions  beaucoup  de  gens/  4 


1  Mendoza. 

2  Renom  de  France  in  his  Histoire  des  Troubles  des  Pays  Bas,  in  giving  an 
account  of  the  forces  of  the  Dutch  in  this  year,  1575,  says,  '  En  Zuyt  Hollande 
quatre  regiments  dont  estoient  coronels  le  Sr  de  Noyelle-Montigney  2°  Hellin,  3. 
La  Garde,  et  4°  Walford,-*  le  premier  de  Wallons  le  second  d'Allemand,  le  3me 
de  Fran£ois  et  le  4e  d'Escossois,  que  avoient  este  pleins  au  commencement  et 
depuis  reduite  fil  a  fil  a  la  Moitie.     Car  autant  qu'il  pouvoit  tenoit  les  enseignes 
pleines. ' 

3  Renom  de  France. 

4  The  Spaniards  were  still  flattering  themselves  with  the  coming  success  of 
their  attempted  intrigues  with  the  foreigh  troops. 

St.  Pap.,  Guaras  to  Zayas. — *26th  April  1576. — With  regard  to  the  matter  of  the 
plan  of  Flushing  I  have  had  several  conferences  with  Col.  Chester,  the  English- 

*  Henri  Balfour  Ecossais  au  service  des  Etats  de  Hollande,  puis  des  Etats  Generaux.     II 
commandait  douze  enseignes  d'Escossais.    The  English  companies  were  in  garrison. 


INTRODUCTORY  11 

The  closing  months  of  1576  introduce  a  new  phase  of  the 
struggle  in  the  Netherlands.  The  Spanish  Fury  had  deso- 
lated Antwerp  early  in  November,  and  a  few  days  later  the 
Pacification  of  Ghent  was  signed,  by  which  the  provinces  of 
Utrecht,  Brabant,  Flanders,  Artois,  Hainault,  and  the  others 
forming  the  southern  Netherlands,  associated  themselves  with 
Holland  and  Zealand.  The  Scots  troops  had  hitherto  been 
in  the  service  of  Holland  alone,  or  of  Holland  and  Zealand 
combined.  They  were  now  to  pass  for  a  brief  period  into  that 
of  the  comprehensive  States- General  of  the  whole  Netherlands. 

On  3rd  December  the  Prince  of  Orange  wrote  to  the  Regent 
Morton  referring  to  '  la  bonne  assistance  d'hommes  qu'en  ces 
guerres  nous  avons  par  notre  bon  adveu  et  congie  receu 
cTEcosse,'  announcing  the  treaty  with  the  other  provinces,  and 
continuing  thus :  '  Comme  les  Etatz  d'Hollande  apres  cette 
paix  faicte  avoyent  delibere  de  licentier  le  Couronnel  Balfour 
avecq  les  compagnies  Ecossaises  qu'il  a  par  deca,  j'ai  estime 
qu'il  seroit  meilleur  veu  qu'il  s'estoit  toujours  si  vailla- 
ment  porte,  de  Temployer  es  aultres  provinces  du  pays  en  si 
bonne  occasion  qui  se  presente  centre  les  espagnols  qui  a  faict 
que  je  Tay  bien  voulu  recommander  aux  Estatz  Generaulx  du 
Pays  Bas  assemblez  a  Bruxelles,  lesquels  aussy  par  ma  recom- 
mendation ont  traicte  avecq  luy,  Tayantz  accepte  en  leur 
service.' * 

The  English  State  Papers  mention  that  on  the  21st  the  States 

man,  and  have  agreed  that  he  and  Colonel  Daburd  [Balfour  ?]  of  the  Scotch  forces 
will  deliver  the  town  of  Flushing  to  his  Majesty  for  300,000  crowns  and  all  the 
plunder  that  the  soldiers  can  take. 

* .  .  .  They  expect  to  carry  the  business  through  by  pretending  that  all  our 
forces  are  to  go  by  land  or  sea  to  capture  the  isle  of  Walcheren  or  Zealand,  which 
will  certainly  cause  Orange  to  send  a  great  force  of  English  and  Scotch  to  defend 
the  island,  who  will  be  on  our  side.  .  .  .  Orange,  moreover,  will  send  Col. 
Daburd  [Balfour]  to  defend  Flushing,  and  as  both  of  the  Colonels  think  that 
Orange  must  shortly  come  to  ruin,  and  they  are  looking  out  for  themselves,  they 
may  be  depended  upon  to  carry  through  this  service.  .  .  .  They  are  awaiting  a 
reply  and  are  much  grieved  at  the  death  of  the  Grand  Commander.' 

It  required  a  very  different  condition  of  affairs,  with  the  Low  Country 
employers  of  the  Scots  and  English  troops  divided  against  themselves,  and  pass- 
ing one  by  one  back  to  the  side  of  King  Philip,  and  the  hand  of  the  astute  and 
attractive  Parma,  before  such  intrigues  produced  even  the  limited  effects  after- 
wards obtained  in  a  few  exceptional  cases. 

1  Archives  of  the  House  of  Orange,  Nassau. — Groen  van  Prinsterer. 


12  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

sent  sixteen  ensigns  of  Scots  under  Colonel  Balfour  to  lie  in 
garrison  about  Limburg,  and  the  printed  resolutions  of  the 
States-General  record  the  accepting  in  service  of  Colonel  Henry 
Balfour  the  Scot  with  twelve  Scots  ensigns  (i.e.  companies)  in 
good  order  and  well  armed.1 

On  9th  November  it  was  also  resolved  to  accept  and  treat 
with  a  Scots  cavalry  captain  for  200  horse,  if  ready  to  pass 
muster,  and  on  the  16th  to  pay  to  the  Scots  captains,  Wm.  Mon- 
criff  and  Ogilby,  £4>Q  Artois.  On  9th  December  the  Scots  at 
Sas-van-Gand  were  ordered  to  the  country  of  Oultre-Meuse,  and 
successive  guides  (the  Sieur  de  Franchenbergh,  John  Laureys, 
and  Thomas  Wales)  appointed  to  conduct  them  there.  On 
20th  December  Balfour's  regiment  was  ordered  '  to  be  provided 
at  once  with  1500  Ibs.  of  powder  and  90  Ibs.  of  "  mesches.'n<> 

The  Scottish  regiment  had  not  long  to  wait  for  their  first 
encounter.  '  Au  mois  de  Janvier,"*  says  Meteren,  '  les  Escossois 
qui  estoient  au  service  des  Etats  souz  le  Colonel  Balfour  rencon- 
trerent  au  pais  de  liege  par  de  la  Meuse  pres  de  Jupil  une  troupe 
d'Espaignols  en  une  vallee  qu'ils  chargerent  et  les  different  telle- 
ment  que  plusieurs  y  demeurerent  et  le  reste  se  sauva  en  la  ville  de 
Maestricht/  The  contemporary  account  sent  to  Lord  Burgh  ley 
stated :  '  The  Scots  who  lie  at  Bingen,  near  Maestricht,  were  by 
the  Spaniards  disquieted  with  1500  horsemen,  but  the  Scots  being 
1600,  unto  whom  Commendator  Burnenstein  joined  unawares 
his  300  reiters,  repulsed  the  Spaniards  to  the  loss  of  100  horse- 
men and  of  the  Scots  not  past  12  men  slain  and  very  few  hurt/ 
There  was  also  a  very  mysterious  capture  by  Colonel  Balfour^s 
Scots  of  certain  deputies  of  Amsterdam  (which  still  adhered  to 
the  King  of  Spain),  who  were  probably  on  their  way  to  or  from 
Don  John  of  Austria,  which  resulted  in  caution  being  given  by 
a  burgher  of  Amsterdam  for  4  what  the  Scots  or  their  Colonel 
claim.'  In  March  the  States  refused  to  withdraw  the  Scots  at 
Don  John's  demand.  On  18th  April  they  resolved 2  to  give 
letters  of  recommendation  to  the  Colonel  of  the  Scots  to  his 
king  4  du  bon  debvoir  et  offices  qu'il  a  faict  avec  ses  gens  au 


1  Resolutions  of  the   States-General,    1576-1577. — De  Jonge.      Resolutions 
dated  5th  and  6th  November. 

2  Manuscripts  of  States-General. 


INTRODUCTORY  13 

Pays  Bas,1  and  on  llth  May  he  was  paid  ^?6000  Artois  '  pour 
la  recompense  a  luy  promise';  and  it  was  resolved  to  write  'au 
Roy  et  Regent  du  Royaulme  d'Escoisse  que  le  Colonel  et  ses 
compagnies  ont  bien  et  lealement  servy  a  sa  Majeste  Royale 
Catholique  et  Estats  des  Pays  Bas.1  On  7th  June  *  le  Col. 
Balfour  Escossois  ayant  prins  conge  des  Estatz  a  este  remerchie 
de  son  service.' 

But  Colonel  Balfour  was  soon  recalled.  The  reconciliation 
of  February  1577  was  clouded  over,  Don  John  of  Austria 
had  seized  Namur,  and  both  sides  were  preparing  for  another 
struggle.  On  10th  October  1577  «  Captain  Henry  Balfour, 
late  colonel  of  the  Scottis  companis  that  served  in  Holland 
under  the  obedience  of  the  Prince  of  Orange,  and  last  under 
the  commandment  of  the  Estates  in  the  Low  Countries,1  pre- 
sented to  the  Scottish  Privy  Council  a  supplication  stating 
that  after  his  return  from  service  in  the  Low  Countries,  the 
Estates  being  constrained  to  renew  the  war  for  their  just 
defence  had  sent  him  a  commission l  as  colonel  over  certain 
companies  of  footmen  of  this  nation  under  his  regiment  to 
be  levied  and  transported  there,  and  asking  licence  to  '  strike 
drummis,  display  handsenzies,  and  lift  and  collect  the  said 
companies.'  The  council,  understanding  '  that  the  said 
Estaitts  hes  presentlie  ado  for  the  commonweill  and  support 
of  their  countre,  and  that  our  countremen  quhilkis  of  befoir 
hantit  in  the  wearis  are  desyrous  to  be  in  service,1  remembering 
also  '  how  honorablie  and  thankfullie  they  were  dealt  with  be 
the  saidis  Estaitis  at  their  last  being  in  Brabant  and  departing 
thairfra,1  granted  the  desired  licence  to  Captain  Hary  Balfour 
and  the  Captains  chosen  by  him,  each  to  levy  '  twa  hundrieth 
wageit  men  of  weir1  under  conditions  similar  to  those  of  1573. 
Captain  Preston's  Bond  (printed  in  full  in  the  P.  C.  Register} 
contains  the  additional  condition  6  that  he  shall  not  take  away 
in  his  company  any  landit  men  prohibit  to  depart  by  Act  of 
Parliament  without  special  licence.1 

Though  the  commission  refers  to  ten  companies,  fourteen 


1  The  commission,  dated  Brussels,  8th  September  1577,  and  designing  Balfour 
as  'chief  et  Colonell  de,  dix  enseignes  de  pretons  [Ppietons]  Escossoyes,'  is 
engrossed  in  the/*.  C.  Itegistei .  See  vol.  ii.  p.  641. 


14  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

were  actually  levied  and  the  dates  of  the  licences  and  names 
of  the  captains  were  as  follows  : — 

Sept.  23.     Alexander  Campbell  (his  cautioners  being  Kennedy 

of  Bargany  and  Bellenden  of  Stonehouse). 
Oct    16.     Capt.  John  Ramsay. 
j,     16.         „     Edward  Preston  (cautioner  David  Preston  of 

that  Ilk). 

„      17.         „     Henry  Balfour  (his  cautioner  being  Michael 
Balfour  of  Montquhanney,  afterwards  the 
first  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh), 
„      17.         „     David  Murray  (of  Hillfield).  * 
„     18.         „     Robert  Masterton. 
„     22.         ,,     Henry  Acheson  (cautioner,  A.  Acheson  of 

Gosford). 

„      22.         „     Patrick  Acheson. 
„     22.         „     Adam  Montgomery  of  Braidstane. 
„     23.         „     James   Oliphant  (cautioner,  Laurence  Lord 

Oliphant). 

„     23.         „     David  Spalding. 
„     26.         „     Andrew  Traill. 
Nov.  19.         )>     Thomas  Newton. 
Dec.    4.         „     Patrick  Ogilvie. 

In  the  following  year  Captain  John  Strachan  received  a  similar 
licence  on  21st  August. 

The  companies  must  have  been  rapidly  raised,  for  on  24th 
November  the  Flemish  general,  La  Motte,  sent  Colonel  Balfour's 
secretary  to  receive  the  money  intended  for  the  masters  of  the 
ships  which  had  brought  the  Scots  into  the  country.2  They 
were  at  once  sent  to  the  front.  In  December  some  Walloon 
soldiers  reported  that  ten  or  eleven  companies  of  Scots  who 
should  join  the  other  troops  at  Ruremonde  were  still  '  a  Fentour 
de  St.  Tron.*1  On  9th  January  it  was  reported  from  Namur  that 
troops  could  not  be  spared,  because  the  camp  of  the  Estates 
was  so  near  and  reinforced  by  four  thousand  Scots. 

In  the  army  now  assembled,  says  Lettenhove,  '  elle  mette  en 
ligne  treize  enseignes  d^Ecossais.1  They  were  practically  for  the 


1  See  P.  C.  Register,  25th  February  1580-81,  vol.  iii.  p.  359. 

2  Gachard's  Actes  des  Etats  Generaux. 


INTRODUCTORY  15 

first  time  in  the  open  to  face  in  a  pitched  battle  the  most 
highly  trained,  best  equipped,  and  fiercest  soldiery  of  the 
century.  For  the  Scottish  regiment  the  fight  was  not  to  be 
that  of  a  fair  field,  but  their  experience  of  the  stroke  of  Parma, 
and  of  the  Spanish  and  Italian  cavalry,  was  to  be  gained 

'  In  the  lost  battle 
Borne  down  by  the  flying.' 

On  the  last  day  of  January  1578  the  army  of  the  Estates  was 
falling  back  towards  Gemblours,  closely  followed  by  the  Spanish 
array.  The  thirteen  Scottish  companies,  with  some  English, 
formed  part  of  the  '  battle '  or  main  body,  and  the  force  was 
marching  with  large  advanced  and  rear  guards.  Its  course  led 
it  along  the  margin  of  a  boggy  and  almost  impassable  ravine, 
and  the  Prince  of  Parma  observed  that  the  order  of  the  troops 
composing  the  rearguard  was  loosened  and  invited  attack. 
Without  a  moment's  hesitation,  he  sent  word  to  Don  John  to 
support  him,  and  led  the  Spanish  cavalry  across  the  ravine, 
breathed  his  horses,  and  swept  down  on  the  cavalry  of  the 
Estates.  They  and  the  infantry  of  the  rearguard  were  broken 
and  driven  in  upon  the  main  body,  and  the  flying  cavalry  not 
only  burst  through  the  formation,  but  actually  rode  down  the 
men  of  the  main  body.  They  were  followed  by  the  furious 
Spanish  charge,  and  in  a  few  minutes  the  army  of  the  Estates 
was  routed.  '  En  vain,'  says  Lettenhove, '  les  Escossois  opposent- 
ils  une  courageuse  resistance.'  The  magnitude  of  their  loss 
indicates  that  they  fought  longest,  but  the  only  result  was  that 
they  suffered  more  than  those  who  were  fighting  for  their  own 
hearths  and  homes.  '  La  plus  grand  tuerie,'  says  Meteren,  '  se 
fit  des  Escossois  et  autres  qui  y  estoient  de  la  parti  des  Etats  de 
Hollande  et  Zealande.  Le  Sieur  de  Montigny  et  Balfour,  colonel 
des  Escossois  se  comportans  valeureusement  eschapperent  en 
combattant.'  'The  greatest  loss,'  says  Le  Petit,  'fell  upon 
Balfour's  Scottish  regiment,  who  was  there  wounded  and  saved 
himself,  as  did  the  Lord  of  Montigny,  after  having  first  done 
well  all  that  was  possible.'  The  number  of  the  prisoners  was 
small  compared  to  that  of  the  dead,  but  their  fate  was  no 
better,  for  though  Cabrera  asserts  that  Don  John  liberated  the 
Scottish  prisoners,  Tassis,  one  of  his  leading  officers  and 


16  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

councillors  who  was  present,  expressly  states  that  c  the  greater 
part  of  the  captives  who  were  Scots  were  afterwards  thrown  off 
the  bridge  at  Namur  into  the  river,'  while  the  other  historians 
declare  that  the  prisoners  were  all  hung.  The  probability  is 
that  all  were  killed,  and  that,  as  at  Haarlem,  the  Spaniards 
showed  their  impartiality  between  the  two  alternatives  of 
suffocation.  The  result  of  the  victory  was  that  several 
important  places  fell  into  the  hands  of  Don  John.  '  Louvain,' 
says  Strada,  '  not  awaiting  a  summons,  turning  out  the  Scottish 
garrison,  rendered  themselves  to  Gonzaga  of  their  own  accord. 
To  Mechlin  and  Vilvoorde,1  newly  garrisoned  by  the  States, 
Gonzaga  came  too  late.1 

The  States  set  themselves  to  raise  fresh  forces.  '  Depuis 
furent  aussi  decretez  nouveaux  regimens  d'Angleterre  et 
d'Ecosse.'2  4  Colonel  Stuart,'  says  Le  Petit,  '  with  his  regiment 
of  Scots  returning  from  Dantzig,  where  he  had  been  in  the 
service  of  the  city  and  commonwealth  against  the  King  of 
Poland,  was  accepted  by  the  States-General.1 3  The  Belgian 
merchants  in  London  in  March  found  the  means  to  enable 
one  hundred  and  twenty  Scots  '  come  back  from  the  defeat '  to 
return  to  the  Low  Countries,  and  embarked  them  for  Antwerp  ; 
while  in  April  King  James  wrote  saying  that  he  attended  to 
the  desire  expressed  through  the  conservator  George  Hacquet, 
'  touching  the  countermandment  of  some  companies  which  had 
made  themselves  ready  to  go  to  the  service  of  the  States.'4 
Exactly  six  months  after  the  rout  of  Gemblours,  the  hostile 
armies  again  confronted  each  other  near  the  little  village  of 
Rymenant  in  the  vicinity  of  Mechlin.  The  army  of  the  States 

1  Lettenhove  mentions  Colonel  Stuart  as  at  Vilvoorde,  and  Colonel  Preston  at 
Bruges. 

2  Renom  de  France. 

8  It  would  seem  that  he  had  previously  served  in  Holland.  On  roth  October 
1575  he  had  written  to  Lord  Burghley  stating  that,  '  having  received  commission 
from  the  Prince  to  serve  with  300  soldiers  of  his  own  nation,  being  in  doubt  to 
find  arms  ready,  or  of  reasonable  prices  in  Scotland,  he  desires  that  he  may  have 
licence  to  transport  out  of  England  100  corselets  with  pikes,  and  200  calivers  with 
their  furniture.'  On  4th  June  1577,  a  request  of  William  Stuart,  Scottish  gentle- 
man, captain  of  two  companies,  and  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Scottish  regiment, 
had  been  presented  to  the  States-General. — Res.  of  States-General.  As  to 
him  and  his  claims,  see,  infra,  p.  115. 

4  Actes  des  Etats  Generaiix. 


INTRODUCTORY  17 

occupied  a  strong  position,  and  in  advance  was  posted  Colonel 
John  Norris  with  the  English  and  Scottish  troops,  which  had 
only  arrived  an  hour  before  after  a  long  march  which  they  had 
made  to  join  the  army.  The  battle  began  very  gently  at  first 
between  the  Spanish  and  English,  then  cavalry  on  both  sides 
joined  in,  and  'Robert  Stuart1  bringing  up  with  him  some 
Scots  foot,  Don  John  sent  in  Ferdinando  de  Toledo  with  the 
rest  of  those  active  foot  under  his  command,'*  and  followed  with 
his  main  body.  Parma  led  the  attack  in  person,  seizing  a  pike 
from  a  soldier,  and  assailed  by  both  horse  and  foot  the  Scots 
and  English  fell  back,  '  sometimes  retiring,  sometimes  facing 
about  and  tiring.'  They  set  fire  to  the  village  and  Parma, 
observing  the  order  of  their  retirement,  began  to  suspect  its 
object,  and  before  long  found  himself  in  face,  not  only  of  the 
Scots  and  English,  who  had  taken  up  a  new  position  supported 
by  the  artillery,  but  of  the  whole  army  of  the  Estates.  The 
brave  Spanish  foot  and  the  mixed  cavalry  again  attacked,  but 
after  a  fierce  struggle,  Don  John,  declining  to  commit  his  whole 
force  to  an  assault  on  an  entrenched  position  strongly  held, 
drew  off  his  army  and  retired.  '  Some  companies  of  Scots,1  says 
Strada,  '  made  themselves  remarkable,  who  either  in  bravery 
or  not  able  to  endure  the  heat  of  their  running  and  the  day, 
the  sun  putting  the  whole  sky  into  a  flame,  stripped  them- 
selves, contented  only  with  their  shirts,  some  casting  pff  these 
too,  and  tying  them  about  their  middles,  came  on  naked 
among  the  armed  men.'  But  the  author  of  a  work  of  last 
century,2  who  had  served  in  the  Scots  Brigade,  says,  '  What 
Strada  mentions  of  the  Scots  in  that  battle  throwing  away 
their  cloaths  and  fighting  naked  was  no  more  than  the 
Highlanders  throwing  aside  their  plaids  to  be  less  embarrassed, 
after  having  brought  the  vanguard  of  Don  John's  army  into 
the  ambuscade  that  was  laid  for  them,  and  where  they  suffered 
greatly,  but  Strada  deals  much  in  the  marvellous  and  makes 
mysteries  of  very  plain  facts.'3  According  to  the  Dutch 


1  Sic,  Strada. 

2  Strictures  on  Military  Discipline,  with  some  account  of  the  Scots  Brigade  in 
the  Dutch  Service. 

3  Meteren  says,   'C  'etoit  un  jour  auquel  il  faisoit  une   fort  grand  chaleur, 
tellement  que  les  Ecossois  et  autres  soldats  se  despouillerent  et  combattirent  en 

B 


18  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

authorities  the  action  lasted  nearly  eight  hours,  and  the 
Spaniards  left  1000  dead  upon  the  field.  A  few  days  after- 
wards Colonel  La  Garde  with  500  French  arquebusiers,  and 
Colonel  Balfour  with  1000  Scots  took  the  town  of  Aerschot, 
Don  John's  army  being  only  two  leagues  distant. 

The  year  1579  marked  the  development  of  another  stage  in 
the  history  of  the  Netherlands,  and  the  substantial  separation 
of  the  country  into  the  future  Dutch  Republic  on  the  one  hand 
and  the  future  Belgian  provinces  on  the  other.  Already  on 
29th  December  1578  the  Union  of  Utrecht,  by  which  the 
northern  provinces  of  Holland,  Zealand,  Gelderland,  Utrecht, 
Friesland,  Overyssel,  Groningen,  and,  for  the  time  being,  Ghent, 
drew  more  closely  together,  had  been  formed,  and  the  founda- 
tions of  the  future  United  Netherlands  laid.  The  Walloon 
provinces,  on  the  contrary,  were  in  negotiation  with  the  Prince 
of  Parma.  Indeed,  the  main  bond  of  the  larger  union  had  been 
the  fear  of  the  Spanish  troops.  The  southern  provinces  were 
Catholic  in  sentiment,  and  the  fear  of  the  Spanish,  Italian,  and 
German  troops  on  the  royal  side  was  succeeded  by  an  active 
jealousy  of  the  Scots,  English,  and  French  troops,  who  fought 
so  well  under  the  banners  of  the  Estates.  'The  nobles  of 
Flanders  were  disgusted,1  says  Renom  de  France,  '  because  the 
Prince  of  Orange  preferred  Englishmen,  Scots,  French,  and 
Germans  to  military  command,  and  held  them  in  too  much 
state  and  esteem.1  The  numbers  of  the  foreign  troops,  in- 
cluding the  Scots,  had  been  considerably  increased,1  and  there 

chemise,  laquelle  ils  attacherent  entres  les  jambes,  et  firent  tout  ce  qui  se  pouvoit 
faire  pour  se  defendre  centre  un  si  grand  nombre  de  gens  qui  tous  estoyent  gens 
experimented  et  vieux  soldats.  Le  Colonel  Jean  Norris,  fils  du  Lord  Rycort,  se 
porta  fort  bravement  avec  ses  Anglois.  .  .  .  Semblablement  les  Escossois  sous  le 
Colonel  Stewart  et  autres.'  Le  Petit  says  :  '  A  la  premiere  charge  les  Colonels 
Norreys,  Anglois,  et  Balfour,  Ecossois,  avec  leur  gens  (dont  aucuns  combat- 
tirent  nuds  en  chemise  comme  ils  se  rafreschissoyent  du  travail  du  grand  chemin 
qu'ils  avoyent  fait  pour  se  rendre  a  1'armee)  se  monstrerent  fort  valeureuse  et  y 
firent  paroistre  leur  vertu  a  les  repousser  et  puis  a  les  poursuyvre.'  Cerisier  also 
notes  the  fact  that  the  Scots  fought  '  en  chemise. '  Renom  de  France  says,  '  Ceci 
arresta  bien  le  progres  du  Seigneur  Don  Juan.' 

1  In  the  Appendix  to  Renom  de  France's  Histoire  des  l^roubles  des  Pays 
Bas  is  given  a  state  ('dresse'  in  1579)  of  the  forces  of  the  enemy,  'estans 
presentement  tant  a  Wervy  qu'a  1'environ  sous  la  conduicte  du  seigneur  de  la 
Noue,'  which  contains  the  following: — 'huict  compagnies  d'Anglois  sous  le 
Coronel  Norris.' .  .  .  '  dix-huict  compagnies  escossoises  le  seze  soulz  le  Coronnel 


INTRODUCTORY  19 

were  difficulties  with  them  owing  to  their  pay  not  being  forth- 
coming. On  the  3rd  of  January  it  was  resolved1  that  the 
Count  Hohenlo  should  command  in  chief  in  the  town  of 
Maestricht,  Colonel  Balfour  being  there  with  his  regiment,  to 
whom  the  best  contentment  that  it  shall  be  possible  to  make 
shall  be  given.  In  March  there  was  a  complaint  from  Mechlin 
of  the  depredations  of  the  Scots  and  English  soldiers,  and  the 
important  city  of  Bois-le-Duc  was  lost  to  the  Estates,  because 
of  its  refusal  to  admit  any  of  the  English,  Scots,  and  French 
troops  sent  to  it  from  Brussels,  although  it  was  invited  to 
select  from  the  three  nationalities  tendered.  The  arrangement 
for  the  command  and  garrison  of  Maestricht  was  not  carried 
out  when  the  Prince  of  Parma  laid  siege  to  it.  On  the  2nd 
of  March  he  advanced  on  Antwerp.  His  army  was  withstood 
at  Borgherhout  by  forty  ensigns,  '  tant  Walons,  Francois  et 
Anglois  que  Escossois,1  who  skirmished  well  for  two  hours,  till 
the  odds  being  too  great,  they  set  fire  to  the  village  of 
Borgherhout,  and  retired  fighting  to  a  position  under  the  walls 
of  Antwerp,  where  the  advance  was  checked  by  the  fire  of  the 
cannon.  The  engagement  lasted  till  evening,  more  than  400 
men  being  killed,  mostly  on  the  side  of  the  Spaniards,  and  was 
witnessed  from  the  walls  by  the  Archduke  Mathias  and  the 
Prince  of  Orange.  With  characteristic  rapidity  Parma  moved 
his  army  from  the  west  to  the  eastern  side  of  the  theatre  of 
war,  and  commenced  his  famous  siege  of  Maestricht,  the 
garrison  of  which  consisted  only  of  1000  men,  '  tant  Francois, 
Walons,  Escossois,  qu^autres,'  aided  by  1200  well-armed 
burgesses  and  2000  peasants.  After  a  heroic  defence  of  four 
months  it  was  carried  by  assault,  and  '  peu  de  soldats  des  Etats 
en  eschapperent  que  tout  ne  fut  tueV 2 

The  Walloon  provinces  were  finally  reconciled  to  Spain  in 
the  summer  of  1579,  but  part  of  Brabant  and  Flanders  adhered 
to  the  Prince  of  Orange.  On  the  22nd  of  October,  a  gallant 


Balfour  et  deux  venues  depuis,  a  cent  hommes  chascune  compagnie  tant 
harquebouziers  que  piques  font  en  tout  deux  mil  hommes  combattans.'  .  .  .  '  Et 
si  attendent  le  regiment  du  Corronel  Stuart  de  huict  compagnies  escossoises  qui 
font  huict  cens  hommes  combattans  parti  picques  et  harquebouziers.'  .  .  . 
*  Cavallerie  .  .  .  autres  soixante  chevaulx  escossois  en  la  forme  de  leur  pays,' 
1  Actes  des  Etats  Generazix.  2  Le  Petit. 


20  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

piece  of  service  was  performed  by  Colonel  Balfour  and  his  Scots. 
Information  had  reached  Bruges  that  it  was  feasible  to  surprise 
Menin,  and  scaling-ladders  having  been  secretly  prepared  at  a 
country-house  of  the  Burgomaster's,  Colonel  Balfour  left  Bruges 
on  the  evening  of  the  21st,  picked  up  his  Scots  companies  at 
Roosendaal,  and  before  four  o'clock  in  the  morning,  was  under 
the  walls  of  Menin,  with  a  brewer  of  the  town  who  had  been 
persecuted  by  the  Walloons  as  his  guide.  At  the  same  time 
four  companies  from  Courtray  arrived  at  the  other  side  of  the 
town  in  boats,  and  as  four  o'clock  sounded  the  ramparts  were 
simultaneously  escaladed,  the  sentinels  driven  in,  the  guard 
defeated,  and  the  town  taken.1  Curiously  enough  at  the  same 
time  the  Walloon  forces  in  the  neighbourhood  and  part  of 
the  garrison  of  Menin  were  engaged  in  a  similar  attempt  on 
Courtray,  which  was  defeated  owing  to  their  leader  hearing  the 
commander  of  Courtray,  who  was  listening  for  the  alarm  at 
Menin,  ask  a  sentinel  if  he  heard  anything,  and  on  being  told 
'  no,'  reply  '  the  time  is  near.'  In  Menin  the  Scots  secured  a 
large  amount  of  booty  which  the  Walloons  had  collected  there. 
On  the*16th  November,  it  fell  to  the  Scots  captains  '  Seton  and 
Mornou '  to  conduct  to  Menin  the  prisoners  taken  by  De  la 
Noue  in  a  cavalry  action  near  Halewijn.2 

1  Renom  de  France  says,  '  D'ailleurs  1'opinion  des  capitaines  du  Roy  portoit 
que  Menin  surprinse  mal  a  propos  faisoit  beaucoup  de  mal  a  toutes  les  provinces 
reconciliees.' 

2  In  the  '  Estat  des  gens  de  guerre  servans  aux  Etats  revokes,  la  soulde  d'iceux 
et  repartissement  des  provinces,'  given  by  Renom  de  France  (Jan.  1580). 

Among  the  troops  assigned  to  be  paid  by  Flanders  were  : 

'Les  1 8  compagnies  Escossois  du  Colonel  Balfour. 

Treize  compagnies  Anglois  du  Colonel  Noritz. 

Et  les  compagnies  de  Setton,  Mornault,  etc.' 

(An  item  of  Colonel  Henry  Balfour's  estate  (given  up  in  eik  dated  7th  January 
1593)  was  a  debt  of  'ane  thousand  florence'  due  to  him  by  '  Capt.  Henry 
Seytoun. ') 

Among  those  assigned  to  Zealand  were  : 

'  Cinq  compagnies  du  Colonel  Stuart  Escossois. 

Les  compagnies  fussent  estoffees  de  cent  cinquante  testes,  avec  les  capitaines 
et  officiers  traictez  comme  s'ensuit. 

Le  capitaine  par  mois  90  liv.,  le  lieutenant  a  45  liv.,  1'enseigne  a  40  liv., 
deux  sergeants  a  raison  de  24  liv.  chascun,  quattre  caporaux  a  16  liv.,  fourrier 
our  clercq  12^,  deux  tambours  chascun  12  liv.,  un  chirurgien  a  12^,  montant  en 
effet  chascune  compagnie  a  1700  liv.' 

The  captains  of  Stuart's  regiment  appear  from  the  documents  afterwards  sub- 


INTRODUCTORY  21 

In  January  1580,  Parma  took  by  assault  the  castle  of 
Mortagne,  which  was  garrisoned  by  three  companies  of  Scots 
and  English.  There  were  Scots  companies  in  the  force  of  the 
gallant  La  Noue,  when  he  was  defeated  and  taken  prisoner  at 
Ingelmunster  in  May.  And  in  November,  Balfour,  who  had  so 
long  commanded  the  oldest  Scottish  regiment,  met  a  soldier's 
death.  '  Le  Colonel  Balfour  General  des  Escossois  au  service 
des  Etats,  estans  en  garnison  a  Bruges  en  Flandre,  sortit  avec 
sa  compagnie  de  Cavallerie,  et  attaqua  au  village  de  Wassenaar 
(du  Franc  de  Bruges)  quelque  Cavallerie  legere  du  Prince  de 
Parma  qu'il  diffit ;  mais  y  survenant  secours  Balfour  qui  n'avoit 
que  soixante  chevaux  apres  avoir  vaillament  combattu,  fut 
defait  et  tue,  non  toutefois  sans  grande  perte  des  Espagnols. 
Son  corps  fut  rapporte  a  Bruges  et  honorablement  enterre.  II 
fut  fort  regrette  pour  les  bons  services  qu'il  avoit  fait  en  Flandre, 
aussi  ne  mourut  il  point  pauvre.  Sa  femme  accoucha  tost  apres 
en  la  dite  ville."1 

In  February  1581,  the  town  of  Courtray  fell  owing  to  the 
dislike  of  the  townsmen  to  receive  an  addition  to  the  garrison, 
and  a  stratagem  of  the  enemy.  The  garrison  consisted  of  two 
or  three  Scottish  companies,  and  a  letter  was  written  to  the 
governor  purporting  to  be  from  friends  offering  to  introduce 
an  additional  force  secretly  by  a  little  meadow  near  the  castle. 
At  night  the  governor  going  to  receive  them  discovered  his 
mistake  when  too  late,  but  the  assailants  found  the  Scots  already 
turned  out  in  good  order  in  the  market-place,  where  they 
defended  themselves  for  four  hours,  but  were  finally  all  killed 
along  with  many  of  the  townsmen.  In  the  following  month 
the  Scots  in  garrison  at  Vilvoorden  mutinied  for  want  of  pay, 
and  drove  away  Colonel  Stuart,  their  commander,  but  with 
much  difficulty  they  were  appeased  ;  and  Stuart's  regiment  was 
afterwards  sent  with  a  French  one  to  Flanders  to  occupy  the 
attention  of  the  malcontent  element  in  that  province.  The 


mitted  by  him  to  the  States-General  to  have  been  himself,  James  Stuart,  Andrew 
Stuart,  Thomson  and  Anstruther. 

1  The  training  the  Scots  were  receiving  in  the  Netherlands  was  carefully 
watched  from  London,  for  in  the  instructions  by  Cecil  for  Sir  R.  Bowes,  dated 
i8th  Sept.  1579,  his  attention  was  called  to  the  fact  that,  'the  Scottish  nation 
is  at  this  day  stronger  in  feats  of  arms  than  it  was  aforetime,  by  reason  of  their 
exercise  in  civil  wars  at  home,  and  their  being  abroad  in  the  Low  Countries.' 


22  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

Scots  who  were  with  La  Garde  when  he  recovered  the  Chateau 
of  Baerle  from  the  malcontents  set  fire  to  it.  In  the  beginning 
of  October,  Parma  laid  siege  to  Tournay,  which  was  in  sore 
straits,  when,  in  the  end  of  November,  the  Scottish  Colonel 
Preston  set  out  from  Menin  with  thirty  horse,  '  with  a  great 
courage '  cut  his  way  through  the  lines  of  the  Germans  forming 
part  of  Parma's  force,  defeated  the  company  of  the  Prince  of 
Chimay,  took  thirty  prisoners  and  entered  the  town.  Unfor- 
tunately one  of  his  soldiers  was  heard  to  say  that  they  had 
been  to  near  Dunkirk  in  vain  to  meet  the  promised  French  suc- 
cours under  the  Duke  of  Anjou(a  mistake  because  their  leader's 
object  had  been  to  surprise  Bourbourg  or  Gravelines),1  which 
so  discouraged  the  besieged  that  it  hastened  the  surrender.2 

While  the  Prince  of  Parma  was  besieging  Oudenarde  in  the 
summer  of  1582,  a  force  consisting  almost  wholly  of  English 
under  Colonel  Norris,  and  Scots  under  Colonel  Seton,3  was  sent 
into  Flanders  and  quartered  near  Ghent,  with  the  view  of 
relieving  it.  Scottish  troops — probably  the  same — formed  part 
of  the  force  which  fell  back  fighting  before  Parma  under  the 
walls  of  Ghent,  from  which  the  Prince  of  Orange  watched  the 
combat  along  with  the  Duke  of  Anjou,  as  he  had  watched  a 
similar  one  with  the  Austrian  Archduke  Mathias  from  the 


1  See  Strictures  on  Military  Discipline ;  etc. ,  p.  69. 

2  A  document  from  the  archives  of  Ypres  of  about  this  date,  quoted  by  Letten- 
hove,  mentions  as  quartered  at  Bruges,  '  le  regiment  du  Colonel  Preston  fort  de 
dix  bannieres  de  cent  cinquante  hommes,  et  les  cornettes  du   Mauregnat,  de 
Robert  Maxwell  et  d'Archibald  Hamilton.'     Richard  Preston,  second  son  of 
Archibald  Preston,  second  baron  of  Valleyfield,  and  Giles  Semple  was  a  colonel 
in  the  service  of  the  States  of  Holland. — Douglas's  Baronage. 

In  Feb.  1584-5  Gavin  Hamilton,  brother  of  the  deceased  Captain  Archibald 
Hamilton,  brought  an  action  against  the  widow  and  William  Balfour,  son  and 
heir  of  Colonel  H.  Balfour,  for  a  sum  of  1200  guilders  Flemish  money,  and 
the  value  of  two  horses,  all  received  from  said  deceased  Captain  Archibald 
Hamilton. — Acta  et  Decreta. 

On  6th  July  1581,  a  quaint  proclamation  was  made  by  the  Scots  Privy  Council 
against  the  transport  of  loose  women  to  Flanders,  which  proceeded  on  the  pre- 
amble, that  since  His  Majesty's  subjects  went  there  to  serve,  '  thair  hes  cumit 
thairfurth  of  this  realm  many  and  divers  trowpis  and  cumpanis  of  licht  women, 
uncumly  and  indecent  in  thair  maners,  countenance,  behaviour  and  array,  not 
being  mens  wyffis  or  having  ony  necessar  knawin  effaires  or  bissyness. '  .  .  .  'to 
the  tynsale  of  the  great  reputatioun  quhilkis  the  said  subjectis  in  the  partis 
aforssaid  hes  to  thame  acquirit  sin  thair  cuming  thairto. ' 

3  Bentivoglio. 


INTRODUCTORY  23 

defences  of  Antwerp.  In  August  of  that  year  Captain  William 
Sempill,  and  his  brother,  who  was  his  lieutenant,  treacherously 
betrayed  the  town  of  Lier  to  the  enemy,  '  pour  se  venger  de 
quelque  disreputation  ou  tort  (selon  qu'il  disoit)  les  Etats  luy 
avoient  faict.' l 

In  January  1583  occurred  the  treacherous  attempt  of  the 
Duke  of  Anjou  to  make  himself  unfettered  master  of  Antwerp, 
which  was  known  as  the  French  Fury.  When  the  subsequent 
accommodation  was  made  between  the  Estates  and  the  Duke, 
the  English  and  Scottish  troops  who  had  mutinied  in  the  '  pais 
de  Waes,'  taken  prisoners,  and  held  the  principal  inhabitants 
to  ransom,  took- the  same  oath  as  the  French,  moved  from  the 
country  of  Waes  towards  Rupelmonde,  and  crossed  the  Scheldt 
to  succour  Eindhoven,  now  besieged  by  the  Prince  of  Parma. 
There  were  Scots  in  the  army  which  took  the  Chateau  de 
Viersel,  but  it  was  too  late  to  save  Eindhoven,  which  fell  on 
the  23rd  of  April,  having  been  defended  by  some  French  and 
Scots  companies  '  qui  s'acqui  tterent  fidelement  de  leur  devoir 
tant  a  fortifier  qu'a  tenir  la  place.'  On  the  20th  of  June, 
Parma,  having  learned  that  there  were  differences  between  the 
English  and  the  Scots  on  one  side,  and  the  French  on  the  other, 
in  the  army  under  Marechal  Biron,  which  lay  at  Roosendaal, 
attacked  it  suddenly  and  defeated  it.  Several  places  in  Flanders 
having  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  to  prevent  which 
the  Scots  and  other  troops,  sent  by  the  Prince  of  Orange,  had 
been  despatched  too  late,  the  authorities  of  Bruges  sent  to 
Colonel  Boyd,  '  whom  they  had  themselves  made  colonel,1 2  and 
persuaded  him  to  come  to  Bruges  with  his  regiment  of  Scots, 
which  was  in  their  pay,  and  abandon  Menin,  where  he  had 
been  in  garrison.  In  the  following  year  the  Prince  of  Chimay, 
who  had  temporarily  joined  the  party  of  the  Estates  and  had 
been  made  Governor  of  Flanders,  and  Colonel  Boyd,  with 
apparently  the  approval  of  the  majority  of  the  citizens,  who 
were  mostly  Catholics,  changed  the  magistracy,  with  the  result 

1  Meteren.    See  note  2,  p.  26.    According  to  a  document,  quoted  by  Lettenhove, 
dated  4th  Dec.   1582  (Arch,  of  Bruges),  the  army  of  the  Estates  then  contained 
13  cornets  of  English  and  13  of  Scots.     There  were  20  German,  54  French, 
and  1 8  raised  in  the  country. 

2  Meteren. 


24  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

that  Bruges  also  became  'reconciled  to  the  king.'  But  the 
Dutch  historian  notes  that  the  most  part  of  the  Scottish 
soldiery  and  captains  did  not  bear  the  Prince  much  affection, 
and  when  they  left  the  town  and  were  offered  employment 
under  Parma,  only  Colonel  Boyd  and  some  captains  would 
accept  it.  Shortly  before  the  English  garrison  of  Alost,  being 
unable  to  get  their  arrears,  had  sold  the  town  to  Parma,  and 
taken  service  under  the  Spanish  colours.  An  attempt  was 
made  to  play  a  similar  game  at  Ghent,  but  it  was  unsuccessful, 
and  among  the  persons  compromised  were  the  Englishman 
Rowland  Yorke,  who  was  afterwards  the  author  of  a  greater 
treason,  and  Seton,  a  Scottish  lieutenant,  who  confessed  that  he 
had  been  with  Parma,  and  promised  to  deliver  Denremonde.1 

On  the  10th  July  1584,  William  the  Silent,  Prince  of  Orange, 
perished  by  the  pistol  of  the  assassin  Gerard.  The  progress  of 
the  Prince  of  Parma  in  reducing  the  southern  provinces  had 
been  so  far  successful  that  he  now  proceeded  to  take  the  pre- 
liminary steps  for  the  reduction  of  Antwerp.  Three  leagues 
below  the  city,  on  the  opposite  banks  of  the  Scheldt,  were  two 
forts,  Lillo  and  Liefkenshoeck,  built  to  secure  the  passage  of  the 
river.  Liefkenshoeck  was  carried  by  storm  on  the  day  of  the 
Prince  of  Orange's  death,  but  Lillo  was  gallantly  held  by 
Teligny,  son  of  the  brave  De  la  Noue.  The  Spaniards  planted 
four  pieces  of  artillery  against  it,  on  a  dyke,  but  just  then  the 
Zealanders  sent  four  Scottish  companies  under  the  conduct 
of  Colonel  Balfour,2  who,  having  entered  the  fort,  as  soon 
as  the  garrison  perceived  the  enemy  and  the  position  he  had 
occupied  at  once  made  a  sortie  to  capture  the  cannon.  But  the 
dyke  was  very  narrow  and  the  enemy's  trenches  strong  against 
assault,  and  they  could  not  push  their  attack  so  far.  However, 
they  killed  a  good  three  hundred  of  his  men,  and  returned 
bringing  as  their  prisoner  the  principal  miner,  who  revealed 
all  the  mines  that  had  been  prepared.3  The  fort  made  so  good 
a  defence  that  Parma  ultimately  gave  up  attempting  to  take 


J  Meteren. 

2  Barthold  or  Bartholomew  Balfour,  who   served  till  1594,  and  is  found  in 
1603  acting  as  factor  to  the  first  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh.     Renom  de  France 
says  that  '  a  la  suite  de  certains  differends  il  se  retira  en  1 594. ' 

3  Meteren. 


INTRODUCTORY  25 

it,  and  afterwards  said  that  but  for  the  way  Lillo  had  been  held 
he  would  have  had  Antwerp  six  months  sooner. 

The  respite  of  Antwerp  was  not  for  long.  Ghent  having 
been  '  reconciled,'  and  all  Flanders  subjugated,  Parma  re- 
turned, and  the  famous  siege  began  in  earnest.  The  Scots 
bore  their  part  manfully  in  the  defence.  Among  those 
who  fell  in  the  fight  at  Austruweel  on  13th  August  was 
Captain  Gordon.  After  Teligny  was  taken  prisoner,  in  the 
attempt  to  reach  Zealand  and  lay  the  need  of  the  garrison 
before  their  countrymen,  Captain  Prop  went  successfully 
on  the  same  dangerous  mission;  and  in  the  bloody  struggle 
on  the  Kowenstyn  Dyke  the  side  next  the  river  was  committed 
to  the  English  and  Scots.  Parma  himself  had  to  leap  to  the 
waist  in  water  with  a  pike  in  his  hand,  '  when  he  saw  that  his 
men  would  go  no  more  to  the  charge  on  that  side,  seeing  that 
the  English  and  Scots  were  there  doing  their  duty  so  well.1  x 
When  owing  to  the  flinching  of  the  Dutchmen  on  the  other 
side,  the  islanders  had  sullenly  to  fall  back,  they  left  many 
dead  on  the  bloodstained  dyke.  '  The  English  and  Scots  under 
Balfour  and  Morgan,'  says  Motley,  who,  writing  at  a  time  when 
the  echoes  of  the  Trent  affair  were  scarcely  stilled,  generally 
shows  scant  appreciation  of  the  British  services  to  the  Nether- 
lands, '  were  the  very  last  to  abandon  the  position  which  they 
had  held  so  manfully  seven  hours  long/  2 

It  would  seem  that  Scottish  soldiers  also  took  part  in  Count 
Hohenlo's  unsuccessful  attempt  upon  Bois-le-Duc,  for  when 
Cleerhaghen,  the  guide  of  the  enterprise,  leapt  into  the  moat 
after  all  was  lost,  he  was  saved  by  a  Scottish  soldier. 

If  Napoleon's  maxim  was  that  'Antwerp  in  French  hands 
was  a  pistol  held  at  the  head  of  England,'  its  capture  by  the 
Spaniards  was  sufficient  to  spur  Queen  Elizabeth  to  action. 
The  Earl  of  Leicester  landed  with  a  large  auxiliary  force,  and 
was  made  Governor  -  General  and  Captain  -  General  of  the 
Netherlands.  Scots  troops  were  detailed  to  share  in  the  as- 
sault when  he  took  Doesburg  in  September  1586,  but  the 
achievements  of  the  campaign  were  unequal  to  the  excellence 

1  Meteren. 

2  Captain  James,  one  of  the  English  officers,  wrote,  that  after  the  Dutch  gave 
way  '  the  Scots  seeing  them  to  retire  left  their  string.     The  enemy  pursued  very 
hotly :  the  Englishmen  stood  to  repulse  and  were  most  put  to  the  sword.' 


26  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

of  the  force  at  his  command,  and  before  long  the  relations 
between  him,  Prince  Maurice  of  Orange,  and  the  other  officers 
in  the  service  of  the  States  in  the  days  of  William  the  Silent, 
were  strained.  Renom  de  France  mentions  Colonel  Balfour 
among  those  to  whom  Leicester  'se  rendit  bientot  odieux,'1 
and  the  delivery  of  the  city  of  Gueldres  to  the  enemy  by 
Colonel  Aristotle  Patton,2  in  January  1587,is  stated  byMeteren 
to  have  been  an  act  of  vengeance,  because  '  Leicester  estoit 
corrouce  contre  luy  et  qu'il  avoit  menace  de  vouloir  mettre 
Stuart  en  sa  place.'  Scots  troops  were  in  the  force  which 
in  Leicester's  absence  Prince  Maurice  led  to  Brabant  with  the 
intention  of  relieving  Sluys,  and  marched  to  meet  the  earl  on 
his  return  to  Zealand.  On  the  final  departure  of  Leicester, 

1  Renom  de  France  says  that  the  old  'chefs  de  guerre,'  including  Balfour, 
'  tous  se  joindirent  aux  Contes  Maurice  de  Nassau  et  Hohenlo.' 

Leicester  himself  confirms  this. — '  1586,  nth  July. — I  have  no  liking  for 
Balford  here,  he  is  a  bad  fellow,  and  wholly  at  others'  direction  and  not  mine  : 
indeed,  if  the  Master  of  Gray  come  not,  he  will  look  to  be  colonell-generall  over 
them  all,  which  I  will  no  way  consent  to. ' — Leicester  Correspondence. 

2  The  booty  acquired  by  the  famous  freebooter,  Colonel  Schenck,  in  whose 
absence  Patton  was  commanding  the  garrison,  and  against  whom  also  he  had  a 
grievance,  was  appropriated  by  Patton,  to  which  the  proverb  was  applied,  '  Du 
diable  vient  au  diable  vat. '     '  Ce  Patton,'  says  Le  Petit,  *  par  le  moyen  de  son 
grand  argent  en  telle  sorte  acquis  epousa  la  veuve  diseteuse  du  feu  Penthus  de 
Noyelle  Sr.  de  Bours  qui  aida  ci  arracher  le  chasteau  d'Anvers  des  mains  de 
1'Espagnol :  Ceste  Dame  estoit  de  la  maison  de  Bieure  que  le  Sr.  de  Champaigny 
pensoit  bien  epouser,  mais  ses  gouttes  et  1'argent  de  Patton  Ten  empescherent  le 
soir  mesmes  qu'il  la  devoit  affiancer.'    Shortly  before  his  death,  in  1589,  Schenck 
encountered  and  defeated   Patton,  who  only  saved  himself  by  swimming  his 
horse  across  the  Lippe.     In  a  list  of  the  army  of  the  Prince  of  Parma  in  1588, 
after  the  Spanish,  Italian,  German,  and  Walloon  infantry,  there  came  '  Irlandais 
regiment  du  Sr.  de  Stanley,  Ecossois  regiment  de  Paton  entremesle  de  Walons.' 
Meteren  says  (hat  in  the  army  for  the  invasion  of  England  were  eight  companies 
of  Scots,  and  that  Captain  Sempill,  who  had  surrendered  Lier,  was  sent  to  Scot- 
land.    He  was  a  frequent  intermediary  between  the  Spanish  Court  and  the 
Catholic  earls.     On  15th  February  1588-89,  Thomas  Pringall,  who  had  served 
twelve  years,  four  under  the  States,  and  the  rest  under  the  Duke  of  Parma,  was 
executed  at  Edinburgh.     He  had  been  sent  by  Colonel  Sempill  to  the  Earl  of 
Huntly  before  Christmas,  and  had  been  in  Scotland  with  Sempill  the  preceding 
Easter,  when  Sempill  '  escaped  by  his  mother  sending  him  a  rope,  by  which  he 
conveyed  himself  out  of  a  window,  being  lodged  in  one  Gurley's  house.'   Colonel 
Sempill  was,  it  is  thought,  a  son  of  David  Sempill  first  of  Craigbet,  brother  of 
the  third  Lord  Sempill.     See  '  Colonel  William  Sempill,'  Scotsman,  loth  August 
1896,  by  T.  G.  L.     For  a  full  account  of  his  betrayal  of  Lier,  see  '  Geschiedens 
der  Stadt  Lier?  by  Anton  Bergmann. 


INTRODUCTORY  27 

the  conduct  of  the  war  fell  wholly  into  the  able  hands  of 
Prince  Maurice,  and  the  Scottish  regiment  is  to  be  found 
almost  continually  in  the  army  with  which  he  won  his  triumphs. 
Upon  the  destruction  of  the  Spanish  Armada,  the  Duke  of 
Parma  turned  the  fine  army  he  had  amassed  to  work  at  home, 
and  promptly  besieged  Bergen-op-Zoom.1  Scots  were  sent  to 
the  city  from  Brill  and  Ostend,  and  on  llth  November, 
Balfour,  coming  "from  Tholen  with  500  picked  men  'tant  gens 
du  pais-bas  que  Escossois,'  co-operated  with  a  sortie  made  by 
the  garrison.2  During  the  following  night  Parma  raised  the 
siege. 

The  services  of  the  Scottish  troops  in  the  campaigns  of 
1589  and  1590  are  not  specially  recorded  by  the  historians ; 
but  'Balfour,  Colonel  of  the  Scots,  with  ten  ensigns,'3  was 
present  at  the  sieges  of  Zutphen,  Deventer,  Hulst,  and  Nime- 
guen  in  1591.  In  February  1592  the  Estates  sent  Count 
Philippe  of  Nassau  with  his  regiment  and  the  Scottish  regi- 
ment of  Balfour,  making  in  all  twenty  companies,  to  the 
assistance  of  Henry  iv.  of  France.  In  1593  Balfour's  regi- 
ment was  again  with  Prince  Maurice,  and  at  the  siege  of 
Gertruydenberg  it  was  posted  at  the  west  of  the  town,  the 
Scots  and  North  Hollanders  together  facing  one  of  the  great 
ravelins.4  Scots  also  took  part  in  a  fruitless  attempt  to  sur- 
prise Bruges  in  November,  when  the  troops  lost  their  way  in 
a  dark  night,  and  Balfour  himself  was  wounded  in  the  foot, 
serving  with  Count  William  of  Nassau,  in  a  skirmish  with 
Verdugo's  troops  who  were  retreating  to  Groningen. 


1  Orlers,  in  the  Lauriers  de  Nassau,  mentions  that  in  the  question  of  the 
governorship,  '  Les  Anglais  tenoyent  plus  le  parti  de  Drurij  que  de  Morgan,  les 
gens  des  Pais  Bas  et  les  Ecossais  suivayent  le  parti  de  Morgan. ' 

2  According  to  Strictures  on  Military  Discipline,  etc.,  'Colonel  Scott  com- 
manded 500  Scots  of  the  garrison  and  behaved  with  great  bravery.'    There  was, 
however,  an  English  officer  of  the  name  of  Scott. 

3  Their  position  is  marked  in  the  illustrations  in  the  Lauriers  de  Nassau.    See 
also  as  to  Zutphen,  Renom  de  France  ;  and  Deventer,  Meteren,  fol.  333. 

4  Meteren,  Orlers,  Le  Petit.     After  the  reduction,  the  Prince  'put  General 
Balfour  with  his  regiment,  which  had  suffered  greatly,  into  that  place,  giving 
him  the  command,  his  brother,  Prince  Frederick  Henry,  whom  he  appointed 
governor,  being  yet  too  young  to  have  any  command.' — Strictures  on  Military 
Discipline,  etc.  and  Hist.  Account. 


28  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

In  1594  Balfour  retired  from  the  Dutch  service,1  and  the 
command  of  his  regiment  passed  to  Colonel  Alexander  Murray. 
It  is  said  that  on  the  return  of  the  Dutch  ambassadors  from  the 
christening  of  the  Prince  of  Scotland,2  a  great  many  Scottish 
gentlemen  went  over  to  Holland,  taking  with  them  about  1500 
men.3  Murray's  regiment  ^still  of  ten  companies)  was  present  at 
the  relief  of  Coevorden  and  the  siege  of  Groningen  in  that  year. 
In  March,  Captains  Brogh  and  Egger  of  the  Scottish  regiment 
had  taken  part,  along  with  four  Dutch  captains,  in  an  enterprise 
on  Maestricht.  They  were  to  go  to  the  suburb  of  Wyck  in  large 
boats,  and  after  embarkation  cut  their  pikes  short,  having  been 
afraid  to  do  so  before  lest  cavalry  should  be  encountered  on  the 
march.  The  ends  of  the  staves  were  thrown  overboard,  and  soon 
after  the  captains  were  alarmed  by  hearing  a  fisherman  say  there 
must  be  some  of  the  enemy  about,  as  pikestaffs  were  floating 
down  the  Meuse.  They  then  heard  from  the  town  that  the 
guard  had  been  doubled,  and  resolved  to  abandon  the  enter- 
prise, Captain  Brogh  saying  that  he  was  not  going  to  lead  his 
men  to  certain  butchery.  The  captains  were  blamed  for 
their  decision,  but  Brogh  by  a  long  course  of  good  service 
showed  that,  whether  he  judged  rightly  or  wrongly  on  this 
occasion,  the  decision  was  due  to  no  want  of  courage.  Two  of 
his  fellow-officers,  Captains  Robert  Waddell  and  Melville  met 
a  soldier's  death  on  16th  July  under  the  walls  of  Groningen.4 
The  Scottish  regiment  was  in  October  1595  again  one  of  two 
sent  to  assist  Henry  iv.,  under  Justinus  of  Nassau.  A  Captain 
Balfour  also  took  part  with  Heraugiere  (the  officer  who  had 
so  cleverly  surprised  Breda  in  1589)  in  the  defence  of  Huy, 
and  Scots  troops  shared  in  the  obstinate  defence  of  Hulst  in 
1596,  Captains  Balfour  and  Egger  being  both  killed  in  repuls- 
ing one  of  the  assaults.  In  January  1597,  Murray's  regiment  of 
ten  companies  formed  part  of  the  force  under  Prince  Maurice 
at  the  victory  of  Turnhout ;  and  though  the  infantry  did  not 
arrive  in  time  to  share  in  the  fight,  Edmond  led  three  cornets 
of  cavalry  in  their  charge  on  the  regiments  of  Barlotte  and 


1  See  infra,  p.  114.  ~  See  infra,  p.  154. 

3  Strictures  on  Military  Discipline,  p.  7 1  ;  Hist.  Account. 

4  Bor,  iii.  832. 


INTRODUCTORY  29 

Hachicourt,  met  the  Spanish  cavalry  when  they  returned  to 
the  charge,  and  distinguished  himself  *  notablement.'  Two 
additional  ensigns  of  Scots  were  raised  ;  and  at  the  sieges  of 
Rheinberg,  Meurs,  Groll,  Brevoort,  Entscheiden,  and  Lingen,1 
Murray  had  twelve  companies  under  his  command.  At  Meurs 
four  companies  of  Scots  were  stationed  before  the  Kerckporte, 
and  on  the  evening  of  28th  August,  Captain  Waddell  was 
killed  in  the  trenches.  At  Brevoort  the  Scots  forced  the 
Meesterporte,  at  Lingen  they  chased  back  a  sortie  of  the 
garrison  into  the  town,  while  the  pictorial  representation  of 
the  place  bears  the  note,  '  Ici  faisoient  les  soldats  de  Morreau 
des  mines  et  combattoient  la  ville.'  In  1598  half  the  Scots 
were  left  in  the  force  detailed  by  Prince  Maurice  to  guard  the 
Bet u we.  In  1599  the  foot  companies  were  again  filled  up,  so 
that  each  company  consisted  of  150  men,  and  the  colonel's 
company  of  200,  while  among  new  cornets  of  cavalry  was  one 
of  '  Hamilton  Escossois.'  An  attempt  was  made  in  that  year 
to  secure  Nimeguen  for  the  Spaniards  by  the  exiled  Earl  of 
Bothwell,  who  was  at  Brussels.  He  had  secured  two  agents, 
one  of  them  at  least  apparently  a  Scot,  Robert  Lungden 
(Lundin),  and  they  relied  upon  corrupting  Captain  Masterton, 
who  was  in  the  town  with  four  companies  of  Scots,  and  who 
had  'been  of  the  faction  of  the  Earl  of  Bothwell  in  Scotland.' 
But  Masterton  discovered  the  affair,  and  Lungden  was  de- 
capitated at  the  Hague,  '  regretting  much  to  have  undertaken 
such  a  design.1 

The  cavalry  captain,  Edmond,  took  the  Count  Bucquoy 
prisoner  in  an  action  near  Sevenaer.  At  the  siege  of  Bommel 
the  Scots  were  at  first  lodged  upon  the  Isle  of  Voorn ;  on  the 
19th  of  May,  Colonel  Murray  being  on  the  ramparts2  (fisur  le 
boulevard  de  Hohenlo '),  and  not  stooping  sufficiently  when  the 
besiegers'  artillery  fired,  was  struck  on  the  top  of  the  head 
'  tellement  que  le  test  fut  rompu  dont  il  mourut.'  '  C'estoit,' 
says  Meteren, '  un  fort  habile  homme,  et  qui  avoit  acquis  beau- 
coup  d'honneur  par  ses  services.'  Two  days  later  an  assault 
was  made  on  the  trenches,  which  did  not  succeed  on  account 

1  Orlers.    In  the  cases  of  Meurs  and  Groll,  the  twelve  ensigns  are  (certainly  by 
inadvertence)  described  as  under  Balfour,  in  all  the  other  cases  as  under  Murray. 

2  The  spot  is  marked  in  Orlers's  illustration. 


30  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

of  some  misunderstanding  between  the  Scots,  French,  and 
English.  But  Captain  Brogh,  who  commanded  the  Scots, 
brought  back  a  Spanish  captain  prisoner,  and  the  English 
captain,  Aldena,  another.1  On  8th  July  a  bridge  was  thrown 
from  Voorn  to  Herwarden,  and  on  the  same  day  ten  Scots 
companies  crossed  it.  They  were  followed  by  others,  and  a 
fortification  thrown  up,  which  was  fiercely  attacked  by  the 
Spaniards,  who  were  repulsed  by  the  Sieur  de  la  Noue,  Horace 
Vere,  and  Edmond,  who  was  then  '  Colonel  of  the  Scots/  In 
November  Prince  Maurice  sent  some  troops  to  Emmerick, 
where,  admission  being  refused,  Colonel  Edmond  came  to  the 
Craenporte,  and  with  the  help  of  some  Germans  within,  burst 
the  gate,  entered  with  little  loss,  and  passed  to  the  Steenporte, 
which  he  opened  to  admit  the  rest  of  the  force. 

In  January  1600,  Count  Louis  of  Nassau  and  Colonel 
Edmond  took  Wachtendonc  in  Gelderland,  while  the  Scots 
also  took  part  in  the  reduction  of  the  fort  of  St.  Andrew. 

A  dark  day  for  the  Scottish  regiment,  though  an  honourable 
one  for  the  cause  of  the  United  Provinces,  was  near  at  hand. 
In  the  summer  of  1600  Prince  Maurice  led  a  well-equipped 
army  into  Flanders.  He  had  just  settled  down  to  the  siege  of 
Nieuport,  when  news  came  that  the  Archduke  Albert  was 
advancing  with  all  his  forces.  The  Spaniards  rapidly  reduced 
certain  forts  into  which  Prince  Maurice  had  thrown  garrisons, 
and  contrary  to  the  terms  of  the  surrender,  massacred  those 
who  had  held  Snaeskerke.  The  expeditious  advance  of  the 
Archduke  with  his  well-appointed  army  astonished  Prince 
Maurice,  who  received  the  news  after  midnight.  He  at  once 
despatched  Count  Ernest  of  Nassau  towards  Ostend  with 
Edmond's  Scottish  regiment  of  twelve  companies,  the  Zealand 
regiment  of  seven  companies,  four  companies  of  cavalry,  and 
two  guns,  to  seize  and  hold  the  bridge  of  Leffingen,  near  the 
fort  of  Albert,  which  was  still  held  by  his  troops.  The  little 
force  found  the  bridge  already  occupied  by  the  Archduke's 
troops,  who  were  in  too  great  strength  to  be  assailed,  and  were 
increasing  in  numbers  every  moment.  They  resolved,  however, 
to  endeavour  to  hold  their  ground.  As  to  what  exactly 


1  Meteren. 


INTRODUCTORY  31 

occurred  accounts  differ.  The  Spaniards  attacked  in  over- 
whelming force,  and  according  to  Meteren,  the  cavalry  at  once 
took  to  flight,  and  the  infantry,  seeing  this,  were  equally 
alarmed,  and  commenced  to  flee,  throwing  down  their  arms.1 
Le  Petit,  on  the  other  hand,  says  that  the  Count,  having  fought 
valiantly  for  a  long  time,  and  not  being  able  to  hold  his 
ground  longer,  was  constrained  to  yield,  after  having  lost  his 
two  guns  and  800  men,  of  whom  the  most  were  Scots.  Benti- 
voglio's  account  is,  <  These  soldiers  of  the  enemy  gave  at 
unawares  upon  the  Catholics,  who,  finding  themselves  so  much 
superior  in  numbers,  and  with  the  advantage  of  such  fresh 
success,  soon  routed  the  adversary  and  made  a  bloody  slaughter 
among  them."  Broken  and  ridden  down  by  the  pitiless  Spanish 
lancers  and  the  cruel  Italian  horse,  the  Scots  were  driven  into 
the  sandhills  and  the  sea,  and  the  regiment  lost  no  less  than 
600  men.  All  were  killed,  for  the  prisoners  taken  were,  in 
breach  of  the  faith  pledged,  miserably  massacred.  Of  the 
twelve  captains  of  companies  who  had  marched  in  the  early 
hours  of  the  summer  morning  along  the  downs,  Arthur 
Stewart,  John  Kilpatrick,  John  Mitchell,  Hugh  Nisbet,  and 
John  Strachan  lay  dead  on  the  field ;  Robert  Barclay  and 
Andrew  Murray  '  being  prisoners,  and  having  received  the 
faith  of  those  who  held  them,"  were  massacred  in  cold  blood. 
Colonel  Edmond,  Sergeant-Major  Brogh,  and  Captains  Caddel, 
Henderson,  and  Ker  alone  remained  to  gather  the  wrecks  of  a 
gallant  regiment.  Count  Ernest  and  Colonel  Edmond  were 
pursued  to  Fort  Albert,  and  the  fugitives  who  fled  inland  were 
slaughtered  up  to  the  very  palisades  of  the  fort.2 

After  their  victory  and  massacre  the  troops  of  the  Archduke 
halted,  while  the  question  of  further  advance  was  discussed, 
and  Prince  Maurice  had  time  to  transport  his  whole  force 

1  Orlers  (who  was  present  according  to  the  Hist.  Account")  says  that  '  after  having 
bravely  defended  themselves  as  good  soldiers,  they  were  put  to  flight,  all  the  loss 
having  fallen  on  the  side  of  the  Scots,  so  that  well-nigh  800  were  left  on  the  ground, 
among  whom  were  eleven  captains,  and  many  lieutenants  and  other  officers.' 
These  figures  tally  with  the  others  if  the  Dutch  are  included. 

2  It  is  curious  that  all  the  four  Zealand  captains  killed  were  murdered  in  the 
same  way  as  Barclay  and  Murray,  after  having  surrendered.     The  fact  that  five 
Scottish  captains  were  killed  in  the  fight  suggests  that  their  regiment  stood  its 
ground  longer. 


32  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

across  the  haven  of  Nieuport  and  array  it  in  order  of  battle 
before  the  attack  was  delivered.1  In  the  great  fight  that 
followed,  in  which  the  English  troops  so  distinguished  them- 
selves, Captain  Hamilton's  cornet  of  cavalry  was  in  the  rear- 
guard, and  probably  took  part  in  the  charges  that  finally 
decided  the  fate  of  the  battle.  Captain  Hamilton  himself  was 
killed.2  When  the  army  of  the  Archduke  was  finally  driven 
back  in  rout,  a  stern  revenge  was  taken  for  the  slaughter  of 
the  morning.  '  Car  de  la  part  des  Escossois,1  says  Le  Petit, 
4  pour  expiation  de  la  mort  de  leurs  compagnons  qui  le  meme 
jour  avoient  este  tues  comme  nous  avons  dit,  il  n'y  avoit  nulle 
mercy."1  '  Le  lendemain,1  says  Meteren,  '  les  Escossois  en 
tuerent  encores  quelque  trente  ou  quarante  de  sang  froid,  pour  se 
venger  des  Zelandois  et  Escossois  qu'on  avoit  tues  centre  la 
promesse  et  Taccord  de  TArcheduc  tant  en  Forts  de  Snaeskercke 
que  des  Escossois  qui  furent  tues  sur  le  rivage.1 

The  great  struggle  at  Nieuport  practically  exhausted  the 
operations  of  the  year,  and  the  Estates  sent  Colonel  Edmond 
to  Scotland  '  to  remake  his  regiment.1 

In  the  famous  siege  of  Ostend,  which  lasted  from  5th  July 
1601  to  20th  September  1604,  the  Scottish  troops  bore  their 
own  part  in  the  defence.  One  of  the  principal  works  was 


1  Cette  defaite,'  says  Cerisier,  '  qui  devait  perdre  Maurice,  fut  ce  qui  le  sauva 
.  .  .  cette  bataille  en  retardant  la  marche  des  ennemis  luy  laissa  le  terns  pour 
choisir  les  postes  les  plus  avantageux,  et  faire  les  dispositions  les  plus  sages.' 
Tableaux  de  IJHistoire  Generate  des  Pays  Bas. 

2  In  his  Life  of  Lord  Wimbledon,  Dalton  states,  '  Among  the  British  officers 
killed  at  Newport  was  a  cavalry  officer  who  rode  with  Edward  Cecil  in  the  last 
charge,  and  was  slain  in  Cecil's  sight  when  they  were  both  pursuing  the  enemy. 
This  officer  was  Captain  Hamilton,  a  gallant  Scot,  who  once  made,  to  use  Cecil's 
own  words,  "the  gallantest  retreat  I  ever  heard  of."     Hamilton  had  been  sent 
out  with  some  Dutch  cavalry  under  Count  Louis  of  Nassau.  .  .  .  The  Spaniards 
came  down  on  them  in  force  .  .   .  and  they  retreated  skirmishing,  the  officers 
taking  in  turns  to  keep  the  enemy  at  bay  with  a  few  of  their  men,  while  the  rest 
of  their  body  retreated.     "At  last,"  says  Cecil,  "it  came  to  Captain  Hamilton's 
turn  to  make  the  last  retreat,  always  most  difficult  and  dangerous  (which  the 
Dutch  loveth  not,  therefore  left  it  to  him),  and  because  the  horses  were  weary 
and  the  enemy  was  gaining  ground  upon  them,  Hamilton  fell  into  the  rear  of 
his  men,  and  so  long  maintained  the  skirmish  with  the  pursuing  Spaniards  that 
the  States  horse  had  time  t©  make  their  retreat  far  enough.     In  the  end  his  horse 
was  killed  under  him,  notwithstanding  which  he,  leaping  over  a  body,  made  his 
retreat  on  foot  and  so  escaped.'" 


INTRODUCTORY  33 

known  as  the  Schottenberg.  When  the  gallant  Comte  de 
Chatillon,  son  of  the  great  Coligny,  standing  on  the  top  of 
the  Sandhill  on  10th  September,  along  with  Colonel  Van  der 
Noot,  Colonel  Uchtenbrook,  and  Brogh,  now  Lieut.-Colonel  of 
the  Scottish  Regiment,  had  the  top  of  his  head  carried  off  by  a 
cannon-ball,  the  fragments  of  his  skull  wounded  Colonel  Brogh 
in  the  face.  When  in  December  Sir  Francis  Vere,  feeling  him- 
self unable  to  hold  out  longer  unless  reinforced,  and  anxious  to 
gain  time,  opened  negotiations  with  the  Archduke,  it  was  to 
Captain  Sinclair  of  the  Scots  and  two  Zealand  captains  that 
the  duty  of  receiving  the  Spanish  plenipotentiaries,  Serrano  and 
Ottignies,  was  assigned.  After  the  fierce  assault  which  followed 
the  Christmas  negotiations,  the  States  resolved  to  relieve  the 
garrison,  and  to  renew  the  change  every  four  or  six  months, 
and  among  the  officers  of  rank  sent  to  the  city  in  January 
1602  was  William  Edmond,  now  designed  as  '  Chevalier  et 
Colonel  des  Escossois." l 

Before  the  siege  closed  the  States  had  permanently  in  their 
pay  another  Scottish  regiment  brought  over  by  the  Lord 
Buccleuch.2  In  May  1604  it  is  recorded  3  that  His  Excellency 
sent  five  companies  of  the  new  Scots  regiment,  with  Captain 
Sinclair  of  the  old  Scots,  and  that  soon  afterwards  Captain 
Hamilton  was  wounded  and  retired,  being  succeeded  in  his 
command  by  Captain  Moore,  while  a  little  later  Colonel 
Sinclair  was  killed.4  In  August  the  Governor  deputed  Sir 
William  Brogh  and  Adolphe  van  Gelder  to  receive  the  in- 


1  Edmond  had,   in  August  1601,  been   sent  with   some  cavalry  to    occupy 
Mons,  but  was  not  admitted.     The  freedom  of  access  by  sea-  rendered  a  system 
of  relief  possible,  and  allowed  of  considerable  leave.     In  May  1604  the  Governor 
wrote  that  of  five  Scottish  captains,  only  one,  Captain  John  Brachton,  was  at  his 
post.' 

2  '  His  Majy  hath  been  pleased  to  assent  to  the  leavying  of  the  new  Regts 
in   Scotland,   for  which  purpose   there  is  order  already  gone  to  the  Lord  of 
Bucklugh,  who  is  to  command  them.' — Sir  R.  Cecil  to  Winwood,  August  12, 
1603.— St.  Pap.  Holland. 

3  '  Siege  of  Ostend  '  (Huguenot  Society),  by  Belleroche,  Fleming's  Diary. 

4  According  to  the  Hist.  Acct.%  at  an  earlier  stage  of  the  siege,  when  Sir  Francis 
Vere  had  resolved  to  abandon   the  outworks,  Captain  Sinclair  undertook  the 
defence  of  part  of  tliefaussedraye  of  his  own  accord,  and  a  reinforcement  arriving 
the  abandonment  was  countermanded.     Sir  John  Ogle,  however,  in  his  continua- 
tion of  the  '  Siege  of  Ostend,'  added  to  Vere's  Commentaries,  denies  this. 

C 


34  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

structions  of  the  Government  as  to  the  course  he  should  pursue, 
in  view  of  the  impossibility  of  holding  out  long,  even  within 
the  inner  defences  of  '  New  Troy.'  The  Schottenberg  was 
taken  in  September,  and  when  the  garrison  finally  marched  out 
on  the  22nd  of  that  month,  the  English  and  Scottish  troops 
formed  the  rear-guard,  and  were  the  last  to  leave  the  ground 
so  long  and  obstinately  defended. 

The  Scots  had  not,  during  the  long  siege,  been  absent  from 
other  operations  of  the  war.  A  Captain  Hamilton  was  mortally 
wounded  before  Grave,  and  a  detachment  of  200  under  Colonel 
Edmond  formed  part  of  the  picked  force  with  which  Count 
Lewis  made  his  dashing  foray  into  Luxembourg  in  1602,  riding 
as  far  as  the  Ardennes,  and  penetrating  one  hundred  miles  into 
hostile  country. 

At  a  review  held  by  Prince  Maurice  after  the  taking  of 
Grave,  the  Scottish  companies  present  were — Edmond's  (160), 
Brogh's  (120),  Henderson's  (100),  Sinclair's  (94),  and  Balfour's 
(116).  Scots  troops  were  also  engaged  in  the  fight  before 
Bois-le-Duc  in  August  of  the  following  year,  and  in  May  1604, 
when  Prince  Maurice  was  besieging  Ysendyke,  the  sudden 
attack  of  the  enemy  upon  Cadzand,  which  formed  his  base  of 
operations,  was  only  defeated  by  the  steadiness  of  two  Scottish 
companies,  who  taken  by  surprise,  as  they  were,  by  a  force 
which  had  already  landed  600  men,  charged  them  at  once  with 
such  vigour  that  they  routed  them,  drove  them  back  to  their 
galleys,  and  took  forty  prisoners  and  eight  of  their  vessels. 
Had  the  design  succeeded  Prince  Maurice  would  have  lost  all 
his  boats  and  ammunition ;  and  the  expedition  which  took  Sluys 
would  have  ended  in  failure.  In  the  campaign  of  1605,  it  was 
the  firmness  of  Buccleuch's  Scottish  infantry  and  four  English 
companies  (defying  with  their  level  pikes  the  utmost  efforts  of 
the  Spanish  troops  to  break  their  formation) 1  that  extricated 
the  cavalry  of  the  Estates  when  committed  to  an  unequal 
combat  with  the  masses  of  the  enemy's  horse,  near  Mulheim, 
and  enabled  them  to  repass  the  river.  In  July  1606,  half 
of  Edmond's  cavalry  company  formed  part  of  the  force  which 


1  In  this  campaign  there  were  also  English,  Scottish,  and  Irish  regiments  in 
Spinola's  army. 


INTRODUCTORY  35 

successfully  resisted  the  attempt  of  the  Spaniards  to  cross  the 
Waal  into  the  Betuwe,  and  when  in  the  following  month 
Spinola  laid  siege  to  Rheinberg,  it  is  noted  that  '  in  the  Isle 
and  on  the  other  side  of  the  Rhine  Sir  William  Edmond, 
colonel  of  the  Scots,  was  in  command,  because  that  was  a  place 
it  was  above  all  necessary  to  guard  well.1  Spinola  determined 
to  attack  the  entrenchments  on  the  other  side  of  the  Rhine, 
while  Prince  Maurice  approached  with  his  army  from  Wesel,  and 
entrenched  himself  on  the  opposite  bank  awaiting  the  arrival 
of  his  bridge.  But  the  Prince  lost  his  opportunity  to  succour 
these  entrenchments,  and  on  3rd  September  Colonel  Edmond 
like  his  predecessor  Murray  received  a  wound  in  the  head  as 
he  was  looking  over  the  rampart,  of  which  he  died.  '  CVtoit,' 
says  Meteren,  '  un  vieux  capitaine  qui  avoit  long  temps  servy 
les  Etats.  II  estoit  Colonel  d'un  Regiment  Escossois,  et  homme 
qui  de  bas  lieu  estoit  par  sa  valeur  parvenu  a  grand  honneur.' l 

After  his  death  the  besieged  were  disheartened,  abandoned  the 
entrenchments  the  following  night,  and  withdrew  their  troops 
into  the  island  and  the  city.  Prince  Maurice  found  himself 
unable  to  relieve  the  place.  It  was  surrendered,  and  on  12th 
October  the  garrison  marched  out,  bearing  with  them  the  body 
of  Colonel  Edmond. 

The  campaign  of  1606  practically  concluded  the  war,  for 
although  the  Twelve  Years'  Truce  was  not  signed  till  9th 
April  1609,  there  were  no  more  military  operations  of  magni- 
tude, and  none  in  which  the  share  of  the  Scottish  troops  has 
been  recorded.  The  first  chapter  of  the  history  of  the  Scots 
Brigade  closes  dramatically  with  the  bearing  by  the  garrison 
of  Rheinberg  through  Spinola's  camp  of  the  body  of  the 
veteran  colonel  of  the  old  regiment. 


1  Sir  John  Ogle  had  written  shortly  before,  *  I  fear  Sir  Wm.  Edmonds  will 
return  in  no  tryumphe  from  that  place,  though  for  his  particular,  men  doubt  not 
but  he  will  deserve  honourably.' 


36  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1573 


I.    PRELIMINARY    EXTRACTS    FROM    THE 
ARCHIVES  OF  HOLLAND 

EXTRACTS  FROM  THE  ARCHIVES  OF  THE  STATES  OF  HOLLAND  AND 
WEST  VRIESLAND,  illustrating  the  earlier  history  of  the 
Brigade,  prior  to  the  commencement  of  the  Records  of 
the  United  Netherlands,  after  the  separation  of  the 
reconciled  provinces. 

From  the  (1)  From  Accounts  and  Pay  Lists  showing  personnel  of  officers 

Archives  of 

Grand  STATEMENT  OF  TOTALS  of  the  3d  Account  rendered  by  Franchoys 

mnaries.  Valckesteyn  deceased,  formerly  Treasurer  of  War  of  the  Land  of 

Holland  and  that  from  the  first  of  June  anno  73  to  the  last  of  July 
anno  74,  in  pounds,  shillings  and  pence  of  40  groots. 

Paid  Out 
1st  Payment  to  German  soldiers,  Walloons,  Frenchmen,  Englishmen.1 

Scots 

la      „         to  Captain  Baulfour           .  .  .  £8015  0  0 

2a      „         to  Captain  Robinson          .  .  .  3837  0  0 

3a      „        to  Colonel  Ormeston          .  V  .  50  0  0 

4a      „         to  Captain  Pentlandt          .  .  .  6021  5  6 

5a      „        to  Alexander  Cembell       .  .  .  3301  0  0 

6a      „         to  Captain  Edmeston       "  .  .  .  2254  0  0 

7a      „        to  Captain  Trell     .            .  .  .  3427  0  0 

8a      „        to  Captain  Melluyn         '  .  .  .  1925  0  0 

9a      „        to  Captain  Oggelby            .  .  .  7746  0  0 

10a     „        to  Captain  Adamsz             .  .  .  4394  15  0 

5a  Somma        . 40,970  6  6 

Pay 

20a      „        to  Colonel  Ormeston         .  .  500    0    0 

21a      „        to  Johan  Pentlandt,  lieut.  .  .          200    0    0 


1  Cap.  Greve,  Cap.  Genffort,  Thomas  Morgan,  Cap.  Prys,  Cap.  Brandt, 
Cap.  Maurisz,  Cap.  Palmer,  Cap.  Lagan,  Irish  Captn. 


1574-75]          PRELIMINARY  EXTRACTS  37 

STATEMENT  OF  TOTALS  of  the  4th  and  last  Account  rendered  by  the  late 
franchoys  Van  Valckesteyn,  etc. 

Paid  Out 

-Scots 

la      „         to  Captain  Baulfour            .            .  .  £114    0    0 

2a      „         to  Johan  Pentlandt             .             .  .  3973     6     0 

3a      „        to  Captain  Oggelby             .             .  .  3598    6     6 

4a      „        to  Captain  Cambel               .             .  .  141  17     0 

5a      „         to  Captain  Wm.  Edmeston              .  .  29  16    0 

6a      „        to  the  Compy  of  Robert  Melluyn  .  412    0    0 

5a  Somma  of  payment  made  to  Scottish  Companies  .  8269     5     6 


15a      to  Johan  Edmeston          .  .  .  .  41  11     0 

This  account  with  the  heirs  of  F.  v.  V.  has  been  closed  by  Commis- 
sioners for  the  State  on  Feb.  12th,  1577,  new  style. 

EXTRACT  from  the  Account  of  Nicolas  van  der  Laen  of  his  Receivership- 
General  expiring  on  the  last  day  of  July  anno  1574. 

Paid  Out 

To  Expenses  (?)  and  to  bring  the  soldiers  from  England  and  Scotland. 
la  Somma          ......   £8962  19    0 

including  for  the  soldiers  of  Cap.  Trell.  .  .       xijcxxix 

EXTRACT  from  the  first  general  Account  of  Jacob  Muys,  Receiver-General 
of  Finances  (Jan.  1st,  1575— May  31st,  1577). 

Paid  Out 
To  Captains  native,  .  .  .  Ditto  foreign,  .  .  .  Scottish  and  English. 

547    lv      Pentland             ....  £12,294  12  0 

558    Ivj      Cambol  .....  13,638  14  6 

570    Ivij     Trel        .            .            .            .            .  16,469    4  6 

under  Beaufor l 

576    Iviij    Ja.  Kuyng  or  Smit        .             .             .  11,568     1  0 

584    lix     Wm.  Emeston    .             .             .             .  12,146  16  0 

588    Ix      Thomas  Robynsson         .                          .  5,509  13  0 
590    Ixi     Johan  Edmeston  in 

Thomas  Pluoist(?)           .             .             .  3,580    0  0 

639    Ixvj    Paid  to  Discharged  Captains      .             .  36,212  18  0 

1st  Grand  Total  of  Payments  to  Captains            .  544,517  10  0 


1  In  Feb.  1577-78  a  complaint  was  made  to  the  Scots  Privy  Council  by  Capt. 
William  Yorstoun,  who  had  served  in  March  1575  in  Col.  H.  Balfour's  regiment, 
who  maintained  that  Col.  Balfour  had  received  payment  of  his  whole  wages  from 
the  Estates  of  Holland  and  Brabant. 


38  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1574 

Pay 
663    viij     Baulfour  „  .  .  .          6,421     8    0 

Sundry  Noblemen 
686    xx      Wm.  Stuart       .  •.  .  .  870    0    0 

Sergeant-Maj  ors 
725    xliij   John  Edmeston  .  .  .  680  11     0 


(£)  Extracts  from  the  Manuscript  Resolutions  of  the  States 
of  Holland  (Military  Affairs) 

1574 

Aug.  28th.  To  offer  de  Noyelles  the  colonelcy  of  5016  compi^  Walloons 
and  others  at  100  crowns  monthly.  Accepted  and  promised  to  do  good 
service ;  letters  of  appointment. 

Sep.  2.  The  Scottish  compies  recently  arrived  in  this  country  to  be 
stationed  in  the  Crimpenerwaart  under  the  colonelcy  of  Noyelles. 

Sep.  4.  Cap.  Pentelan  is  ordered  with  his  company  to  go  to  Delfshaven 
in  the  place  of  the  compy  of  Captain  Morgan. 

Ditto.  Cap.  J.  Blaer,  Scottish  nobleman,  on  certain  conditions  allowed 
to  touch  certain  100  guilders,  now  in  the  hands  of  Cap.  Pentlin  and 
owing  to  Cap.  Nielvinck. 

Sep.  10.  Treasurer-General  to  be  advised  on  petition  of  J.  Blaer,  Scots. 

Sep.  25.  The  Treasurer-Gen,  of  Finances  J.  Taffin  to  treat  at  Rotter- 
dam with  the  Burgomasters  about  15  or  1600  guilders  required  for  the 
departure  of  Cap.  Ogelby  and  his  compy  of  Scots,  already  discharged. 

Oct.  5th.  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  Boskoop  notified  to  receive  2 
compies  of  Scots  in  garrison  and  to  accommodate  and  lodge  them  without 
hindrance. 

Oct.  9th.  Order  on  the  Receiver-General  in  favor  of  Captain  Oggelby, 
Scotchman,  for  1500  guilders,  for  what  is  owing  to  him  and  his  compy,  to 
be  paid  from  the  excises  at  Rotterdam. 

Oct.  21.  Order  for  the  payment  and  departure  of  the  discharged  Scottish 
soldiers  of  Captain  Oggelby. 

Oct.  27.  Capitaine  Oggelbie  Ecossois  pour  quelque  contentement  de 
ses  depens  depuis  qu'il  est  casse,  s'adressera  a  ceux  des  Finances  de  S.E. 
et  le  Thesaurier  Tafin. 

Nov.  1st.  Order  on  C.  P.  Beaumont  Mayor  of  Rotterdam  for  18  Last 
rye  the  proceeds  to  be  used  for  the  discharge  of  the  soldiers  of  Cap. 
Oggelby. 

Nov.  26th.  The  2  Scottish  compies  on  board  of  vessel  outside  of  Rotter- 
dam and  arrived  there  from  Bommel,  to  be  stationed  the  one  at  Dordrecht, 
the  other  at  Schoonhoven. 


15/6]  PRELIMINARY  EXTRACTS  39 

1575 

Aug.  20.  Henceforth  all  captains  appointed  by  H.  Exc?  to  take  oath 
before  the  Council  (Landraat)  and  a  proper  record  to  be  kept  thereof. 

Aug.  26.  Captain  Stuart  allowed  an  order  for  60  guilders,  one  month's 
pay. 

Ditto.  Resolution  on  petition  of  Col.  Balfour  of  the  Scottish  Regt, 
whether  entitled  to  the  2  chains  of  Robbeson. 

Sep.  13.  Receiver  Muys  to  pay  Col.  Balfour  1500  glds.  for  his  pay 
from  June  to  August  provided  it  can  be  done  from  the  current  quota ; 
for  what  he  is  further  in  arrear  for  services  with  his  soldiers  at  Bommel, 
amounting  to  2947  guilders,  to  provide  conform  to  advice  of  His  Excv. 

Sep.  22.  The  Scottish  Cap.  Smith  to  make  affidavit  of  having  again 
provided  for  the  vacancies  (in  his  Compv),  and  then  for  this  time  to  let 
him  pass  muster. 

Oct.  7th.  Col.  Balfour  to  be  paid  by  the  Receiver-General  800  guilders 
yearly  for  his  services. 

Oct.  18th.  Col.  Balfour  to  be  paid  950  guilders  for  his  voyage,  on 
reduction  of  what  is  due  for  former  services,  by  Receiver  Muys,  from 
the  money  of  Cap.  Mailsant. 

1576 

May  llth.  The  pay  of  the  3  enlisted  Compies  of  Scots  allowed  on  the 
share  (of  Holland)  in  the  general  loan,  to  be  repaid  within  a  month  by 
the  Union. 

May  22d.  Committee  to  treat  with  all  captains,  in  the  first  place  with 
the  Colonel  of  the  Scots,  to  bring  the  pay  from  32  days  to  6  weeks  or 
48  days,  with  interest  for  the  days  thereby  reduced,  in  proportion  of  the 
pay  and  at  the  rate  of  12%. 

June  1st.  The  back  pay  due  to  the  Scottish  Col.  Balfour  to  be  pro- 
vided for  from  the  first  loan  with  certain  merchants  of  Dordrecht  of  8  or 
10  thousand  guilders,  under  security  of  the  revenue  of  the  Mint  at  that 
place. 

June  19th.  Mayors  of  towns  to  provide  for  the  future  payment,  main- 
tenance, and  enlisting  of  soldiers  at  42  days  for  a  month,  at  the  usual  pay. 

July  6th.  The  Committee  to  arrange  with  Col.  Balfour. 

July  10th.  Cap.  Cornille  with  his  Compv  to  leave  Woerden  with  the 
Compv  of  Despontain,  to  be  replaced  by  the  Scottish  Compy  of  Captain 
Hector. 

Aug.  7.  Committee  to  inquire  at  Gouda,  of  Captain  Michiel,  into  the 
affair  and  fault  of  certain  Scotchmen  at  Crimpen  and  Elshout,  also  (into 
the  complaints)  against  their  Lieut,  and  officer;  the  Committee  to  be 
allowed  an  interpreter  for  the  Scottish  language. 

Aug.  7th.  The  Committee  to  make  proper  provisions  at  Gouda  for  the 
pay  of  the  soldiers,  and  to  have  the  Scottish  and  English  Compies  march 
there. 


40  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1577 

Aug.  8th.  On  account  of  the  understanding  of  certain  Scots  at  Crimpen, 
etc.,  with  the  enemy,  resolved  to  divide  them  up. 

1577 

Feb.  22.  All  captains  to  pay  their  men  45  stivers  each,  half  monthly, 
while  the  engagement  remains  at  1100  guilders  monthly  for  100  men. 

May  25th.  Those  of  Finances  to  discharge  first  the  Scottish  and  then 
the  English  Compies  in  Holland,  as  soon  as  the  necessary  funds  shall 
be  on  hand. 

June  9th.  Cap.  Cromwell  (to  be  stationed)  in  the  fort  at  Campen,  and 
Captain  Nysbeth  again  at  Dordrecht,  and  there  to  be  discharged  by 
Commissioner  Orteil. 

1578 

Aug.  27th.  The  pay  of  J.  Cuningham  of  150  guilders  per  month  (to  be 
reduced)  to  100. 

1579 

Sep.  14th.  Cap.  J.  van  Cuincham  having  accepted  the  office  of  Lt  Gen. 
(sic)  of  the  Regt.  of  10  Compies  of  Count  Willem  of  Nassau  at  200 
guilders  monthly  from  the  nearer  Union,  his  pay  in  Holland  of  100 
guilders  monthly  no  longer  to  be  paid. 

Sep.  18th.  To  stop  the  pay  of  J.  Cuningham  because  he  draws  from 
the  nearer  Union  200  guilders  as  L*  Gen.  of  Count  Willem  of  Nassau. 

Sep.  24th.  Those  of  Sevenbergen  to  deliver  to  the  Secretary  within 
14  days  the  documents  (required)  for  a  settlement  with  Captain 
Nysbeth,  etc. 

1581 

Jan.  4th.  Res.  with  reference  to  the  back  pay  of  Col.  Stuart  and 
his  Regt. 

Jan.  19th.  H.  Exc^  protesting  against  the  order  of  the  Committee 
with  reference  to  the  payment  of  Col.  Stuart  in  so  far  as  the  necessary 
funds  are  not  forthcoming,  which  endangers  Brussel,  Vilvoorden  or 
Malines,  the  towns  give  their  opinion  thereon. 

April  26th.  Col.'s  Pension  to  the  widow  of  Col.  Balfour  and  his  son 
at  800  guilders  yearly  ;  some  raise  difficulties. 

April  29th.  Final  settlement  for  the  services  of  the  Scottish  Captain 
Mestertoin  and  the  back  pay  of  his  soldiers. 

June  7th.  The  Compv  of  J.  Nysbeth  to  be  sent  from  Geertruydenberg 
to  Amsterdam  and  employed  against  the  enemy  in  Vriesland. 

June  10th.  Final  settlement  with  the  Scottish  Captain  Mestertoin  for 
his  services  and  of  his  previous  [claims]. 

July  4th.  The  States  not  being  able  to  furnish  for  their  share  more 
money  than  already  granted,  Regt.  Stuart  has  as  an  exception  to  be  pro- 
vided for  by  the  generality. 

July  llth.  2000  guilders  to  Col.  Stuart  to  take  the  field. 


1586]  PRELIMINARY  EXTRACTS  41 

Ditto.  Cap.  P.  Merlyn  allowed  a  month's  pay  for  150  men  and  bounties, 
provided  it  be  deducted  from  Holland's  quota  to  the  generality  as  well  as 
the  2200  guilders  for  Col.  Stuart. 


1582 

May  23.  Committee  to  administer  with  Count  Hohenlohe  the  oath  to 
the  colonels  and  captains  conform  to  the  new  ordinance  of  His  Exc^. 

June  22.  To  continue  to  insist  to  the  Deputies  of  the  States  General 
that  Holland  is  not  liable  for  back  pay  of  Col.  Stuart ;  if  hard  pressed 
to  report. 

1583 

Sep.  19th.  The  Scots  ordered  by  His  Excv  to  The  Clundert  to  be 
allowed  3  stivers  each,  daily,  for  14  days. 

1585 

Feb.  17th.  Captain  D.  Charrete  to  allow  Col.  Koningham  to  stop  at 
Fort  Noordam  on  his  way  to  Geertruydenberg  with  his  Compv,  where  he 
is  ordered  by  Count  Hohenlo. 

April  24th.  His  Grace,  the  Council  of  State  and  Count  Hohenlo 
written  to,  regarding  filling  the  vacant  colonelcy  of  Smits. 

Sep.  19th.  The  Captains,  Lieutenants  and  Ensigns  at  Bergen  to  be 
paid  out  of  the  40,000  guilders,  and  to  satisfy  the  Scottish  Captains 
before  sending  them  to  their  garrisons. 

Ditto.  Councillor-Commissioners  to  Count  Hohenlo  to  insist  on  prompt 
payment  to  the  Scottish  Captains  of  one  month's  pay,  that  otherwise 
payment  shall  be  made  on  a  certain  draft. 

Nov.  8.  Agreement  with  the  Deputies  of  Zeeland  on  the  reduction  and 
the  pay  of  the  Compv  of  Scots  under  Balfour. 

Nov.  15.  All  captains  in  gar.  in  Holland  and  Zeeland  to  discharge  all 
Scottish  soldiers,  on  pain  of  not  being  paid. 

1586 

Jan.  14th.  Cap.  J.  Balfour  and  others  to  have  patience  for  what  the 
interest  is  behind,  until  the  payment  shall  be  provided  for. 

Nov.  26th./Dec.  9th.  The  Gd  Pensionary  and  the  Committee  to  pro- 
ceed in  every  possible  manner  with  the  Council  of  State  for  the  reduction 
of  the  soldiery,  as  well  of  the  English  and  Scottish  as  the  Netherlander, 
horse  and  foot ;  all  superfluous  salaries  to  be  stopped,  and  likewise  all  that 
are  necessary  to  be  reduced. 

Nov.  10th.  His  Excv  having  ordered  all  soldiers  garrisoned  under  his 
command  in  the  towns  of  Holland  to  receive  daily  3  stivers  for  their 
keep  ;  the  Mayors  of  Schiedam  to  point  this  out  to  the  Captain  of  the 
Scottish  Compv  there  stationed,  and  that  this  must  satisfy  him. 


42  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1587 

1587 

Feb.  13th.  Distribution  of  the  Scottish  and  English  Compies  and 
transportation  to  their  destination  at  the  Country's  expense,  the  magis- 
trates to  find  accommodation  for  the  Scottish  Compies  with  maintenance 
at  3  stivers  per  head. 

Feb.  17th.  Res.  on  the  reception  of  the  Scottish  and  English  Compies ; 
and  how  to  act. 

Feb.  18th.  Res.  on  form  of  oath  for  Cols  and  soldiers. 

Feb.  23d.  For  the  Scottish  Compies  in  gar.  in  the  towns  of  Holland 
by  command  of  His  Exc^,  each  to  be  maintained  at  150  head,  authority 
to  draw  on  the  receiver  Thomas  at  Dordrecht. 

April  13thf  J.  Verbaas,1  Scotchman,  Ensign  of  Captain  Trel,  50  glds 
as  recompence  for  the  wound  he  received  at  Zutphen. 

Aug.  4th.  To  also  pay  each  of  the  Scottish  Companies  one  month's 
pay  and  to  insist  on  the  States  General  resolving  on  the  cloth  and  the 
settlement. 

Aug.  19th.  Commissioners  to  Count  Hohenlo  notified  regarding  the 
pay  of  5  squad8  of  horse  and  7  compies  of  Scots  for  the  expedition  and 
reception  of  German  soldiery,  etc. 

Aug.  22d.  The  expenses  incurred  by  Rotterdam,  for  the  transporta- 
tion of  the  Compy  of  Cap.  R.  Schotte  to  Haarlem,  for  supplies  and 
shipments,  to  be  borne  by  the  Country. 


Probably  Forbes,  of  which  the  local  Aberdeenshire  pronunciation  is  Forbes. 


1579]  PRELIMINARY  EXTRACTS 


II.  STATES  OF  WAR 

1579-1609 
EXTRACTS  (WITHOUT  DATE) 

Infanterie  estant  prtement  en  service  pour  servir  en  campaigne. 
Item,  le  Regiment  du  Colonel  Balfour l  de  15  Enseignes  a  150  testes 
traites  et  armes  comme  dessus.2 


1  Colonel  Hary  or  Henry  Balfour  served  as  a  captain  at  Haarlem,  and 
colonel  of  the  Scottish  Companies  from  1574  to  his  death  in  1580.  For  his 
services,  see  pp.  11-21.  Killed  at  Wassenaar,  November  1580.  Married 
Cristian  Cant,  sister  of  Captain  David  Cant.  (See  P.  C.  Reg.  ii.  p.  676.) 
Repeated  recommendations  in  favour  of  his  heirs,  especially  on  July  5th,  1594, 
and  May  1603,  and  see  representations  and  claims  by  his  son,  Sir  William  Bal- 
four, in  1605.  His  will  is  recorded  in  the  Edinburgh  Commissariat  Records  on 
3rd  June  1587,  with  an  '  eik '  on  5th  August  1590,  and  a  statement  of  '  omitted ' 
on  7th  January  1593-4. 

Sir  Henry  Balfour's  widow,  Cristian  Cant,  subsequently  married  Captain  John 
Balfour  (Acta  et  Decreta,  February  1584-85)  of  Wester  Pitcorthie,  who  was 
serving  in  Flanders  in  1586,  and  had  died  before  I7th  November  1592.  On 
30th  January  1598-9,  a  discharge  was  granted  to  'Cristiane  Cant,  relict  of 
Capt.  John  Balfour,  and  Peter,  Bishop  of  Dunkeld,  now  her  spouse.' 

It  would  seem  that  there  were  two  Henry  Balfours  at  an  early  period  in  the 
service  of  the  Low  Countries.  The  colonel  killed  at  Wassenaar  was  a  younger 
son  of  Bartholomew  Balfour  of  Mackareston  in  Menteith,  who  was  killed  at 
Pinkie  in  1547,  full  brother  of  James  Balfour  of  Boghall  and  Easter  Tarrie,  and 
half-brother  of  Colonel  Bartholomew  Balfour,  who  subsequently  commanded 
the  regiment.  He  had  two  sons,  Sir  William  Balfour  and  Henry  (described 
in  the  Sinclair  MS.  as  'colonel,'  but  who  does  not  appear  to  have  attained 
higher  rank  than  that  of  captain  or  lieutenant),  who  seems  to  have  died  between 
1605  and  1613. 

Among  the  MSS.  of  B.  R.  T.  Balfour  of  Townley  Hall,  Drogheda,  the 
representative  of  Sir  William  Balfour,  are  the  following  documents  : — 

June  1 8,  1561  (sic)  Dillenburg  Castle. — Commission  from  William,  Prince  of 
Orange,  to  Sir  Henry  de  Balfour,  a  Scottish  gentleman  of  prudence  and  experience 
in  warfare,  to  arm  and  equip  a  ship  and  to  levy  soldiers  for  the  same,  to  go  to 
the  coasts  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  in  order  to  attack  the  Prince's  enemies  and  do 
damage  to  their  persons  and  goods.  He  is  expressly  forbidden  to  do  damage  to 
any  subjects  of  the  Queen  of  England,  the  Kings  of  Denmark  and  Sweden,  or 
any  other  potentate  well  disposed  to  the  Christian  religion  or  the  Prince. 

June  15,  1574- — Commission  from  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  to  Sir  Henry 
Balfour  to  be  colonel  and  superintendent  of  all  the  companies  of  Scots  foot- 
guards  in  his  service. 

Nov.  5,  1575.— Order  by  the  nobles  and  delegates  of  the  cities  of  Holland  for 
the  issue  of  a  yearly  pension  of  800  florins  of  20  stivers  apiece  to  Henry  Balfour 


44  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1579 

1500  Harqueboustiers  )  £05  500 

750  Picques     .         .  ) 
Le  traictement  du  Colonnel  Balfour,  £1200. 


for  so  long  as  he  shall  live  and  show  himself  friendly  to  the  people  of  Holland, 
in  consideration  of  his  services  against  the  Spaniards. 

Dec.  22.  1576. — Brussels,  Commission  from  the  King  to  Henry  de  Beaufort  to 
be  colonel  of  16  ensigns  of  Scots  foot  soldiers,  at  a  yearly  salary  of  500  livres, 
with  suitable  salaries  specified  for  the  inferior  officers. — Hist.  MS.  10  Rep.  App. 
vi.  p.  255. 

According  to  Douglas's  Peerage,  Sir  James  Balfour  of  Pittendreich  (second  son 
of  Andrew  Balfour  of  Mountquhanny),  who  married  the  heiress  of  Burleigh,  and 
was  the  father  of  Sir  Michael  Balfour,  created  in  1606  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh, 
and  Sir  James,  created  in  1619  Lord  Balfour  of  Clonawley,  had  a  fourth  son, 
Henry,  '  a  general  in  Holland.'  He  is  also  said  to  have  had  a  sixth  son,  David, 
a  captain  in  his  brother's  regiment,  who  was  drowned  in  crossing  to  Holland  ; 
and  it  will  be  seen  (p.  203)  that  there  was  also  another  son,  John,  who  (men- 
tioned as  Captain  John  in  the  Sinclair  MS.)  in  1606  offered  to  raise  a  company, 
and  had  apparently  previously  served. 

The  following  pedigree  (showing  'descent  of  the  Balfours  in  Holland'),  taken 
from  the  Sinclair  MSS.  at  Crawford  Priory,  was  communicated  to  the  editor  by  Mr. 
C.  B.  Balfour  of  Newton  Don :— I.  Sir  Henry  Balfour,  Knight,  brother  of  Sir 
Michael  Balfour,  first  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh,  emigrated  to  Holland  and 
married  Anne,  daughter  of  Sir  Paul  Bax.  He  had  issue.  2.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
James  Balfour ;  married  Anne,  daughter  of  Philip  Stewart,  and  had  issue. 
3.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Patrick  Balfour ;  married  Elizabeth  Fleming,  and  had 
issue.  4.  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Balfour ;  married  Vincentia  Moggo,  and  had 
issue.  5.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Patrick  Balfour ;  married  Adriana  Leydekken, 
and  had  issue.  6.  Captain  John  Adrian  Balfour. 

It  would,  however,  rather  seem  that  the  Henry,  brother  of  Lord  Balfour  of 
Burleigh,  has  been  confounded  with  the  other  Henry,  who  was  really  a  colonel 
if  not  a  general ;  and  that  he  and  his  own  brother  David  have  also  been  trans- 
posed, both  by  Douglas  and  in  the  Sinclair  MS.  According  to  an  Irish  MS.  by 
Bishop  Reeves  (communicated  by  Mr.  B.  T.  Balfour  of  Townley  Hall),  it  was 
David  and  not  Henry  who  married  Anne  Bax,  while  Henry  married  Maria  de 
Leon.  The  latter  alliance  appears  to  be  confirmed  by  the  Dutch  Service  Lists, 
and  the  Henry  who  was  the  husband  of  Maria  de  Leon  or  van  Leeuwen  died 
as  a  captain. 

It  is  further  confirmed  by  the  following  note  from  Holland,  made  by  Baron 
^Eneas  Mackay,  and  communicated  by  Lord  Reay  : — 

*  Anna  Bax  mar.,  30  Oct.  1607,  Captain  David  Balfour,  and  had  four  children. 
I.  daughter;  2.  Paulus  [Patrick?]  Balfour,  born  n  July  1610;  3.  James 
Michael  Balfour,  born  22  Nov.  1611  ;  4.  Marcelis  Robert  Balfour,  born  6  March 
1613.  James  Michael  Balfour,  captain  at  Gertruydenberg,  mar.,  in  Feb.  1637  at 
de  Klundert,  Agatha  [sic\  Stuart.  They  had  children,  David  Balfour,  born  10 
April  1639 ;  Jacoba  Balfour,  born  2  Feb.  1644,  mar.  Johan  van  Stapele. 

'  The  brother  of  Anna  Bax,  Marcelis  Bax,  had  a  daughter  who  in  1632  married 
Cornelis  van  Stapele.  She  had  two  children,  Johan,  who  married  Jacoba  Balfour, 
and  Anne  Maria  van  Stapele  (b.  1635),  who  married  Patrick  Balfour,  and  had 
a  son,  Cornelis  Balfour,  born  24th  Sept.  1669.' 


1579]  STATES  OF  WAR  45 

Le  Regiment  de  Stuart1  de  10  Enseignes  traites  et  armes  comme 
dessus. 

Sio  |  Xf  °  Harqueboustiers  j  £17,000. 

I    750  Picques     .         .  J 
Le  traictement  du  Colonnel,  £996. 

Etat  et  recueil  a  quoy  montent  les  Regiments  et  compaignies  In- 
fanterie  estans  en  service  comme  presentem  ils  sont  payes. 

Le  Regiment  de  15  enseignes  Ecossois  soubz  le  Col.  Balfour  montent 
y  companys  le  traictem  Colonnel  a  la  somme  de  £29,629. 

Les  Regimens  et  compaignies  ainsy  remis  et  redresses  a  150  testes 
chaque  compaignie  comme  cy  devant  est  diet  il  semble  a  monseigneur 
Le  prince  d'Oranges  que  se  pourront  repartir  en  deux  trouppes  Tune  en 
Geldres  et  1'autre  en  flandres  puis  que  1'ennemy  a  la  teste  vers  Geldres 
ou  Frize. 

Pour  Geldres,  etc. 
Item,  le  Regiment  de  Stuwart : 
1000  Harqueboustiers. 

500  Picques        ...         10  Enseignes. 
L'lnfanterie  qui  servira  en  campagne  pour  Brabant  ou  Flandres. 
Le  Regiment  de  Balfour  a  150  testes — 15  Enseignes. 
1500  Harqueboustiers. 
750  Picques. 
Du  nouveau  pied  conceu  par  Monseigr  le  Prince  d'Oranges  pour  dresser 


In  a  Brussels  paper  of  28th  July  1808,  *  Lieutenant-Colonel  Balfour  de  Burleigh 
is  named  Commandant  of  the  Troops  of  the  King  of  the  Netherlands  in  the  West 
Indies.'  The  name  Balfour  of  Burleigh  has  also  been  observed  on  a  door-plate 
in  Utrecht  in  the  present  generation. 

The  difficulty  in  tracing  the  various  officers  of  the  name  who  served  one  or  two 
centuries  ago  must,  however,  be  great,  as  Sir  Robert  Sibbald  states  that  in  his 
time,  at  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  there  were  no  less  than  thirteen 
landed  proprietors  of  the  name  in  Fife.  (Note  communicated  by  Major  Balfour 
of  Fernie. )  The  Balfours  of  Tarrie  and  Mackareston  in  Menteith  were  of  the  same 
stock  as  the  Lords  Balfour  of  Burleigh,  being  descended  from  a  younger  son  of 
Sir  Michael  Balfour  of  Burleigh  (1450),  who  married  Elizabeth  Douglas,  and  the 
direct  line  of  whose  eldest  son  ended  in  the  heiress  of  Burleigh  who  married  Sir 
James  Balfour  of  Pittendreich  (Sinclair  MS.). 

It  seems  therefore  clear  that  the  original  Colonel  Balfour  was  Sir  Henry 
Balfour  of  the  Mackareston  family,  who  was  killed  in  1580,  being  then  'General 
of  the  Scots,'  and  that  at  a  later  period  there  were  two  Henrys  in  the  Dutch 
service,  neither  of  whom  appears  to  have  attained  a  higher  rank  than  captain, 
one  being  that  Colonel  Henry's  son,  who  died  before  1613,  and  the  other  being 
Henry,  brother  of  the  first  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh,  who  died  in  1615  (see  p.  61). 

2  This  refers  to  what  is  mentioned  in  a  previous  section  with  reference  to  the 
English  Regiment  of  Noritz : 

'  dont  les  loo  y  compruys  les  officiers  seront  harqueboustiers  et  les  restans 
50  picques  a  raison  de  1700  livres  pour  chaque  compaignie.' 

1  Sir  William  Stuart  of  Houston.     See  p.  115. 


46  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1579 

les  compaignies  d'Infanterie  de  150  testes  dont  les  cent  y  compruys  les 
officiers  seront  Harqueboustiers  et  les  restans  50  armes  portent  picques 
revenans  pour  ung  mois  de  gages  a  1700  florins. 

Le  capne  par  mois       .  £90  Quatre  corporautz  .  £64 

Lieutenant          .         .      45  Fourier  ou  clercq   .         .     12 

Enseigne    ...      40  Deux  tambourins  .         .     24 

Deux  sergeants  .      48  Ung  chirurgin        .         .     12 

Sa        £335 

Aussy  reste  encore  137  testes  desquels  il  faut  oster  50  corseletz  reste 
87  harqueboustiers  lesquels  seront  traictez  come  sensuyt. 

Les  45     a    £8  .    £360  10    a  £20      .'        .          £100 

12     a       9  .108  8    a     11      .         .  88 

Sa        £656 
12  Mousquetiers. 

6     a  £12  .       ^72  2     a  £15     .         .  £30 

2     a     14  .28  2     a     16      .         .  32 

Sa        ^162 
Les  50  corseletz  seront  traictez  come  sensuyt  : 

14    a    £9  .    £126  2    a  £14     .        .  £28 

33    a     10  .130  2     a     16      .         .  32 

9    a     11  .99  2     a     18      .         .  36 

8    a     12  .         96 

Sa        £547 

Soma  totale  a  quoy  monte  le  mois  degages  pour  150  testes  traictez  et 
armez  come  dessus,        ......         £1700 

REGIMENT  OF  COLONEL  WILLIAM  STEWART. 

[This  is  from  Collection  :  Council  of  State. 
Portfolio  :  e  Hoplieden '  (captains)  3. 
Bundle:  General  settlement  with  Col.  Morgan,  and  with  other 

captains,  1572-1581. 
23  Folios :    General   settlement  with  Col.   Stewart,  and  divers 

documents  pertaining  thereto.] 

Life  Company1  [i.e.  the  Colonel's]  March  1st,  1579— April  18th,  1581. 

CaptDallachy  ...  „  „ 

Mangrief  ...  „  „ 

Penthone  [Renton  ?]  .  „  „ 


1  From  the  settlement  which  Colonel  Stewart  finally  made  in  1593,  it  would 
seem  that  at  1st  March  1579  there  were  five  companies  in  his  regiment,  namely, 
his  own,  James  Stuart's,  Andrew  Stewart's,  Thomson's,  and  Anstruther's. 
(See  also  pp.  16,  19,  and  20.)  In  December  1586  it  was  resolved  that  the  Scots 
should  be  divided  into  two  regiments,  one  of  ten  companies  under  Balfour,  and 
one  of  four  companies  under  Patton.  In  the  following  year  Patton  betrayed 
Gueldres,  and  went  over  to  the  Prince  of  Parma,  and  in  1588  he  appears 
as  colonel  of  a  regiment  of  *  Scots  mixed  with  Walloons.'  (See  note,  p.  26, 


1579]  STATES  OF  WAR  47 

Trottar         ... 
Thomson      ... 


„ 


Amstratter,1          .         .  ,,  ,, 

Gordon,'       .        . 
Blayr  . 

Haultain,  now  Patton,  „  „ 

The  Col.'s  staff. 

1579 

JExhibe  par  Monseig1"  le  Prince  d  Oranges  en  1'assamblee  des  Etats 
gnaulx  le  12  de  decembre. 

I/Estat  quil  semble  a  son  Exe  pouvoir  estre  suyoy  pour  la  Levee  de 
1'armee  quil  juge  estre  necessaire  a  estre  mise  sus  pour  1'annee  qui  vient. 


also  p.  96.)  In  1587  Balfour's  regiment  consisted  of  twelve  companies,  includ- 
ing those  of  Dallachy  and  Blair.  Probably  these  were  two  of  Patton's  regiment, 
which  he  did  not  take  over,  and  which  were  joined  with  the  ten  under  Balfour's 
command.  William  Renton  or  Penton  [Panton]  appears  in  the  general  list  of 
1586,  and  his  son  Andrew,  as  drawing  a  pension,  in  1595.  Captain  William 
Moncrieff  was  killed  on  the  Kowenstyn  Dyke  before  Antwerp  in  1585.  See 
petition  of  his  widow,  Bentgen  Jansz,  November  1618. 

1  Anstruther.     Probably  one  of  the  family  of  Anstruther  of  that  Ilk.     In  1578 
six  of  them  were  serving  at  the  same  time  in  the  Scots  Guards  in  France.    *  Peter 
Anstruther,  a  captain  in  Flanders,  who  died  in  1589,'  is  mentioned  by  Wood  in 
The  East  Neuk  of  Fife  as  probably  a  younger  son   of  John  Anstruther    of 
Anstruther,  who  married  c.  1527  as  his  second  wife  Elizabeth  Spens  of  Wormiston. 
(Note  communicated  by  Sir  Ralph  Anstruther  of  Balcaskie.) 

2  'The  year  of  God  1585  Captain  Alexander  Gordon  (brother  to  William 
Gordon  of  Gight)  was  Governor  of  the  fort  of  Tour-Louis  besyde  Antwerp 
when  it  was  rendered  to  the  Duke  of  Parma :  which  fort  was  manfullie  defended 
by  Captane  Alexander  Gordon  a  long  time  against  the  Spaniards  with  the  loss 
of  much  of  his  owne  blood  and  the  lyves  of  many  of  his  soldiers.     Then  was  he 
maid  Governor  of  Bergen-op-Zoom,  by  Prince  Maurice  his  excellence,  and  thair- 
after  maid  colonel  1  of  a  Scottish  regiment.     In  end  coming  home  to  visit  his 
friends  in  Scotland  he  was  slain  in  Menteith  by  some  evil  willers,  who  had 
secreitlie  layed  an  ambush  for  him.    He  married  Jacobee  Pedralis  of  Aungadere, 
ane  Italian  gentlewoman  by  whom  he  had  two  sons,  George   Gordon  and 
Captain  John  Gordon.     This  captain  John  Gordon  was  slain  in  Holland,  and 
had  a  son  called  Alexander   Gordon.' — Sir  Robert  Gordon's  History  of  the 
Earldom  of  Sutherland. 

A  Captain  Gordon  was  killed  before  Antwerp  on  I3th  August  1584.  The 
pedigree  of  the  Gordons  of  Gight,  given  in  the  Thanage  of  Fermartynt  states 
that  William  Gordon,  who  succeeded  to  Gight  on  the  slaughter  of  his  kins- 
man '  on  the  shore  of  Dundee  by  the  Master  of  Forbes  and  the  Goodman  of 
Towie,'  had  three  brothers — (2)  Captain  John  Gordon,  who  was  killed  at 
Donibristle  in  the  celebrated  attack  made  on  that  house  by  the  Earl  of  Huntly 
when  the  Earl  of  Moray  was  killed  ;  (3)  Alexander,  killed  in  the  wars  of 
Holland  ;  (4)  George,  killed  by  the  Master  of  Menteith. 


48  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1579 

La  quelle  debvrait  estre  prest  pour  le  printemps  tant  des  gens  de  cheval 
que  de  pied  pionniers  artillerie  et  esquippage. 

Gens  de  cheval,  etc. 

Gens  de  pied  pour  la  campaigne. 

Ecossois.     2000  harquebousiers  mil  corpselets. 


Exhibe  p.  le  tresorier  de  guerre,  van  Beke,  le  22  de  Decembre. 

Estat  en  brief  a  quoy  revient  ung  mois  de  gaiges  soldees  et  traictemet 
des  gens  de  guerre  tant  de  cheval  que  de  pied  que  Ton  entendt  pre- 
sentemet  entretenir  pour  le  service  de  messieurs  Les  Estats  ensamble  les 
traictements  des  chefs  du  camp  avec  les  trains  de  vivres  et  de  1'artillerie 
coe  il  sens*. 

Gens  de  piedt  pour  la  Campne  Asscavoir. 

A  deux  milles  Harquebousiers  et  mil  corpselets  Ecossois  ils  se  pourront 
mestre  en  20  compies  soubs  2  Regiments  pour  le  d.  mois  aux  pris  chacune 
compie  et  le  traictement  couronnel  revenans  ensemble  a  la  somme 
de  £42480 


1586 
Rendered  Nov.  28th. 

Cavalier  ie 
Captain  Wisschard. l 

Hollands  Infanterie 
Col.  Balfour2  £1800 


1  Alexander  Wishart  received  commission  in  March  1586  as  cavalry  captain 
in  recognition  of  his  'good  service  at  the  dyke  of  Kowenstyn.'    Obtained  on 
7th  June  1592  an  Act  discharging  legal  proceedings  in  Scotland  at  the  instance 
of  the  States  or  their  Confederates  against  him  and  his  spouse,  until  they  are 
paid  the  debts  due  to  them  by  the  inhabitants  of  Bommel  in  Guelderland 
(P.  C.  Reg. ).   On  March  I4th,  1616,  a  quarrel  having  broken  out  at  Leith  between 
Sir  William  Balfour  and  Captain  Alexander  Wishart,  Sir  William  offering  a 
stroke  of  a  rod  to  Captain  Wishart,  and  he,  after  his  sword  was  broken,  having 
shot  a  pistolet  at  the  said  Sir  William,  they  were  warded  in  the  Castle  of  Edin- 
burgh, and  formally  reconciled  by  the  Privy  Council,  to  prevent  'distraction 
and  factions  among  the  Scottis  captains  and  commanderis  in  the  Low  Countries.' 
See  frequent  references  to  him  and  his  company,  infra. 

2  Bartholomew  Balfour,  Colonel  of  the  old  Scots  Regiment  from  1585  or  1586 
to  1594.     Served  at  Antwerp  and  passim   to    1594   (supra,  pp.  24-28).     He 
was  wounded  near  Groningen,  and  left  the  Dutch  service  in  1594,  on  account  of 
differences  with  the  Estates,  receiving  an  honourable  pension  (pp.  20,  56,  and  114). 
On  6th  January  1603  an  action  was  raised  by  Sir  Michael  Balfour  of  Burley  and 
Colonel  Bartill  Balfour,  his  factor.     Sir  Michael  had  imported  arms  from  France 
for  the  defence  of  the  country,  was  charged  for  duty,  and  brought  a  suspension, 
which  was  sustained  (P.  C.  Reg.}.     Commission  for  his  '  compagnie  colonelle ' 


1586]  STATES  OF  WAR  49 

Gordon1 £1120 

Cant2 1530 

Waddel 3  reduit  et  estime  a  200  testes        .             .  2020 

Blaire4        ......  1720 

Melvil5       . 1540 

Trail6           .             .             .             ...  1450 

Prop 7  reduit  et  estime  a  200  testes             .            .  2200 

Kiets  1180 

Prize 

Meldrom.8 
At  the  end  appears  a  list  of  64  Compies : 


1588  on  p.  84.  Colonel  Bartholomew  was  a  younger  son  of  Bartholomew 
Balfour  of  Mackareston,  in  Menteith  (killed  at  Pinkie  1547),  by  his  second  wife, 
Margaret  Drummond,  daughter  of  Alexander  Drummond  of  Carnock,  previously 
wife  of  Macaulay  of  Ardincaple.  *  She  bore  to  him,'  says  Lord  Strathallan,  in 
his  Genealogy  of  the  Drummonds,  f  Colonel  Bartholomew  Balfour,  the  father  of 
Sir  Philip  Balfour,  both  knowen  for  valiant  men  in  the  wars  of  the  Netherlands.' 
Colonel  Bartholomew  married  Beatrix  Cant,  whose  will,  in  which  she 
bequeathed  a  dyamont  ring  to  her  nephew,  Sir  William  Balfour,  is  noted  in  the 
Edinburgh  Commissariat  Register,  vol.  xlvii.  It  is  dated  January  28th,  1611,  and 
she  is  designed  as  *  sumtyme  spous  to  Colonell  Barthilmo  Balfour  of  Ridhews. ' 
In  1589  Bartholomew  Balfour,  'coronator,'  and  his  wife  bought  Prior  Letham, 
which  was  sold  in  1597.  In  1601  he  bought  *  Reidheuchis,'  in  the  parish 
of  Currie,  Midlothian,  which  was  sold  by  his  son  Philip  in  1618.  He  was 
alive  in  1605.  Besides  Sir  Philip,  afterwards  colonel  of  a  regiment,  he  had  a 
second  son,  James,  a  captain  in  Holland,  and  was  probably  the  grandfather  or 
great-grandfather  of  Brigadier  Bartholomew  Balfour  killed  at  Killiecrankie  in 
1689  (see  p.  70,  note).  See  also  pp.  96  et  sey.,  114,  and  245. 

1  See  note,  p.  47. 

2  David  Cant,  brother-in-law  of  Colonel  Henry  Balfour,  dead  July  1592,  when 
John  Mitchell  succeeded  him.     Recommendation  in  favour  of  the  widow  of  his 
brother  and  heir,  Walter  Cant,  on  5th  July  1594,  and  see  claims  of  his  nephew, 
Sir  William  Balfour,  tnfra,  pp.  252-255.      See  also  as  to  a  dispute  to  which 
Walter  Cant,  younger,  was  a  party,  which  had  been  *  remitted  to  the  decision  of 
the  Colonels  and  Captains  of  the  Scots  Companies  in  Flanders,'  25th  October 
1581.—  P.  C.  Reg. 

3  William  Waddell  left  service  in  1594,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Robert, 
formerly  his  lieutenant.     '  Captain  Waddell '  appears  in  pension  list  of  1597. 

4  The  widow  and  two  children  of  Captain  Blair  appear  in  pension  list  of  1595. 

5  An  Alexander  Melville  was  killed  before  Groningen,  I5th  July  1594,  but 
his  commission  as  captain  was  dated  3rd  February  1589. 

6  (David)  Trail,  dead  before  March  3ist,  1590,  when  Captain  William  Brog 
succeeded  him.     His  widow  and  heir  were  recommended  in  1594. 

7  John  Prop,  sent  to  States  from  Antwerp,  1585.     Dead  in  June  1596,  when 
succeeded  by  Arthur  Stuart.     His  widow  was  receiving  pension  in  1 599,  and  his 
children  appear  in  1607. 

8  Captain  Meldrum's  widow  appears  in  pension  list  of  1595. 

D 


50  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1586 

Anglois 
Including  (apparently  by  mistake) — 

Rally  .  .  .         ....  .  .         1180 

Boswel         ......      £1180 

Guillame  Morray 1  .  .  .  .  .         1700 

Dallachy2   .  .  .  .  „ 

Wm.  Nysbeth3        .  .  .         .......  :  .  „ 

Alex.  Morray 4  .  .  .  „ 

Renton5      ....  „ 

JanBalfour6  .  .  .  .  .  „ 


1  Sir  William  Murray  of  Pitcairly,  second  son  of  Sir  William  Murray  of 
Tullibardine  (ancestor  of  Duke  of  Athol),  left  the  Dutch  service  in  September 
1588,  and  was  succeeded  in  his  company  by  Alexander  Murray,  his  brother 
(pp.  89  and  106),  who  had  previously  commanded  a  company.     He  had  claims 
against  the  States,  which  were  settled  in  1594  when  he  came  over  as  ambassador 
from  King  James,  and  received  a  pension,  settled  first  on  himself  and  subsequently 
on  his  children  (see  pp.  74,  153,  and  233).    He  received  another  recommendation 
from  King  James  in  1599,  when  he  came  over  to  settle  the  affairs  of  his  brother, 
Colonel   Murray,  killed  at  Bommel.     Douglas  (followed  by  Burke)  and  the 
Chronicles  of  the  Families  of  Atholl  and  Tullibardine  state  that  Sir  William 
Murray,   tenth   Baron  of  Tullibardine,   who  married  Catherine  Campbell  of 
Glenurchy,  and  died  in  1562,  had  Sir  William,  who  succeeded  him  ;  Alexander, 
a  colonel  in  the  service  of  the  States  of  Holland;  James  of  Purdoves,  and 
Andrew  Murray.      Sir  William,  the  eldest   son,   who  married   Lady  Agnes 
Graham,  and  died  in  1583,  had  John,  his  heir,  Sir  William  of  Pitcairly,  Alex., 
said  to  have  died  young,  and  Mungo  of  Dunork.    But  it  would  seem  that  Colonel 
Alexander  Murray  really  belonged  to  the  later  generation. 

2  Captain  John  Dallachy  continued  to  serve  until  1599,  when  he  was  succeeded 
in  October  (being  dead)  by  John  Kilpatrick.     Probably  killed  at  Bommel.     His 
widow  (Elizabeth   Crichton)  and  two  children  appear  in  list  of  1607.      See 
recommendation  '  en  sa  vieillesse '  by  King  James,  April  1599.    Attended  Dutch 
ambassadors  in  Scotland  in  1594. 

3  William  Nisbet.      Received  captain's  commission  on  i7th  Oct.  1581,  in 
succession  to  Captain  John  Nisbet,  in  the  regiment  of  Count  Diedrich  Sonoy 
(p.  76).     The  name  Nisbet  occurs  until  1600,  when  Hugo  Nisbet  succeeded  his 
father,  and  was  killed  at  Nieuport.    The  children  of  Captain  John,  and  the  widow 
(El.  Forbes)  and  children  of  Captain  William  appear  in  pension  list  of  1607. 

4  Alexander  Murray  succeeded  his  brother  in  his  company  in  1588,  became 
colonel  of  the    Scottish  Regiment  in   1594.      Killed  at  Bommel,   1599  (see 
p.  29).  5  See  note,  p.  47. 

6  A  Captain  John  Balfour,  who  had  previously  served  with  distinction,  received 
a  commission  as  cavalry  captain  in  March  1586  (p.  79).  A  John  Balfour  also 
appears  in  list  of  1587,  and  then  disappears.  This  was  probably  Captain  John 
Balfour  of  Wester  Pitcorthie,  second  husband  of  Christian  Cant,  dead  in  1592, 
who  had  in  1586  a  law-suit  with  Alexander  Balfour  of  Denmylne  for  redelivery 
of  'twa  blankis'  left  with  him  on  leaving  for  Flanders.  In  1594  a  Captain 
John  Balfour  is  mentioned  by  the  ambassadors  of  the  States  as  seen  by  them  at 
the  Scottish  Court.  This  was  probably  Captain  John  Balfour,  brother  of  David 


1589] 


STATES  OF  WAR 


51 


Montgomery 
Olifart 


£1700 


Col.  Balfour 


1587 
Rendered  Dec.  31st. 

Foot 

Companies  of  200  men 
Actual  number  at  the  last  muster. 

Companies  of  150  men 


Cant 

Waddel    . 
Treil     •    . 
Blair 
Nysbet 
Dallachy  . 


Hay 

Guile  Morray  . 

Jan  Balfour 

Prop 

Alex.  Morray  . 


.     148 
.120 
.     144 
.         .     150 

..  .    ,     .     135 
..  ,      •     150 

List  of  pay 

Col.  Balfour  with  one  Sr  major  at  80£  and  one  Provost  Marshal 
at  50£  monthly  ...... 

1588  and  1589 
Foot  soldiers  paid  by  Holland 
Estimated  Estimated 


200 

144 
150 
103 
137 
126 


£530 


£1500 
1500 
1500 
1500 


Balfour  of  Bandon,  who,  along  with  Margaret  de  Primzie,  his  spouse,  entered 
into  a  contract  with  Michael  Balfour  of  Mountquhanny  and  Andrew  Balfour,  his 
son,  on  yth  June  1598.  On  6th  September  1599  Andrew  Balfour  of  Strathor 
granted  an  obligation  for  8000  marks  to  Margaret  de  Primzie,  relict  of  Captain 
John  Balfour.  Bandon  was  possessed  by  this  family  from  at  least  1498  to  1642. 
From  the  resolutions  of  Holland  it  appears  that  Captain  John  Balfour,  who  had 
a  claim  in  respect  of  Captain  John  Petam's  company,  was  appointed  second 
sergeant-major  in  July  1597,  the  Prince  of  Orange  being  unwilling  to  supersede 
Sergeant-Major  Brog,  and  Holland  having  three  months  before  appointed 
Balfour.  On  March  I5th,  1605,  a  petition  was  referred  to  the  committee  from 
Margrieta  Proignere,  widow  of  the  late  Captain  Balfour,  and  before  him  widow 
of  the  late  Captain  Johan  de  Petain.  The  widow  of  Captain  John  Balfour 
appears  in  the  pension  list  of  1609.  In  April  1606  John  Balfour,  brother  of 
Baron  Balfour  of  Burley,  presented  a  request  to  raise  a  company,  which  was 
not  disposed  of  (p.  203). 

1  Alexander  Melville,  commissioned  February  3rd,  1589.  Killed  at  Groningen 
1 5th  July  1594.  His  widow  (Maria  Rigg)  appears  in  pension  list  of  1597. 
For  names  of  children,  see  list  of  1607.  A  branch  of  the  Fife  house  of  Melville 
is  still  represented  in  Holland. 


Col.  Balfour  . 

200  men 

.  £2200 

Hay,  now  Melvil,1 

130  men 

Waddel  . 

130 

.     1500 

Prop    . 

130 

Cant       . 

150 

.     1700 

Morray 

130 

Dallachy 

130 

.     1500 

Trail   .        V        . 

130 

Nysbet  . 

130 

.     1500 

WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1587 

Pay  on  Holland 
Col.  Balfour  with  one  Sfc  major  at  80J  and  one 

Provost  Marshal  at  50.£  £530 


Settling  of  Accounts  with  the  Captain  Mathias  Railing 

Evhibitum,  Aug.  24,  1592. 

ESCOMPTE  faict  de  la  part  des  Estatz  generaulx  des  Provinces  unies  du 
Pays  Bas  avec  le  Capitaine  Mathias  Railing,  des  services  par  Iceluy 
faicts  avecq  sa  Compaignie  de  gens  de  pied,  depuis  le  XIVe  de 
Janvier  1587,  jour  de  sa  premiere  moustre,  jusques  au  XXIV6  de- 
Juillet  ensuivant,  que  Alexandre  Mouray  est  venu  en  sa  place- 
Faict  en  libvres,  soulx  et  deniers  de  40  gros  pieces. 

Premierement  revient  au  Capne  depuis  le  14e  Janvier  1587, 
qu'il  a  este  premierement  par  moustre  a  la  ville  de 
Rotterdam,  troure  fort  de  150  testes,  jusques  au  20e 
febvrier  ensuivant  inclus,  faisant  37  jours  a  1'advenant 
de  C£l7  par  mois         .... 

La  somme  de  .  .  .  .  .     £1965  12    6 

Encores  depuis  le  21e  de  Febvrier  1587  que  la  dite  com- 

paignie  a  de  recheff  passe  moustre  en  la  ville  de  Delff 

et  trouve  fort  de  141  testes  (en  retirant  le  sergeant 

Maior  illecq  passe  et  non  paye  par  le  dit  Capne) 

Jusqu'au  7e  de  May  ensuivant  faisant  le  temps  de  deux 

mois  12  Jours,  a  1'advenant  de  £1610  par  mois 
revient        .......        4823  15    0 

Encores  depuis  le  8e  de  May  1587  jusqu'au  28e  de  Juillet 
que  Alexandre  Mouray  est  venu  en  sa  place,  faisant 
deux  mois  18  jours,  a  1'advenant  de  £1360  par  mois, 
pour  116  testes  ..... 

revient        .......        3485 

Somma        .  .  .  .  .  .        9274    7    £ 

de  quoy  rabatu  le  sixiesme  denier  a  cause  du  moindre 

nombre,  changement  des  noms,  et  desspenses  tombees 

passant  par  le  plat  pays,  reste  .  .  .        7728  13    4 

y  adiouste  £600,  quoy  luy  a  (ete)  donne  en  recompense 

du  service  qu'il  a  fait  devant  date  de  la  dite  moustre 

Revient  ensemble :  huict  mille  trois  cents  vingt  et  huict 

libvres,  treize  souls,  quatre  deniers     .  .  .        8328  13    4 

Payements  faicts  a  I'encontre  et  premierement  en  argent 

Premierement  paye  par  le  Recepveur  general  le  19e 

Janvier  1587  ......  £1700  0  0 

le  26e  Janvier  a  Michel  Gordon,  gentilhomme  de  la  com- 

paignie,  ....  15  0  O 


1587]  STATES  OF  WAR  53 

le  23e  de  Mars  1587  par  descharge  sur  le  recepveur  de 
Hollande  £1620,  mais  com  me  suivant  la  reveue,  il 
n'a  este  paye  la  dessus  que  £1177,  partant  seulle- 
mentici  .  .  .  .  .  .  £1177  0  0 

le  25e  de  May  1587  encore  .  .        1360    0    0 

Encores  par  ceux  d' Hollande  par  les  mains  de  Lodensteyu 

le  25e  d'Avril  1587  .  .  .  1550  8  0 

par  les  mesmes  par  de  Lint  sur  rescript  de  son  Exce  et 

ordonnance  du  206  de  May  1587  ,  .  .  834  12  0 

Premiere  Somme    .  6637    0    0 


Aultres  payements  f aicts  par  prestes,  vivres  et  armes 

Par  Thomas  Rochusz  surquoy  ordonnance  a  suivy  du  20e 

Febvrier  1587  .  .  .  .       £121     2    6 

Par  ceulx  de  Cluyndert,  surquoy  ordonnance  a  suivy  du 

25e  Febvrier  1587        .  .  .  .  .  85     0     9 

Par  Biermans,  recepveur  a  Aernhem   par  31  recepisses, 
depuis  le  8e  d'Avril  1587  jusques  au  premier  de  Juille 
ensuyvent        .  .  .  .  .  1544    0    0 

Par  Caesvell  20  musquettes,  84  harquebuses,  avecq  les 

furnitures,  trois  rondasses,  40  corcelettes,  40  picques        1444    0    0 
La  portion  pour  ceste  compaignie  des  vivres  despartis  au 
Regiment  Escossois  en  1'expedition  faicts  en  Brabant, 
1'an  '87  .   .         .  .  .  .  .          568  14    8 

Encores  de  Mierop  par  ceulx  de  Wesip     .  .  . .        258    0    0 

De  Thomas  Rachusz  par  ceulx  de  Geertruydenberge        .  11  13    6 

De  Regelinck  par  ceulx  de  Schombourg    .  .  .  44    3    0 

Encores  par  de  Lint  .  ..  .•  .  .    •        31  15    6 

De  Lodenstein,  par  ceulx  de  Delff  .  *  .  48  15  10 

Encores  par  ceulx  de  Wesip  .  ...          .  ,.  8  10    2 

Encores  par  Iceulx  .  .  .  .  .  24  16     2 

Encores  par  Thomas  Rochusz         .  :  .  .  71     1     0 

De  Mierop  par  ceulx  de  Sevenbergen         .  .     '       .  18  16    0 

Encores  a  1'hospital  a  Leyde          .  .  .  .  5    3.    0 

£  1'hospital  a  Delif  .  ',    .         -  .  19  10    0 

a  1'hospital  a  Dordrecht      .  !  .    .         .'.  .  17  15    0 

a  1'hospital  a  Amsterdam    .  .  .  ,  ...  3     1  11 

a  1'hospital  a  la  Haye          .  .  .  ...  024    0 

Par  ceulx  d'Utrecht  .'  .  .  ,^  .  36    6    7 

Encores  rabaton  au  Capitaine  selon  la  vieille  Coustume  le 
Centieme  denier  de  tous  les  ds  payements,  excepte' 
des  £1700  qu'il  a  receu  du  Recepveur  ge'neral  ou  le 
dfc  rabatement  a  este  une  fois  fait,  faisant  £9190, 
19s.  3d.  de  quoy  le  c°  denier  monte  .  '  .  .  90  18  2 


54  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1592 

Seconde  Somme      .  .  .  .  .  .     £4345  17    5 

Totale  Somme       •  *<••<.  .  .        i  .-«,  .      1098217    5 

Revient  doncques  trop  receu  :  deux  mille  six  cent,  qua- 
rante  et  quatre  libvres,  quatre  souls,  1  denier  (£2644, 

4s.  Id.) 

Ainsy  faict  et  descompte  a  la  Haye,  a  condition  que  s'il  se  trouve  avoir 
este  quelque  chose  davantage  et  profite  par  ceste  compaignie  soit  en  loge- 
ments  par  le  plat  pays  ou  qu'ils  ayent  les  despens  es  villes  sur  les 
bourgeois  ou  quelque  chose  d'aultre  qui  n'est  point  specific  cy  dessus  en 
ceste  descompte  soit  en  vivres,  armes,  munitions,  vestemens  au  aultre- 
ment,  que  tout  cela  pourra  estre  cy  apres  sans  aulcune  contradiction 
rabatu  au  payement  qui  en  sera  faict,  selon  qu'il  comment. 
Faict  le  23e  d'Aougst  1592.  Signe'  C.  Aerssen. 

MATTHIAS  RALLING. 

1595 
Rendered  Nov.  18th. 

Cavalry 

Edmond1     100  men  .         .  .  .    '        .      £2275 

Foot  soldiers  paid  by  Holland 


Col.  Morray       200  men      £2264 
Wm.  Balfour  2   150  1748 

Wm.  Brog3 


Wm.  Waddel4   150  men      £1748 
John  Michel5         „  „ 

John  Prop       .       „  „ 


1  Sir  William  Edmond,  a  native  of  Stirling,  received  commission  as  captain  of 
a  company  of  lancers  loth  June  1589  (p.  90).     Succeeded  Alexander  Murray  in 
command  of  the  old  Scots  Regiment  in  1599.     Recommended  (p.  179).     For  his 
services  see  pp.  29-35.     Killed  at  Rheinberg  Sept.  1606.     Widow  and  children 
recommended  by  King  James  1611. 

2  William  Balfour  received  commission,  in  February  1594,  as  captain,  in  suc- 
cession  to  Colonel  Barthold  Balfour,  whose  lieutenant  he  had  been  (p.  92). 
Served  at  Huy  in  1595,  and  was  killed  at  Hulst  in  1596,  being  succeeded,  on 
30th  August,  by  Archibald  Buntin.     On  25th  May  1598  an  application  was  made 
by  David  Balfour,  servitor  to  Mr.  Henry  Balfour,  advocate,  against  Sir  Michael 
Balfour  of  Balgonie,  as  to  the  sum  of  400  crowns  received  by  him  from  the 
deceased  Captain  William  Balfour. 

3  Sir  William  Brog.       Captain,  March  3ist,  1590.      Sergeant-Major,  1588. 
Recommended  by  King  James,  1599,   Lieutenant-Colonel,  1600.    Colonel  in  suc- 
cession to  Sir  William  Edmond,  September  I2th,  1606.     Commanded  the  regi- 
ment till  1636.     Specially  selected  in  1595  to  act  as  sergeant-major  of  the  force 
under  Justinus  of  Nassau  which  went  to  relieve  Cambrai  and  co-operate  with 
Henry  IV.  of  France  (see  Commission,  p.  94).    He  was  dead  by  I3th  March  1636. 

4  William  Waddel,  appointed  August  3rd,  1595,  in  succession  to  G.  Johnston 
(deceased),  having  already  filled  the  place  for  some  time.    Johnston  had  been 
appointed,  on  July  i8th,  1594,  in  succession  to  Robert  Waddell,  who  had  been 
killed  before  Groningen  on  July  i5th.     (Robert  had  succeeded  his  brother 
William  shortly  before.)     Was  killed  at  Meurs  in  1597.     The  children  of  Captain 
Waddel  appear  in  the  pension  list  of  1599.     For  their  names,  see  list  of  1607. 

8  John  (or  James)  Mitchell  succeeded  Captain  Cant  on  28th  July,  1592.     He 


1595]  STATES  OF  WAR  55 


Wm.  Nysbeth     150  men     £1748 
John  Dallachy          „  „ 


John  Strachan »    150  men    £1748 
James  Egger2  „  „ 


Pay  on  Holland 

Col.  Morray £400    0    0 

The  pension  of  the  Prince  of  Scotland  of  5000£  yearly, 
of  which  the  share  of  Holland  amounts  to  2655£, 
19s.  4d.,  which  is  monthly  .  .  .  221  6  2 

Wardens 

Brog  Warden  (St  Major)  of  the  Scots         .  .  .          30    0    0 

N.S.  Is  Brog  to  be  allowed  to  fill  the  two  offices  of 
Warden  and  Captain  at  the  same  time,  this  must  be 
looked  into. 

Officers  of  Justice 
Alex.  Murray,3  Provost  Marshal  of  the  Scots          .  .  50    0    0 

Pay  on  Zeeland 
The  pension  of  the  Prince  of  Scotland,  etc.,    £65313    0         £54    9    5 

Pay  on  Utrecht 
Ditto         .  .  .  .         274  14    0  22  17  10 

Pay  on  Groningen  and  Ommelanden 
Ditto         .  .  .  366    5     5  30  10    5 

Pay  on  the  Veluwe  (Gelderland) 
Ditto  325     0    0  27     1     8 


was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Nieuport  in  1600,  and  his  widow  appears  in  the 
pension  list  of  1608. 

1  John  Strachan  received  commission,  in  succession  to  Alexander  Melville,  on 
i8th  July  1594.    Killed  at  Nieuport  1600.     His  widow  (Anna  Kirkpatrick)  in 
pension  list  of  1607. 

2  James  Egger  (Edgar)  received  commission  December  nth,  1589,  on  king's  re- 
commendation (new  company).     Killed  at  Hulst  before  3<Dth  August  1596,  when 
he  was  succeeded  by  his  lieutenant  and  brother  Alexander  Egger.     Widow  and 
children  in  pension  list  of  1599.    Two  children,  Nicholas  and  Margaret,  are  noted 
in  1607.     In  1599  Nicholas  Edgar,  heir  of  Captain  James  Edgar,  his  father,  was 
retoured  in  the  lands  of  Patrick  Edgar,  merchant  in  Edinburgh,  and,  as  heir  of 
his  father,  in  part  of  the  lands  of  Lymphoy  and  Hillhousefield  in  the  baronies  of 
Restalrig  and  Broughton.     Edgar  of  Wedderlie,  in  Berwickshire,  was  an  ancient 
family  of  Saxon  origin,  which,  like  the  Hepburns  and  Rentons,  held  their  lands  of 
the  old  Earls  of  Dunbar.     A  branch  of  the  name  settled  in  Dumfriesshire,  and  in 
the  sixteenth  centurya  rich  burgess  of  the  name,  Patrick  Edgar,  lived  in  Edinburgh, 
and  his  family  were  owners  of  Peffermiln,  where  their  arms  showed  connection 
with  the  house  of  Wedderlie.     In  1596  Captain  James  Edgar,  a  gentleman  of 
Scotland,  who  had  served  the  French  king,  received  a  passport  for  himself  and 
his  page  to  go  through  England  to  France. — The  Scottish  House  of  Edgar. 

3  Alexander  Murray  received  commission  as  Provost  Marshal  on  3ist  May  1595. 


56  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1595 

Pay  on  Overyssel 
The  pension  of  the  Prince  of  Scotland,  etc.,   £175    0    0         £1411     8 

Pay  on  Vrieslandt 

549    8     1  45  15     8 

Other  payment*  made  by  the  Receiver  from  the  balance  of  the  contribution 

of  Brabant 

The  widow  of  Cap.  Meldrom  250£  yearly  and  monthly  .  £20  16     3 

The  widow  of  Capn  Blaire,  with  her  2  children        .  .  33    6    8 

Bartholt  Balfour,  formerly  Colonel,  at  1000£          .  .  83    6     8 

Andries  Penton,1  son  of  Guillaume  Penton,  150£  yearly  .  12  10    0 

The  widow  of  Johan  Cuninga 2  at  300£         .            .  25    0    0 

„        „      Capn  Hans  Craeck,  100£        .            .  .  868 

1597 
Rendered  June  2d 

Footsoldiers  paid  by  Holland 
Col.  Morray       200  men      £2264          Michel  150  men        £1748 


Waddel  150  1748 

Dallachy  „ 

Nysbeth  ,, 

Brogh  „ 


j» 


;> 


Strachan 
Stuart3 
Alex.  Egger* 
Brontin  5 


Pay  on  Hollandt 
Col.  Morray  .  .  .  .      £400    0    0 

Pensions  on  Hollandt 
The  Pension  of  the  Prince  of  Scotlandtof  £5000,  etc.  (see  1595). 

Wardens 
Brog  St  Major  of  the  Scots  .  .  .  .          30    0    0 

Officers  of  Justice 
Alex.  Murray,  Provost  Marshal  of  the  Scottish  Regt          .  50    0    0 

1  Or  Renton, 

2  John  Cunningham  is  recorded  as  having  distinguished  himself  as  an  artillerist 
at  the  siege  of  Haarlem.     He  is  referred  to  in  the  resolutions  of  Holland  in 
1585  as  Colonel  Cunningham.    In  1581,  being  then  *  commander  of  the  artillery,' 
he  received  a  commission  as  *  Assistant '  (Adjutant)  to  Count  William  Louis  of 
Nassau,  at  Dockum  (see  p.  77),  and  in  the  same  year  a  commission  for  the 
relief  of  Naijesijl  (p.  78).     He  married  Anna  van  Duivenvoorde. 

3  Arthur  Stuart  succeeded  Captain  Prop,  June  i6th,  1596.     Killed  at  Nieuport 
1600.     His  widow  (Anna  van  Leeuwen)  appears  in  pension  list  of  1607. 

4  Succeeded  his  brother  August  soth,  1596.    Killed  at  Meurs  before  November 
28th,  1597. 

5  Archibald  Buntin(?)  succeeded  William  Balfour  3Oth  August  1596.      Dead 
before  August  i2th,  1599.     Probably  killed  at  one  of  the  sharp  actions  near 
Bommel. 


1598]                        STATES  OF  WAR  57 

Ministers 

Andreas  Hunterus,1  Minister  of  the  Scottish  Regimen1       .      £30  0  0 

Other  pensions  paye  at  the  Office  of  the  Receiver-General 

Col.  Balfour           .            .            .    '        .      £1000  yearly        £83  6  3 

Cap.  Waddel         .             .  *          .             .700  58  6  8 

Widow  of  J.  Cuninga       .            .            ,300  25  0  0 

„      „   Cap.  Meldrom  .            .            .          250  20  16  6 

„      „      „     Blaire  and  2  children       .400  33  6  8 

The  same  additionally       .            ,            .          150  12  10  0 

Widow  of  Cap.  J.  Craeck                          .100  ,869 

„      „      „     Melvil       .            .            .400  33  6  8 

Andries  Penthon,  son  of  Cap11  Gme  Penthon      150  12  10  0 


1598 
Footsoldiers 


Col.  Morray         160  men    £1852 

Andries  Morray2  120  1435 

Dallachy 

Nysbeth  „  „ 

Brog 


Michel               120  men  £1435 

Strachan                   „  ,, 

Stuart                       „  „ 

Robt  Bercley3       „  ,, 
Bontin 


Compan**  from  the  undivided  (war)  expenses  and  now  charged  to  Holland 
Caddel4  150  men      £1748        Hamilton6          150  men      £1748 


1  Andrew  Hunter  was  for  a  long  time  chaplain.     See  representations  by  him 
(p.  245)  in  1611  and  later. 

2  Andrew  Moray  succeeded  William  Waddell,  November  26th,  1 597.    Captured 
and  killed  at  Nieuport,   1600.      Captain  Andrew  Moray,  fifth  son  of  Robert 
Moray  of  Abercairney,  and  Catherine  Murray  (of  Tullibardine),  died  in  Holland 
without  issue  (Douglas's  Baronage}.    An  older  brother  was  Sir  David  of  Gorthy, 
and  a  third  Mungo  Moray  of  Craigie,  who  married  a  daughter  of  George  Halkett 
of  Pitfirran.     A  younger  brother,  James,  also  died  without  issue. 

3  Robert  Barclay  succeeded  Alexander  Egger,  November  20th,  1597.    Captured 
and  killed  at  Nieuport,  1600.      King  James  shortly  afterwards  gave  his  brother, 
David  Barclay  of  Struiy  (sic,  Urie  or  Towie  ?),  a  letter  of  recommendation.     See 
infra,  p.  181,  Requests  by  his  widow  1604,  and  son  1607  ;  also  p.  21 1. 

4  James  Caddell  received  commission  (new  company),    I5th  August    1596. 
Question  with  Utrecht  as  to  his  arrears,    1604.      On   7th  August  1595   the 
authorities  of  Holland  considered  a  letter  from  the  Prince  *  strongly  recom- 
mending Jaques  Caddel,  for  his  good  qualities  and  services,  as  L*,  to  be  granted 
the  company  he  served  in.'    He  died  as  lieutenant-colonel  in  1618,  having  served 
in  the  Juliers  campaign.     He  married  Catherina  van  Duivenvoorde,  and  on  her 
petition  their  son  Thomas  received  extraordinary  pay  in  Colonel  Brogh's  Com- 
pany, until  he  should  be  able  to  carry  arms. — Res.  of  Holland,  1618. 

5  John  Hamilton  received  commission  (new  company)  isth  August,   1596. 
(Must  be  distinguished  from  Cavalry  Captain  John  Hamilton,  who  received  his 
commission  as  such  on  April  I4th,  1599,  and  was  killed  at  Newport).     On  I3th 
November  1621  a  petition  was  presented  to  the  Scottish  Privy  Council  by  Captain 


58                      WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1598 

Pay 

Col.  Morray                                                   .            .            .  £400    0    0 

Wardens 

Thos.  Nysche,1  St  Major  of  the  Scots          .            .            .  80    0    0 

Officers  of  Justice 

Alex.  Murray,  Provost  Marshal  of  the  Scots           .  ,          .  50    0     0 

Ministers 

Andreas  Hunterus,  Minister  of  the  Scottish  Regt               .  30    0    0 

Pensions  payable  at  the  Office  of  the  Receiver-General  for  settlement  of 

accounts  and  previous  services 

Col.  Balfour,  yearly              .             .             .      £1000  £83     6     3 

The  children  of  Capn  Waddel,  deceased      ,          600  yearly  50    0    0 

Widow  Johan  Cuninga         .             .             .           300  25     0    0 

„        Capn  Meldrom         ...           250  20  16     8 

„           „     Blair,  with  her  2  children       .           400  33     6     8 

The  same  additionally      ,.  ."          .            .           150  12  10    0 

Widow  Capn  Mellvil             .            .            .400  33    6    8 

Andries  Renton,  son  of  Capn  Guillaume  Renton  150  12  10    0 

Summary  of  the  divided  monthly  war  expenses  or  required  to  be  divided 

over  the  7  provinces,  etc.,  conform  the  statement  rendered  July  4th  1598 

Undivided  (war)  expenses 

Additional  13  English  Compies,  etc. 

The  pension  of  the  Prince  of  Scotland  at  5000£  yearly  which  pro  month 

amounts  to        ......  £416  13    4 

2  Compies  of  Scots,  each  of  150  men,  at  1265£,  18s.  4d., 

together  monthly         .            .          ..u    '         .            .  2531  16    8 

1599 2 

Cavalry 

Edmond                                          80  men  £2125 


Harry  Bruce  to  stop  proceedings  against  him  '  for  the  slaughter  of  Captain  John 
Hamilton  in  single  combat  in  the  Low  Country  of  Flanders  some  seventeen 
years  ago.'  But  John  appears  to  have  been  a  mistake  for  William  (p.  66).  See 
representation  for  when  in  garrison  at  Nymguen  in  1601  (p.  184).  A  Captain 
Hamilton  was  killed  at  Grave  in  1602,  and  one  of  the  name  had  been  in  service 
in  1594  (see  p.  177).  Captain  John  Hamilton  had  died  before  January  i6th,  1620, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  Captain  Marjoribanks,  and  had  '  served  more  than 
forty  years.'  See  resolution  in  favour  of  a  petition  by  his  daughter,  infra. 

1  Thomas  Niche,  formerly  lieutenant  of  Captain  Murray,  received  his  com- 
mission as  sergeant-major  (sit)  on  6th  October  1598.     He  was  probably  killed 
before  Rheinberg  in  1601,  for  Prince  Maurice  there  appointed  Archibald  Erskine 
to  succeed  him  on  July  22nd,  1601. 

2  This  is  a  curious  list,  and  really  represents  the  state  of  the  regiment  after 


1599]  STATES  OF  WAR  59 

Footsoldiers  paid  by  Holland 
Col.  Edmondt  150  men  £2014 


the  battle  of  Nieuport  in  1600.     The  Holland  lists  for  1599  and  1600  are  as 
follows : — 

1599  1600 

Col.  Murray  and  R.  Henderson.  Col.  Edmond. 

Bruntin  and^CoLjEdmond.  Henrison. 

Andro  Murray.  Murray. 

Dallachy  and^Kilpatrick.  Kirkpatrick. 

Nysbeth.  Nysbeth  and  his  son  Hugo  Nysbeth. 

Brogh.  Brog. 

Mitchel.  Michel,  with  James  Phis  and  Sincler. 

Strachan.  Strachan. 

Stuart.  Stewart  and  Neisch. 

Berclay.  Berclay. 

Daniel  Mackigny. 

Allane  Coutes. 

Henry  Balfour. 

Caddel. 

Ker. 

The  list  of  1 600  indicates  very  plainly  the  effects  of  the  disaster  at  Nieuport.  The 
names  in  italics  are  the  officers  who  fell.  The  others  recorded  by  the  historians  as 
present  were,  besides  Colonel  Edmond  and  Sergeant-Major  Brog,  Henderson, 
Caddel,  and  Ker.  Robert  Henderson,  the  first  of  three  brothers  who  were  to 
distinguish  themselves  in  the  Dutch  service,  had  succeeded  to  Colonel  Murray's 
company  in  June  1599.  Caddel,  and  Hamilton,  whose  name  does  not  appear, 
and  who  may  have  been  in  garrison  elsewhere  (his  name  appearing  under  Utrecht 
in  1604),  commanded  the  two  companies  added  in  1596,  and  John  Ker  received 
his  commission  on  April  24th,  1599,  as  captain  of  a  new  company  then  raised. 
On  September  I5th,  1599,  the  States-General  had  resolved  to  maintain  'at  the 
general  expense  13  companies  of  Scots,  viz.,  the  life  company  at  150  men, 
and  12  other  companies,  each  of  113  men.'  On  3rd  July  1600,  they  resolved 
'that  all  the  Scots  remaining  after  the  defeat  they  lately  suffered  shall  be 
divided  over  the  4  companies  of  which  the  captains  are  still  living.'  Edmond, 
Henderson,  Brog,  and  Caddel  appear  in  later  lists.  Ker  received  a  letter  of 
recommendation  from  King  James  on  27th  December  1600,  having  been  called 
to  Scotland  on  private  affairs  (p.  182).  Archibald  Johnston  was  appointed  in 
his  place  shortly  before. 

It  would  seem  that  while  Murray's,  Kirkpatrick's,  Nisbet's,  Strachan's,  and 
Barclay's  companies  were  completely  wiped  out,  Mitchel's  and  Stuart's  were  so 
far  extant  that  they  could  still  be  held  to  exist,  and  Sinclair  and  Neish  to  be 
successors  of  their  former  captains.  Colonel  Edmond  brought  over  800  Scots 
in  October,  and  the  States  ordered  three  new  companies  to  be  formed.  These 
were  evidently  Mackenzie's,  Balfour's,  and  Coutts's. 

Robert  Henderson  was  the  second  son  of  James  Henderson  of  Fordell,  and 
Jean,  daughter  of  William,  tenth  baron  of  Tulliebardine.  His  elder  brother, 


60  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1599 

Daniel  Makingny1  113  men   £1502    |    Allyn  Coutys2    113  men    £1502 

Sir  John  Henderson,  married  first  a  daughter  -of  Sir  Michael  Balfour  of 
Burleigh,  and  second,  Anna,  daughter  of  Sir  Robert  Halkett  of  Pitfirran.  It  is 
curious  that  while  Douglas  mentions  Sir  Francis  Henderson  (the  fourth  son) 
as  killed  at  Bergen-op-Zoom  in  the  Dutch  service,  he  merely  says  that  Sir 
Robert  and  Sir  James  (the  third  son)  distinguished  themselves  in  the  Danish, 
Swedish,  and  French  wars.  On  i;th  March  1618,  there  was  submitted  to  the 
Scots  Privy  Council  a  complaint  by  John  Boyle  of  Kilburn  against  Robert 
Galbraith  of  Culcreuch,  as  cautioner  for  him  '  at  the  hands  of  Sir  Robert 
Henderson  of  Kiniegask  (Finnegask?)  Coronell  over  the  Scottis  Regiment  in  the 
country  of  Flanders.'  Robert  Henderson  was  transferred  to  Lord  Buccleuch's 
regiment  soon  after  its  formation,  and  ultimately  succeeded  to  the  command. 
In  1610  he  commanded  the  Scots  regiment  (made  up  from  the  Dutch  companies) 
sent  along  with  two  English  ones  in  English  pay  to  Cleves,  and  distinguished 
himself  at  the  siege  of  Juliers.  He,  and  not  his  brother  Sir  Francis,  was  killed 
at  Bergen-op-Zoom  in  1622.  His  widow,  Anna  Kirkpatrick,  recommended  by 
King  James  and  the  Scottish  Council,  was  granted  an  annuity  in  recognition 
of  his  good  service.  For  an  account  of  his  last  moments,  see  Introduction  to 
Div.  m.  Petitions  by  his  widow  in  1622,  1624  and  1626. 

John  Kirkpatrick  succeeded  Captain  Dallachy  on  I5th  October  1599,  having 
been  formerly  lieutenant  of  the  company.  He  was  killed  at  Nieuport.  His 
widow  (Susana  Splitkoff)  appears  in  the  pension  list  of  1607,  and  with  her 
children,  John,  Maria,  and  Helena,  in  1609. 

James  Caddel  received  his  commission  on  August  I5th,  1596,  served  as 
lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Scots  regiment  in  the  expedition  to  Juliers  and  Cleves 
in  1610;  died  before  January  I4th,  1617,  when  succeeded  by  Thomas  Edmond. 

John  Ker  has  been  already  referred  to.  He  was  recommended  by  King  James 
in  December  1600  (see  p.  152),  having  been  in  Scotland  for  private  affairs,  which 
necessitated  his  leaving  the  service  of  the  States,  and  being  anxious  to  dispose  of 
his  company  to  a  friend. 

The  name  of  another  Scotsman  of  an  ancient  house  who  fell  has  been  preserved 
by  a  communication  from  a  descendant  at  Vienna  to  his  chief  in  Scotland. 

James  Wemyss  of  Caskieberran  (1554),  whose  wife  was  Janet  Durie,  younger 
son  of  David  Wemyss  of  that  Ilk,  had  eight  sons,  of  whom,  according  to  tradi- 
tion, five  went  to  Flanders.  From  a  Cornelius  Wemyss  killed  at  Nieuport,  whose 
eldest  son  entered  the  Venetian  service,  came  the  Italian  family  of  Wemyss. — 
Memoirs  of  Wemyss  of  Wemyss^  by  Sir  William  Fraser. 

1  Daniel  Mackigny( Donald?  Mackenzie)  received  his  commission  on  October 
24th,  1600,  when  Colonel  Edmond  had  first  brought  over  800  Scots.   In  1608,  his 
company  was  in  garrison  at  Aardenburg  (see  p.  214).     His  wife's  name  was 
Beatrix  van  Berchem,  and  his  son,  John  Mackenzie,  was  appointed  ensign  in  his 
company  in  succession  to  William  Grant,  on  his  petition  on  i6th  February  1618. 
He  was  dead  before  the  9th  of  July,  when  a  petition  from  his  widow  was 
considered. 

2  Allan  Coutts  received  a  captain's  commission  in  1600,  became  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  Sir  William  Brog's  regiment,  and  had  died  before  May  I2th,  1631, 
when  he  was  succeeded  as  captain  by  George  Keir.     Petitions  by  his  widow, 
Christina  Bos  well,  in  1631  et  seq.     Coutts  of  Auchtertoul  was  an  ancient  family 
in  Cromar,  in  Aberdeenshire. 


1599] 


STATES  OF  WAR 


61 


Henry  Balfour1    113  men    £1502 


Brog 
Cinder2 


Jacques  Caddel      113  men      £1502 


Robert  Henrison          ,, 
Archibald  Arskyn  3      ,, 

Pay  on  Holland 
Col.  Edmond         *...... 

Wm  Brog,  Lt  Col.  of  the  Scots    . 

Wardens 

Thos.  Ewink,4  st  major  of  the  Scots         .... 

Thos.  Maesterton  5  quarter  master  of  the  Scots,  usually  36  when 

with  the  army,  14  additional  here     .... 

Officers  of  Justice 
Wm  Carcadie,6  Provost  marshal  of  the  Scottish  Reg* 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  minister  of  the  Scottish  Reg* 

Extraordinary  pay,  when  with  the  army 

Capn  Meesterton  qr  mr  of  the  Scottish  Regt,  with  the  army 
14  guilders  monthly,  additional  pay,  facit  for  6  months 

Zeeland 

from  the  undivided  (war  expenses) 
Bruse7  113  men    . 


£400 
100 


80 

36 

50 
30 

84 
^1572 


1  Henry  Balfour  had,  in  1611,  been  a  captain  for  twelve  years.     He  then 
petitioned  for  a  lieutenant-colonelcy,  and  again  in  1613,  and  in  1614  for  a 
lieutenant-colonelcy  or  sergeant-majorship.     He  was  dead  before  August  4th, 
1615,  when  he  was  succeeded  as  captain  by  Robert  Coutts.     He  is  designed  as 
Sir  Henry  Balfour  in  the  recommendation  of  the  British  Ambassador  of  1611, 
and  had  also  the  recommendation  of   the   Princess  Elizabeth,   wife  of  the 
Elector- Palatine.     Maria  de  Leon,  widow  of  Captain  Henry  Balfour,  appears  in 
the  pension  list  of  1618.     Probably  brother  of  first  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh  (see 
p.  44  note). 

2  William  Sinclair  received  commission  1600.    A  Captain  Sinclair  distinguished 
himself,  and  was  killed  at  Ostend. 

3  Archibald  Erskine  received  commission  as    captain    24th    August    1601. 
Offered  to  form  company  of  Cuirassiers  in  December  1604.     Offer  ultimately 
accepted  (p.  196  et seq.).    Stationed  at  Zwolle.    Died  before  3rd  December  1608. 
Referred  to  as  Sir  Archibald  Erskine  in  the  resolutions  of  Holland. 

4  Thomas  Ewing. 

5  Thomas  Masterton,  see  p.  29.     Appointed  quartermaster  in  1597.— Records 
of  Holland. 

6  William  Carcadie  (Kirkcaldy  or  Cathcart  ?). 

7  Sir  Walter  Bruce.     On  2ist  January  1604,  his  company  was  in  Ostend 
(p.  187).     In  1610,  his  company  was  in  Zealand,  and  in  1621-22,  at  Bergen- 
op-Zoom.     Dead  before  June  ist,   1627,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  William 
Douglas. 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1599 


Hamilton 


Utrecht 

from  the  undivided  (war  expenses) 
113 


1502 


Pensions  payable  at  the  office  of  the  Receiver  General  for  settlement 


of  accounts  and  previous  services  :  — 
Col.  Balfour  1000  guilders  yearly 
The  children  of  Capn  Waddel      .. 
Widow  Capn  Melvis  400  .. 

„         „       Blair  with  2  children  400    . 
the  same  additionally  150  yearly 
Widow  Capn  Cuninga       ... 

„         „       Craik 

Guille  Morray  400  guilders  yearly 
Widow  Cap.  Dallachy       ... 
Andries  Renton  son  of  Capn  Guillem  Renton 
Widow  Cap.  Meldron  250  yearly  .. 
„      Prop  500       . 

„     and  children  of  Jacques  Egger  250 


Edmond 


Col.  Edmondt  pikes 

and  muskets 
Daniel  Macqingny    , 
Allane  Coutis  . 
Henry  Balfour . 
Brogh 

Col.  Edmondt 


1599/1604 

Cavalry  (of  Holland) 
80  men 

Footsoldiers  paid  by  Holland 


£83    6  8 

50    0  0 

33    6  8 

33     6  8 

12  10  0 

25     0  0 
868 

33     6  8 

50    0  0 

12  10  0 

20  16  8 

41  13  4 

20  16  8 


£2125 


150 

£2014 

Guill6  Cinder  .         .    113 

£1502 

113 

1502 

Jacques  Caddel              „ 

M 

» 

)  5 

Thos.  Neyse    .         .      „ 

)3 

» 

» 

Robert  Hendersonne    „ 

}} 

» 

,, 

Pay  on  Holland 


Wardens 

Thos.  Neyssche,  s*  major  of  the  Scots 
Thos.  Meisterton  qr  mr        „         „      ordinary,  36,  when 
with  the  army,  14£  more,  here  the  ordinary  . 

Officers  of  Justice 
Alex.  Murray,  Provost  marshal  of  the  Scottish  Regt 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  Minister          .... 

Extraordinary  Pay  when  with  the  Army 
Capn  Maesterton  being  with  the  army  £14  monthly  above 
the  ordinary  pay,  facit  for  6  months  . 


£400  0  0 

80  0  0 

36  0  0 

50  0  0 

30  0  0 

84  0  0 


i6oi] 


STATES  OF  WAR 


63 


Pensions  the  same  as  for  1599,  except  Murray,  Dallachy,  Prop  and 
Egger,  who  do  not  appear. 

Zeeland,  Foot,  Undivided 


Bruce 


113  men 


Utrecht,  Foot,  Undivided 
Hamelton    .  .  113 

Karr  (pikes  and  muskets)  113 


Extra  State,  1599 
Cavalry  of  Holland 


Thomas  Areskyn l 
Henry  Bruce  2 


^1572 

1502 
1460 


1138    9 
Ditto 


1601 

Footsoldiers  paid  by  Holland 

Edmond  150  spears  and  muskets 
D.  Makinge         113  men     £1502 
Aleyn  Coutis  ,,  ,, 


Balfour 
Brock 


Chincler 
Caddel 
Thos.  Neisse 
Rob1.  Herrisson 


.     £2014    0    0 
113  men      £1502 


Pay  on  Holland 
Colonels 


Edmondt 


£400    0    0 


Wardens 

Thos  Neys,  major  of  the  Scots 
qr.  master  of  the  Scots      .  .- 

Officers  of  Justice 
The  Provost  Marshal  of  the  Scots 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  of  the  Scots  . 


80 
36 


50    0    0 


30     0     0 


1  Thomas  Erskine.     See  note  i,  p.  67. 

2  Henry  Bruce,  see  note,  pp.  57  and  58.     Killed  Captain  Hamilton  in  a  duel, 
1604.    In  1607  requested  settlement  of  his  arrears,  and  was  told  that  he  had  been 
better  treated  than  any  other  Scottish  captain.     Submitted  certain  inventions  to 
the  States  in  1608,  and  received  grants  in  recognition  (see  p.  211).    Recommended 
to  the  Margrave  of  Anspach  1609.     See  report  by  Sir  Dudley  Carleton  as  to  his 
service  under  the  Emperor  (p.  224).     A  Colonel  Henry  Bruce  commanded  a 
regiment  in  the  Cadiz  Expedition  of  1625,  advocated  a  descent  on  Gibraltar,  and 
was  the  only  commanding  officer  who  spoke  well  of  his  soldiers  (Dalton's  Cecil). 
Writing  in  1638,  Baillie  states,  '  Sir  Harie  Bruce  has  offered  his  service  to  the 
king  long  ago.     He  asked  Sir  John  Seaton  if  he  would  serve  the  king.     He 
answered  he  would,  but  not  against  his  own  countrie,  where  he  had  his  life. ' 


64  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1601 

Pensions  the  same  as  1599  except  that  Murray,  Dallachy,  Prop  and 
Egger  do  not  appear. 

Zeeland,  Foot,  undivided  Utrecht,  Foot,  undivided 

Bruce          113  men          £1572  Hamelton      113  men        £1502 

Kar  Ditto  Ditto 

1604 

Exhibitum,  Aug.  Qth. 

Companies  as  yet  not  brought  under  division. 

The  Regfc  of  Bachlouch  1  has  been  paid  until  Aug.  12th,  1604  inclusive, 
the  month  which  remains  still  to  be  paid  commences  therefore  with  Aug. 
13th,  1604,  and  orders  have  been  received,  in  addition  to  the  reduction  to 
be  made  for  arms  and  the  8th  man,  conform  Res.  of  the  gentlemen 
states  general,  to  reduce  the  last  (pay)  order  as  has  been  noted  here  for 
each  (individually). 

Monthly  to  be 

men  deducted  for  arms. 

£2100    Col.  Bachlouch 2  200  £2489  £300 

1750     CapaSchot3  200  2489  399 


1  On  August  I2th,  1603  Sir  R.  Cecil  wrote  to  Winwood,  the  English  ambas- 
sador at  the  Hague  :  *  His  Majesty  hath  been  pleased  to  consent  to  the  leavying 
of  the  new  Regiment  in  Scotland,  for  which  purpose  there  is  order  already  gone 
to  the  Lord  of  Bucklugh  who  is  to  command  them.'    The  first  service  of  the  new 
regiment  was  at  Ostend,  and  seven  companies  were  there  when  the  place  capitu- 
lated (see  p.  33).    In  April  1604  it  had  been  inspected  by  Robert  Henderson,  who 
was  transferred  to  it  as  lieutenant-colonel  with  his  company,  his  brother  Francis 
being  one  of  the  new  captains.     On  December  2Oth,  1603,  the  two  Hendersons, 
Ralph  Selby,  David  Balfour,  and  David  Cathcart,  all  new  Scottish  captains,  took 
their  oaths  on  the  commissions  newly  issued  to  them  in  Buccleuch's  regiment. 
They  were  followed  on  the  3ist  by  William  Hamilton,  on  January  28th,  1604,  by 
Alexander  Erskine,  and  on  April  i;th  by  Sir  Andrew  Balfour  of  Monthone 
(Mountquhanny),  and  James  Chinne  (Chene,  i.e.  Cheyne)  of  Steelberg.   The  other 
two  original  captains  were  evidently  John  Murray  and  William  Hamilton.     On 
1 7th  July  1604,  Laurence  Sinclair  was  recommended  to  succeed  Captain  More  of 
his  company  in  Buccleuch's  regiment.     Of  More  there  is  no  other  mention,  but 
probably  the  regiment  lost  several  officers  at  Ostend.     On  24th  November,  com- 
missions were  granted  to  supply  the  places  of  Lamond,  Murray,  and  Hamilton, 
then  deceased. 

On  25th  March  1603,  Patrick  Murray,  Ensign  of  Captain  R.  Henderson's  com- 
pany, had  been  authorised  by  the  Scots  Privy  Council  to  levy  sixty  men. 

2  Sir  Walter  Scott  of  Buccleuch  was  Lord  Warden  of  the  Marches  between 
England  and  Scotland  in  the  last  days  of  the  separate  monarchies,  and  was  the 
hero  of  the  rescue  of  '  Kinmont  Willie '  from  Carlisle  Castle.     He  was  created 
Lord  Buccleuch  in  1606,  and  died  in  1611.     See  pp.i88,  256  et  seq.  in  reference 
to  his  services  and  claims,  and  those  of  his  son,  the  first  Earl  of  Buccleuch.     See 
also  Sir  William  Eraser's  Scoffs  of  Buccleuch^  vol.  i.  p.  235. 

3  Robert  Scott  took  oath  as  captain  on  28th  November  1604. 


1700 

Andro  Balfour  2 

200 

2489 

I860 

David  Balfour3 

200 

2489 

1800 
1560 

Spence  4 
Carcardt5 

200 
150 

2489 
1925 

1401 

Franc.  Henderson6 

150 

1925 

1348 

Raeff  Selby7 

150 

1925 

99  men  at  Ostend  conform  List  of  July  13th. 

1604]  STATES  OF  WAR  65 

£1961     Schyne1  200  men    £2489  £491 

152  men  at  Ostend  conform  List  of  June  13th,  1604. 

390 
432 
410 
158 
321 
383 


As  to  question  in  divorce  suit  at  the  instance  of  his  wife,  Isobella  Mowbray, 
I5th  February  1618,  see  infra.  Described  in  1619  as  '  the  oldest  of  the  Scottish 
captains.'  Dead  before  January  25th,  1627,  when  succeeded  by  James  Elphin- 
stone. 

Robert,  third  son  of  Robert  Scott  of  Burnhead  in  Roxburghshire,  who  died  in 
1609,  settled  in  Holland. — Douglas's  Baronage. 

Douglas  states  that  his  eldest  brother,  William  Scott  of  Burnhead,  was  *  an 
officer  in  Holland,  and  served  under  the  brave  Walter  Scott,  Lord  Buccleuch, 
against  the  Spaniards  in  the  year  1604,  when  that  cohort  of  Scots  performed 
many  glorious  actions  against  their  enemies.'  William  of  Burnhead  died  about 
1640. 

1  James  (or  John)  Cheyne  (Chene)  of  '  Steelberg,'  also  described  as  *  Baron  de 
Chinne,'  succeeded  by  Arthur  Forbes  on  January  I4th,  1605.  The  arrival  of  his 
company  at  Ostend  is  noted  by  Fleming. 

3  Sir  Andrew  Balfour  of  Mountquhanny,  succeeded  by  William  Douglas  on 
January  i6th,  1606.  Sir  Michael  Balfour  of  Mountquhanny,  served  heir  to  his 
grandfather,  Andrew  Balfour  (father  of  Sir  James  of  Pittendreich),  in  1592, 
married  M.  Adamson,  and  had  two  sons,  the  eldest  of  whom  was  Sir  Andrew 
Balfour  of  Strathor  and  Mountquhanny,  who  married  Mary  Melville,  and  died 
s.p.  He  is  represented  by  Balfour  of  Balfour  and  Trenaby,  Balfour  Castle, 
Kirkwall. 

3  Sir  David  Balfour.     Appointed  sergeant-major,  September  4th,  1622,  lieut.- 
colonel,  December  23rd,  1628.     Succeeded  Sir  John  Halkett  as  colonel  of  the 
regiment  in   1629,  his  appointment  before  Bois-le-Duc  being  confirmed  on 
September  7th.     Was  dead  by  December  6th,  1638.     On  February  5th,  1639, 
Colonel  Morgan  in  recommending  Captain  Wight  said,  'The  good  lady,  his 
wife,  has  recently  lost  her  father,  Colonel  Balfour,  who  served  this  country  so 
long  and  so  faithfully.'     Probably  brother  of  first  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh  (see 
p.  44,  note). 

4  John  Spens.    See  grant  to  his  ensign,  John  Boyd,  p.  195. 

5  David  Cathcart.     (Oath-book.) 

6  Sir  Francis  Henderson,  fourth  son  of  James  Henderson  of  Fordell ;  served  as 
sergeant-major  of  Buccleuch's  regiment  from  June  1604.     Succeeded  his  brother 
as  colonel  on  September  i7th,  1622.     Dead  by  December  27th,  1628,  when  he 
was  succeeded  by  Sir  John  Halket.     Recommended  by  King  James,  1624. 

Concerned  in  an  '  unfortunate  malheur?  for  which  his  pardon  was  obtained  by 
Sir  Dudley  Carleton  (infra}. 

7  Ralph  Selby,  succeeded  in  July  1605  by  his  lieutenant,  George  (Joris)  Home. 

E 


66  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [  1 604 

£1727    132  men    Lamond1  150  men     £1925  £307 

1304      95  John  Murray 2)       150  1925  310 

now  with       j  Jean  Halket 

1617     122    Wm.  Hamilton3  150  1925  365 

1447    108    Alex.  Aresken4  150  1925  310 


Holland 

The  Compy  of  Bachlouch  of  200  men  .  .  .     £189113   Hob. 

10  Compies  of  the  same  Regt :  Fraiichois  Henderson, 
Schot,  Andro  Balfour,  David  Balfour,  Spens, 
Carcardt,  Lamonde,  Alex.  Areskyn,  John  Murray 
and  Wm  Hamilton,— each  of  150  men  .  .  £13940  19  6 


Zeelandt 

2  companies  of  Scots,  namely  : — 
Schyn  and  Raeff  Selby,— each  of  150  men       .  .       £2738    311 

List  of  all  the  Compies  of  Foot  in  the  service  of  the  State  6 


Col.  Edmondt  200  175 

Mackingny  113  61 

Allane  Coutes  113  141 

Henry  Balfour  113  98 


Brogh  113  64 

Michel  Etmetson 6  113  73 

James  Kaddel  113  41 

Robert  Henrison  113  128 


1  Lamond.     Dead  before  November  24th,  1604,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
William  Hudson. 

2  John  Murray.     Also  dead  before  24th  November  1604,  and  succeeded  by 
John  Halkett. 

3  William  Hamilton,  also  dead  before  24th  November  1604,  and  succeeded  by 
William  Hay. 

On  29th  January  1605  Lord  Buccleuch  complained  of  the  delay  in  dealing 
with  Captain  Bruce,  who  had  killed  his  lieutenant,  Captain  Hamilton,  in  a  duel, 
and  a  court-martial  was  recommended.  On  I3th  November  1621  a  petition  was 
presented  to  the  Scots  Privy  Council  by  Captain  Harry  Bruce,  '  servitor  to  the 
Prince  his  Hieness,'  to  stop  proceedings  against  him  *  for  the  slaughter  of  Captn 
John  (sic)  Hamilton  in  single  combat  in  the  Low  Country  of  Flanders  some 
seventeen  years  ago,'  his  conduct  having  been  justified  by  the  Council  of  War 
established  by  the  Estates,  and  the  king's  remission  having  been  granted  to  him 
in  1605. 

4  Alexander  Erskine  was  dead  before  January   ipth,   1606,  when  he  was 
succeeded  by  George  Bothwell. 

5  N.B.— The  document  does  not  give  the  meaning  of  these  figures.     Probably 
the  number  of  men  of  the/#//  company  and  of  the  actual  number  at  the  last  muster. 

6  Michael  Otmarson  succeeded  Captain  Sinclair  (dead)  on  October  8th,  1604. 


1604] 

STATES 

OF  WAR 

Hollandt.     1st  Amplification 

Thos.  Areskyn1 

113           86 

Henry  Bruce  2 

Hollandt.     2nd  Amplification 

Col.  Buchloucli 

200         170 

Corchard 

Francois  Henderson 

150        114 

Wm.  Hutson3 

Schot 

150         128 

Alex.  Arskyn 

Andro  Balfour 

150        134 

John  Hacquet4 

Spens 

150          98 

Wm.  Hey 

67 


113    87 

150  77 

150  61 

150  62 

150  53 

150  63 

1  Captain  Thomas  Erskine  and  Captain  Henry  Bruce  were  authorised  by  the 
Scots  Privy  Council  on  25th  March  1603  to  levy  200  men  each,  their  cautioner 
being  Sir  Michael  Balfour  of  Burleigh.     On  8th  April  1617,  Thomas  Erskine, 
having  left  his  company,  was  succeeded  by  James  Erskine.    Both  Thomas  Erskine 
and  Henry  Bruce  were  in  state  of  1599  as  commanding  cavalry  of  Holland,  and 
both  (as  well  as  Walter  Bruce)  appear  to  have  taken  an  oath  in  August  1601. 

2  Henry  Bruce  killed  Captain  William  (or  John  ?)  Hamilton  in  a  duel  in  1604, 
(see  pp.  57  and  66.)- 

3  William  Hudson  succeeded  Captain  Lamond  in  November  1604.    Was  dead 
before  February  loth,  1625,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  David  Colyear. 

4  John  Halkett,  though  apparently  not  the  first  of  his  name  in  the  Dutch 
army,  is  the  first  of  whom  a  detailed  record  exists  of  a  family  that  were  to  render 
remarkable  services  to  the  Dutch  Republic,  and  to  the  British  Crown.     He  was 
the  second  son  of  George  Halkett  of  Pitfirrane  (No.  ix.  in  the  family  genealogy). 
The  genealogy  of  the  Halkett  family  records  that  he  '  had  the  honour  of  knight- 
hood conferred  upon  him  by  King  James  vi. ,  and  being  born  a  younger  brother 
he  betook  himself  to  a  military  life,  went  into  the  service  of  Holland,  where  by 
his  bravery  and  merit  he  rose  to  the  rank  of  colonel-general,  had  the  command 
of  a  Scots  regiment  in  the  Dutch  service,  and  was  President  of  the  Grand  Court- 
Marishal  of  Holland.    He  was  killed  at  the  siege  of  Bois-le-Duc,  anno  1628. 

'  He  married  Maria  van  Loon,  a  lady  of  Amsterdam,  and  had  two  sons  :  (i) 
John  (Alexander),  ancestor  of  the  late  Lieutenant-General  Alexander  Halkett,  of 
whom  there  are  no  male  descendants.  Lieutenant-General  Alexander  Halkett 
was  Governor  of  Breda,  where  he  died  and  was  buried,  1742.  (2)  Maurice,  who 
carried  on  the  line  of  this  family. ' 

The  genealogy  also  contains  the  following  '  Translation  of  an  Extract  from  the 
Register  of  the  Finances  of  Holland ' : — 

*  List  of  the  Generals,  Colonels,  etc.  of  the  family  of  Halkett  of  Pitfirran,  who 
have  served  the  House,  United  Netherlands,  and  the  Kingdom  of  Holland,  from 
the  year  1582  to  the  year  1782. 

*  Rodd  George  Halkett,  Colonel-General,  1582. 

*  John  Halkett,  Colonel-General,  1598. 

'Both  were  at  the  battle  of  Nieuport,  near  Ostend,  in  Flanders,  1600,  and  by 
them  were  taken  the  colours  that  hang  in  the  palace,  and  on  which  stood  the 
Virgin  and  a  monk.  These  were  the  first  trophies  of  the  then  formed  Republic. 

*  Maurice  Halkett,  General,  1655. 

'  Robert  Halkett,  Major-General,  1680.  Killed  at  the  battle  of  Ramillies, 
1706. 

*  Ed  ward  Halkett,  General:    killed,  nth  September  1709  at  the  battle  of 
Malplacquet. 


68  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1604 

Zeeland.     Foot 
Walter  Bruce  113  8.5 

Zeelandt.     2d  Amplification 
Schyn  150          95    |    Raaff  Selby  150          54 

Footsoldiers  paid  by  Groningcn  and  Ommelanden 
Norman  Bruce l  113  89 

Utrecht.     Foot 
Jan  Hamelton  113  102 

Buyren  and  Culenburg 
Andro  Donalsonne  113  95 


'  Arent  (Brent)  Halkett,  Major-General,  1738. 

'Alexander  Halkett,  Colonel  of  a  Scots  regiment,  i;th  July  1716 ;  Lieutenant- 
General  and  Governor  of  Breda,  I3th  May  1740.  He  died  and  was  buried,  at 
Breda,  1743. 

1  Charles  Halkett,  Major,  I4th  November  1727  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel,  loth 
March  1730  ;  Colonel  and  General  of  a  regiment  of  Scots,  I7th  November  1736  ; 
Lieutenant-General,  I3th  January  1748,  and  on  the  ist  of  February  of  that  year 
sworn  in  as  Chief  President  of  the  High  Council  of  War  of  the  United  Nether- 
lands. Died  24th  October  1758,  and  buried  in  the  Kloster  Church  at  the 
Hague. 

*  Peter  Halkett,  Colonel,  murdered  with  his  two  sons  in  the  colony  of  Berbice, 
1761. 

'Charles  Halkett,  Acting  Major,  3<Dth  May  1748;  effective  Major,  5th 
November  1758  ;  Commandant  of  the  town  of  Namur,  8th  January  1761 ;  Colonel, 
i8th  March  1766  ;  Colonel  Commandant,  2nd  October  1772.  Died  April 

1774- 

'  Frederick  Halkett ;  ensign  when  still  a  baby  in  1736  ;  was  made  a  prisoner 
of  war  on  i8th  June  1745,  at  the  surrender  of  the  town  Meenen,  in  Flanders,  by 
capitulation  to  the  French;  Lieutenant,  1752;  Captain  5th  January,  1762; 
Major,  nth  April  1774,  in  the  ist  Battalion  of  the  Regiment  Gordon,  and  sworn 
in  on  the  i8th  April  of  that  year;  Lieutenant-Colonel,  5th  November  1777. 
Asked  for  his  demission  6th  July  1782,  and  obtained  it  with  the  rank  of  Colonel 
and  the  honourable  mention  of  his  services  and  those  of  his  forefathers  to  the 
United  Netherlands.' 

See  also  resolution  as  to  the  widow  of  Colonel  Sir  John  Halkett,  by  the 
States  General  in  1640,  infra. 

1  Captain   Norman  Bruce  succeeded  Captain   Archibald  Johnston  in   May 

1603  (see  p.  95,  note).     Sir  Robert  Bruce  of  Clackmannan,  knighted  1593,  had  a 
second  son,  Colonel  Norman  Bruce,  who  married,  and  had  daughters  but  no 
male  issue  {Douglas's  Baronage).    His  company  was  in  Groningen  in  December 

1604  (p.  197).     He  was  dead  before  July  8th,  1615,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
George  Coutts. 


1 607]  STATES  OF  AVAR 

1607 

Guelderland.     Bueren  and  Culenborgh.     Foot. 
These  2  counties  to  pay  for  the  comp^  of  Cap11  Andro  Donaldson. 

Holland  Foot 

Col.  Brogh  .  .         200  men  .  .      £2612 

Caddel  .  ,150          .  .  .         1925 

Mackigny  .  .  „          .  .  .  ,, 

Allaune  Coutis     . 
Henry  Balfour 
Thos.  Areskyn 

H.  Levingston1    .  .  „  .  .  „ 

Archibald  Areskyn  .  „  .  „ 

Col.  Bachlouch    .  .         200  .  .         2612 

Robert  Henderson  .         150  spears  and  muskets  2014 

Francois  Henderson         .  ,,          .  .  .  ,, 

R.  Schot  ...„...„ 
Wm.  Douglas2     .  .  ,,          .  .  ,, 

Wm.  Balfour3 


1  Henry  Livingston  succeeded  Captain  Bruce  on  January  I2th,    1607.     A 
young  man  Livingston,  who  had  previously  served,  was  recommended  by  King 
James  in  July  1603.     Sir  Henry  Livingston  died  before  November  24th,  1626, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  P.  Murray.     On  August  28th,  1617,  Secretary  Lake 
wrote  to  Sir  Dudley  Carleton : — '  In  the  matter  of  Sir  Henry  Levingston  and 
Capt.  Hamilton,  his  Majesty  saith  that  you  have  so  much  mistaken  him  as  he 
was  fain  to  call  for  the  letters  he  wrote  for  Hamilton  for  his  own  satisfaction, 
and  findeth  they  contain  no  other  matter  than  what  his  intention  was,  that  if  by 
the  course  of  the  discipline  there  it  be  due  to  Hamilton  his  Majesty  would  not 
prejudice  him,  if  to  Levingston  not  him,  if  it  be  at  liberty  for  either,  then  to 
Levingston,  because  the  others  years  have  made  him  unserviceable.'     In  1627 
Johanna  Turck,  his  widow,  requested  appointments  for  her  three  sons,  John, 
James,  and  Alexander,  and  a  commission  was  granted  to  John,  the  eldest. 

2  William  Douglas  succeeded  Sir  Andrew  Balfour  on  January  i6th,  1606,  and 
was  succeeded  by  James  Lindsay  on  March  3ist,  1615. 

8  Sir  William  Balfour,  of  Pitcullo,  eldest  son  of  Colonel  Henry  Balfour,  killed 
in  1580,  made  frequent  representations  to  the  Dutch  authorities,  and  received 
recommendations  from  King  James,  the  Princess  of  the  Palatinate,  and  the 
Dutch  Ambassador  in  London,  in  reference  to  his  father's  and  his  uncle,  Captain 
D.  Cant's  arrears  and  his  own  claims.  See  representation  by  him  as  '  fils  aine" ' 
in  November  1605  (p.  200),  when  he  had  been  for  eight  months  a  captain  in 
Buccleuch's  regiment.  Consideration  of  his  claims  was  postponed  in  1608 
(p.  215).  In  1613  he  is  described  as  the  eldest  and  only  son  (p.  252).  In  1615, 
when  he  was  settled  with  and  received  a  pension  of  ,£600  settled  on  his  son's  life, 
he  was  negotiating  with  Captain  Wishart  for  his  company  of  cavalry.  He  then 
asked  that  'the  salary  of  his  uncle  of  1000  guilders  per  annum  should  be  settled 
on  him  for  life,'  which  confirms  the  MS.,  which  states  that  Colonel  Barthold 
Balfour  was  a  brother  of  Colonel  Henry.  In  November  1618  Captain 


70  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1607 

Geo.  Botwel l  .150  spears  and  muskets  .  £2014 

Wm.  Hutson        .  ,,  .  .  „ 

Jean  Halcket       .  ,,  .  }, 

Monge  Hamilton 2  .  ,,  .  .  .          „ 

Davidt  Balfour 


Orrock  received  a  commission  in  succession  to  William  Balfour,  who  had  become 
a  captain  of  horse.  In  1610  he  served  as  sergeant-major  of  the  Scots  regiment 
in  the  expedition  to  Juliers.  In  April  1621  he  was  stationed  at  Nymeguen.  In 
1622  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Spaniards  in  a  camisade  at  Emmerich. 
In  1625  King  Charles  I.  requested  the  loan  of  his  company  of  carabineers,  and 
in  1627  the  king  made  repeated  requests  for  his  services.  In  1628  he  was 
allowed  to  leave  the  Dutch  service,  in  order  to  raise  a  large  force  of  cavalry 
for  the  king.  The  death  of  Buckingham  interfering  with  the  war  preparations 
in  England,  he  applied  to  be  restored  to  his  company.  He  had  then  been 
twenty-five  years  in  service,  and  in  recognition  of 'his  father's,  his  uncle's,  and 
his  own  services'  was  granted  a  gold  chain,  valued  at  1000  guilders.  In  1634 
his  pension  was  transferred  and  made  payable  on  the  lives  of  two  young 
ladies.  He  was  Lieutenant  of  the  Tower  when  Earl  Strafford  was  im- 
prisoned, and  sat  with  his  distinguished  prisoner  in  the  impressive  trial  in 
Westminster  Hall.  'The  putting  of  Sir  William  Balfour  from  the  Tower  of 
London  '  is  mentioned  by  Baillie  in  1643,  an(^  *n  J^44  he  commanded  the  Parlia- 
mentary Horse  in  the  fighting  near  Winchester  between  Waller  and  Forth  and 
Hopton.  In  September  '  he  broke  through  the  enemy  with  all  his  horse  with 
no  loss  considerable.'  He  had  a  command  at  Edgehill.  According  to  the  Sin- 
clair MSS.  there  were  two  Sir  William  Balfours,  father  and  son,  and  the  younger 
has  been  thought  to  be  the  Lieutenant  of  the  Tower.  But  Charles  Balfour, 
son  of  Sir  William,  Lieutenant  of  the  Tower,  presented  a  petition  to  King 
William  in.,  in  which  he  stated  that  'his  father,  Sir  Wm.  Balfour  and  Coll. 
Henry  Balfour,  his  grandfather,  served  his  present  Maie  ancestors  in  very  con- 
siderable military  employments  in  the  Low  Countreys,  his  said  grandfather 
being  killed  before  Antwerp,  and  that  he  has  also  lost  two  near  kinsmen,  who 
were  Colls,  in  his  May'8  army,  killed  in  His  May'8  service,  ye  one  at  ye  Battle 
of  Killiecrankie  in  Scotland,  and  the  other  at  the  Battle  of  ffluroy  in  fflanders.' 
This  Charles  Balfour  had  two  elder  brothers,  Alexander  and  William  (died 
before  1659),  who  are  both  said  to  have  served  in  Holland.  Baillie,  when 
recording  certain  marriages  in  1658,  says  :  'The  Earl  of  Murray  did  little  better, 
for  at  London,  without  any  advice,  he  ran  and  married  Sir  Wm.  Balfour's  second 
daughter.' 

Sir  William  Balfour  is  represented  by  Balfour  of  Townley  Hall,  Co.  Louth, 
Ireland. 

1  George  Both  well  succeeded  Alexander  Erskine,  January  iQth,  1606,  and  was 
succeeded  by  James  Henderson  on  November  I4th,  1618.     Letter  of  Scottish 
Council  in  reference  to  in  1615. 

2  Mongo  Hamilton,  commissioned  between  June  and  October  1606,  was  appointed 
sergeant-major  of  Sir  David  Balfour's  regiment  before  Bois-le-Duc  in  1629.     He 
had  died  before  February  24th,  1633,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  James  Balfour. 
In  1627  he  asked  leave  to  enter  the  Danish  service  without  losing  his  commission, 
which  was  refused.     His  wife's  name  was  Hester  Sideniski.     A  gallant  cavalry 
officer  of  Polish  extraction,  called  Seldnitski  or  '  Sedenesco,'  served  at  Nieuport, 
and  was  killed  at  Juliers  in  1610.     Requests  by  widow  in  1638. 


1607]  STATES  OF  WAR  71 

Pay  on  Holland 

Col.  Brogh  *  .  .          £400 

Lt  Col.  of  the  Scots  .  .  .  .  100 

Pensions  and  Endowments 
The  children  of  Cap.  John  Nysbeth,  deceased , 

yearly  200        per  month  .        £16  13    4 

Widow  John  Balfour,          „      100  „  .  434 

Wardens  and  Quarter  Masters 

Thos.  Ewyn,  St  major  Reg*  Brog    .  .  .  80     0     0 

Robert  Maesterton,  qr  mr  of  the  Scots,  above  14£  when  in 

the  field 50    0    0 

Officers  of  Justice 
Wm.  Carcadin,  Provost  marshal  Reg*  Brogh          .  .  50    0    0 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  minister  of  the  Scots    .  .  .          30    0    0 

Extraordinary  Pay  when  with  the  Army 
N.B.  The  following  items  are  only  to  be  charged  during 

the  operations  in  the  field,  offensive  or  defensive  : 
Robert  Maesterton,  qr  mr  of  the  Reg*  of  Col.  Brogh,  in  addi- 
tion to  his  ordinary  pay  14£  per  month 

for  six  months  .  .  .  .  -,.   .    £84    0    0 

Zeeland  Foot 

Walter  Bruce               .            .            .         150  men  .  .  £2014 

Arthur  Forbes1            .            .             .150  .  Y  1925 

Geo.  Homes2  .            .            .             .150  .  .  1925 

Utrecht  Foot 
Jan  Hamelton .  .  .  .150  men        .  .      £1925 

Utrecht,  undivided 
Gordon3 £1394     1  ll 


1  Arthur  Forbes  succeeded  James  Cheyne  on  January  I4th,  1605.     Made  a 
representation  as  to  his  debts  from  Breda  in  1609.     Sergeant-major  of  Brog's 
regiment,  1610;  company  at  Tiel  in  1611.     An  Arthur  Forbes,  a  younger  son 
of  William  Forbes  of  Corse,  followed  the  profession  of  arms,  and  was  ancestor  of 
the  Earls  of  Granard  in  Ireland. 

2  George  Home  succeeded  Ralph  Selby  on  July  23rd,  1605.     Was  dead  by 
May  2nd,  1623,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  James  Murray. 

3  John  Gordon  was  commissioned  as  captain  of  a  new  company  on  1 5th  April 
1605  (see  note  on  Captain  Gordon  of  Stuart's  regiment,  1585,  p.  49).     In  1609 
his  company  was  reported  on,  and  its  dismissal  recommended.     In  1614  he  re- 
quested a  lieutenant -colonelcy  or  sergeant-majorship,  and  in  1618  the  advice  of 
the  Council  of  State  was  requested  in  reference  to  his  dismissed  company.     In 
1618  Sergeant-Major  Gordon  of  Brog's  regiment  was  absent. 


72  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1607 

Brounfelt1  .  ;vv         .  .      £1394    1  11 J 

Setton2    .  .  .         .  .         .  .  .  „ 

Groningen  Foot 
Norman  Bruce      .  .  .         150  men        .  .      £2014 

Pay  on  Groningen  and  Ommelanden 
Col.  Bachlouch  in  his  high  offices  ....      £1580 

Pension  paye  at  the  Office  of  the  Receiver-General 

Guilliam  Murray  .             .             .  .             ..           .             .  £400 

The  widow  of  Capn  Blair  .             .  .                          .             .  400 

Ditto                  .            .  .            .                         .  100 

Niclaes  and  Margretha  Egger      .  ..            .            .            .  125 

The  widow  of  Capn  Arthur  Stuart  ....  75 

„           „          Nysbeth         .  .            ...             .400 

,,           „          Jan  Kirckpatrick  ....  50 

,,          „          Strachan        .  .            .            .  200 

1608 

Guelderland,  Bueren  and  Culemburch  Foot 
Andro  Donalson 3        .  .  .    ,      91  men        ,  .      £1290 

Holland  Foot 

Col.  Brogh        .  .  .         168  men        .  .  £2244    0  0 

Oliver  Wodney 4  91  .  1290    0  0 

Caddel  .            .  89  .  .  1271     0  0 

Mackinge           .  .  .140  .  .  1828  10  0 

Allane  Coutis    ...         107  .  1410  10  0 

Henry  Balfour  .  .           96  .  .  1324    0  0 

Thos.  Arskyn    .  .  .129  .  .  1692    0  0 

H.  Levingsten  .  .  .113  .  .  1572    0  0 

Archibald  Arskyn  .  ;!J  ...          92  .  .  129910  0 

Col.  Bucklouch  .  .         200  .  .  2612    0  0 

Robert  Henderson  .  .124  .  1702    0  0 

Francois  Henderson  .  .         136  .  .  1853    0  0 

Robert  Schot     .  .  .121  .  .  1599    0  0 

Wm.  Douglas   .  .  .146  .  ;  •      1887    0  0 

1  Steven  Brownfield,  commissioned  nth  March  1606  (new  company). 

2  J.  Seton,  commissioned  i7th  May  1606.     Protest  by  in  1618.     Succeeded 
by  Andrew  Caddell,  June  I3th,  1623. 

3  Andrew  Donaldson  took  oath  on  October  9th,  1604.     Recommended  by 
Colonel  Brog  for  sergeant-majorship  1618;   dead  by  March  ryth,  1627,  when 
succeeded  by  James  Balfour.     Request  by  widow,  Mary  Davidson,  June  l6th, 
1627. 

4  Oliver  Udny  took  oath  on  1 6th  May  1607  as  captain  of  the  company  pre- 
viously commanded  by  Colonel  Brog.     Succeeded  by  Ramsay  October  23rd,  1610. 
Probably  a  member  of  the  ancient  family  of  Udny  of  Udny  in  Aberdeenshire. 


i6o8] 


STATES  OF  WAR 


Wm.  Balfour    . 

113  men 

.      £1473    0    0 

Wm.  Hutson    . 

74 

1098    0    0 

George  Botwell             .  - 
J.  Racket 

97 
73 

1348     0     0 
1081     0     0 

Mongo  Hamilton 
Davidt  Balfour 

93 
..       149 

1305     0     0 
1915     0    0 

Pay 
Col.  Brogh         . 

Pensions  and  Endowments  on  Holland. 

The    children    of    Capu  Johan  nysbeth,   200£    yearly 

per  current  m., 

The  widow  of  Capn  Johan  Balfour,  deceased,  50£  ,,      ,, 

ditto    ditto    Jacob  Michiels,  deceased,  40£  „       ,, 

Pieter  Michiels,  yearly  50£  „       „ 


£400 


Wardens  and  Quartermasters 

Thos.  Ewing,  st  major  of  the  Regt  of  Col.  Brogh, 
Robt  maesterton,  qr  mr  of  the  Scots,  40  when  in  the 
field,    .  ... 

Officers  of  Justice 
William  Carcadie,  Provost  Marshal  of  Regt  col.  Brogh,  . 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  minister  of  the  Scots, 

Utrecht  Foot,  Undivided 


£    s.   d. 

16  8  4 
434 
368 
434 


80  0  0 

50  0  0 

50  0  0 

30  0  0 


J.  Hamilton  \ 
John  Gordon  J 

remain  unpaid  {^men  ' 

£1338 
1208 

Brounfeilt    . 

,             .       101 

1372 

Sitton 

91 

1290 

Zeeland  Foot}  Undivided 

Walter  Bruce 

96 

1377 

Arthur  Forbes 

.       140 

1828  10 

Geo.  Homes 

.       126 

1645 

Moubry  l 

.85 

1229  10 

Overyssel  Pay 

Col.  Backlouch 

in  his  high  offices             .            k 

7ftft  /   has  not 
780\been  paid. 

Groningen  Foot 

Norman  Bruce 

115            . 

,1525 

1  Philip  Mowbray  took  oath  on  January  2nd,  1607.     Dead  by  February  23rd, 
1626,  when  succeeded  by  William  Brogh. 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1609 


Col.  Bucklouch 

Col.  Brogh 

Robbert  Henderson  100  men  £1417 

Francois  Henderson 

Caddel 

Oliver  Wodney     . 

Mackinge 

Allane  Coutes 

Henry  Balfour 

Thos.  Arskyn 

H.  Levingston 


1609 
Footsoldiers  paid  by  Holland 

200  men   . 
150 

R.  Schot 

70        1059        Win.  Douglas 
Wm.  Balfour 
Wm.  Hutson 
George  Bodwell 
Jan  Halket  . 
Mongo  Hamilton 
David  Balfour 

Pay 


£2612 
2014 
.  70  men  £1059 


£400 
80 
50 
50 


Col.  Brog,  for  his  prison  .... 

Thos.  Ewing,  S*  major  of  the  Regt  of  Brogh 
Robert  Mesterton,  qr  mr  Col.  Brogh       .          ,  .  ^ 
William  Cacader,  Provost  M.  of  Brogh  . 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  minister  of  the  Scots,  .  .  33    6    8 

Pensions 

The  children  of  Capn  Jan  Nysbeth,  200£  yearly  .  16    8     4 

Widow  „  Jan  Balfour,  50£         „     .  .  434 

Pensions  for  settlement  of  accounts  and  previous  services 

The  children  of  Capn  Waddel — Archibald,  Jan,  and 

Willem,  each  200£  .  .  .  .  £600  0  0 

Lady  Margaret  Stuard,  widow  of  Agt  Dammari  .  .  450    0    0 

Maria  Rig,  widow  of  Cap11  Melvil,  on  the  life  of  Jacq. 

David,  Janneken,  Tanneken  and  Hester,  each  80£  400  0  0 

Guillame  Murry  of  Pickerles,  on  the  life  of  Jan,  Rigmet, 
Elisabeth  and  Margarieta,  his  children,  each  for 
one  fourth  ......  400  0  0 

Elisabeth  Creichton,  widow  of  Capn  Dallachy,  the  half 
on  her,  the  other  half  on  Jan  and  Catharina 
Dallachy,  each  the  half  of  100£  .  .  .  400  0  0 

Elisabeth  Forbes,  widow  of  Cap11  Willem  van  Nysbeth, 
the  one  half,  and  the  other  half  on  Wm  Arthur  and 
Margareta  Nysbeth,  each  one  4th  .  .  .  400  0  0 

Mistress  Anna  van  Duivenvoorde,  widow  of  Col. 
Cuningam,  on  the  lives  of  Mistresses  Margriet  van 
Duivenvoorde  and  Elisabeth  van  Cunigam,  each 
one  half  .  .  .  .  .  300  0  0 

The  children  of  Capn  Prop,  Jan  and  Janneken  Prop, 

each  one  half  .  .  .  .^  .  .  200  0  0 

Mistress  Anna  Kirpatrick,  widow  of  Cap.  Strachan        .  200    0    0 


1609]  STATES  OF  WAR  75 

The  children  of  Capn  James  Egger,  named  Niclaes  and 

Margarieta,  each  one  half    ....          £125     0    0 
Guilliame  Suderman,  capu  ....  100    0    0 

The  widow  of  the  former  Lt  Penbrouck  .  .  .  100    0    0 

Mistress  Suana  Splitkoff,  widow  of  Cap11  Kilpatrick,  the 
one  half  on  her  life  and  the  other  half  on  the  lifes 
of  her  children — Jan,  Maria,  and  Helena  Kilpatrick  50  0  0 

JoostBlaire          .  .  .  .  .  .  50    0    0 

Pay  on  Zeelandt 
Col.   Backlouch,  500£ ;    Robert  Henderson,  Lt  Col., 

100£ ;  Forbes  St  major,  80£ ;  Blaire,  qr  mr,  36£ ; 

Michiel  Henderson,  Provost  Marshal,  50£— together  766    0    0 

Col.  Balfour  yearly,  1000£          .  .  .  .  83     6    3 

INVESTIGATION  as  to  the  difference  between  the  state  of  war  1609  and  the 
state  of  war  1610,  consisting  in  a  balancing  of  accounts  which  have 
been  deducted  from  each  province  or  altogether  left  out  with  posts 
that  have  been  increased  or  newly  added,  all  per  current  month. 

£    *.    d. 

Guelderland  has  been  raised  on  Pay,  monthly,  for  Mistress 

Anna  van  Leeuwen,  widow  of  Capu  Arthur  Stuart    .  650 

Pensions 
Laurens  Dallachy  has  been  left  out,  with  a  monthly  profit  of         18    0    0 

Pensions  for  settlement  of  accounts  and  previous  services 

On  Holland,  Bartels  Balfour         ....  1000  0  0 

On  Utrecht,  the  widow  of  James  Blair     .             .             .  400  0  0 

Andries  Penton            .             .             .  150  0  0 

„   Guelderland,  the  widow  of  Cap11  Arthur  Stuart         .  75  0  0 
And  on  the  other  hand  Zeelandt  has  been  raised  on  Pay,  for 

Col.  Backlough  in  his  high  offices,  monthly         .             .  756  0  0 

Col.  Balfour           .             .             .             .                          .  83  6  8 

Guelderland  Foot 

Dona-ldson       .             .              70  men             .            .  1059  0  0 

Zeeland  Foot 

Arthur  Forbes  .  90  :  1297     0    0 

Walter  Bruce  .  70  ;  .         1059     0    0 

Geo.  Homes    .  .  „  .»  '         .'  „ 

Moubrey      ......      .   ; 

Utrecht  Foot 

J.Hamilton    .          '  ..  •           70  men  ...  .  1059    0    0 

Brounfield       .             .                 ,,  »    '  ':.                  „ 

Sitton               .             .                 „  .  .                  „ 

Groningen  Foot 
Norman  Bruce  70  men  1059     0    0 


76  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1581 


III 

COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  BY  THE  COUNCIL  AT 
THE  EAST  SIDE  OF  THE  MEUSE,  THE 
GOVERNOR-GENERAL  THE  EARL  OF  LEICES- 
TER, AND  THE  COUNCIL  OF  STATE. 

COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  BY  THE  MAGISTRACY  AND  LAND-COUNCIL 
AT  THE  EAST  SIDE  OF  THE  MEUSE  * 

Commission  of  William  Nisbet 2  as  Captain. 

THE  Magistracy  and  Provincial  Council  on  this  side  of  the 
Maas  make  known  to  all  and  sundry  who  shall  see  or  have 
read  to  them  these  presents.  Since  by  the  decease  of  John 
Nisbet,  late  captain  of  a  company  of  soldiers  in  the  regiment 
of  Colonel  Diedrich  Sonoy,  the  captaincy  of  said  company 
has  fallen  vacant.  And  it  being  considered  necessary  to 
supply  said  company,  in  order  that  it  may  not  lapse,  with 
another  captain,  therefore,  owing  to  the  good  report  made 
to  us  regarding  the  person  of  William  Nisbet,  lieutenant  of 
the  same  company,  and  being  informed  of  the  many  good 
services  performed  by  him  in  the  course  of  several  years  in  the 
common  cause,  and  trusting  in  his  loyalty  and  experience,  we 
have  commissioned  and  appointed,  and  do  hereby  commission 
and  appoint  him  to  be  captain  over  the  said  company,  there- 
over as  captain  to  order  and  command,  to  maintain  good 
order  and  discipline  of  war.  And  on  all  expeditions  and 
watches,  at  all  times  and  places,  to  hold  himself  in  readiness 
with  his  company  at  the  orders  of  his  colonel  or  his  lieu- 
tenant. And  farther  to  be  guided  in  everything  by  the 

1  Extracted  from  the  '  Commissie  boek  van  de  Overheid  en  den  Landraad 
aan  de  Oostzyde  der  Maas,  beginnende  met  den  5  Augfc  1581  tot  8  Septr  1584.' 

2  See  State  of  War,  1586. 


1 58 1]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  77 

regulations  made  or  to  be  made  for  the  conduct  of  the  war, 
and  that  he  may  acquit  himself  therein  well  and  loyally  he 
shall  hold  himself  bound  to  take  the  proper  oath  before  us 
or  those  commissioned  by  us,  it  being  understood  that  this  is 
to  be  registered  in  the  Record  Office.  Therefore  we  summon 
and  request,  and  that  officially,  all  commanders,  colonels, 
captains,  commissioned  officers,  soldiers,  and  all  whom  it  may 
concern,  to  respect  and  acknowledge  the  said  William  Nisbet 
as  captain  ;  also  we  command  the  soldiers  of  said  company  to 
obey  and  submit  to  the  said  captain.  And  in  all  marches 
and  watches  at  all  times  and  places,  whether  against  the 
enemy  or  otherwise,  to  allow  themselves  to  be  employed  as  he 
may  order,  that  therein  the  Land  may  be  served  and  our 
earnest  purposes  carried  out. 

Given  in  Leeuwaarden  under  our  seal  the  xvii  October  1581. 

On  the  xviii  October  1581  William  Nisbet  took  the  oath 
mentioned  in  the  foregoing  Commission  before  the  Council 

Commission  of  John  Cunningham 1  as  Assistant  to  Count 
William. 

The  Magistracy  and  Provincial  Council  on  this  side  the 
Maas  hereby  make  known  that  the  noble  Count  William 
Lewis  of  Nassau,  because  at  the  battle  of  Noorthoeren  his 
colonels,  lieutenant,  and  captains  were  shot  and  some  taken 
prisoners,  is  in  urgent  need  of  some  one  of  rank  and  ex- 
perienced in  affairs  of  war  who  shall  be  commissioned  to  assist 
the  said  count  in  counsel  and  action  in  all  that  touches  the 
preservation  of  the  town  of  Dokkum  and  our  resistance  to 
the  enemy.  Therefore  we,  being  well  informed  regarding  the 
person  of  John  Cunningham,  Captain  of  Artillery ;  and  trusting 
to  the  ability  and  experience  which  the  said  Cunningham  has 
recently  had  in  the  affairs  of  the  war,  have  authorized  and 
commissioned,  and  do  hereby  authorize  and  commission  him, 
to  assist  with  counsel  and  in  act  the  noble  count  aforesaid,  in 
the  oversight,  superintendence,  and  guardianship  of  the  said 
city  of  Dockum,  also  in  the  absence  of  the  said  count  to  take 


1  See  pension  list  appended  to  State  of  War,  1595. 


78  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1581 

command  of  the  garrison,  and  to  take  oversight  in  like  manner 
for  the  conservation  of  the  said  city.  And  further  to  hold 
and  conduct  himself  as  a  good  counsellor,  assistant,  and,  in 
the  absence  of  the  said  count,  as  a  good  superintendent  and 
head  of  the  foresaid  garrison,  in  such  manner  as  hereinbefore 
he  is  held  bound  and  ought  to  do  and  such  as  also  the  con- 
servation and  warding  of  the  said  town  and  the  service  of 
the  land  shall  require,  requesting,  and  officially  ordaining,  the 
magistracy  of  the  said  town  of  Dockum.  the  captains,  officers, 
cavalry  and  soldiers  at  present  lying  there  in  garrison,  or 
those  who  shall  yet  be  placed  there,  to  acknowledge,  obey, 
and  submit  to  the  said  Cunningham,  as  attached  by  us  in  the 
quality  of  good  counsellor  and  assistant  to  the  said  Count 
William  Lewis  of  Nassau,  etc.,  and  in  the  absence  of  the 
said  count,  as  superintendent  and  head  of  the  garrison; 
and  in  case  of  need  render  him  all  assistance,  that  therein 
the  service  of  the  Land  and  our  earnest  purposes  may  be 
carried  out. 

Given  within  the  City  of  Leeuwaarden  under  our  Seal,  the 
7  October  1581. 


Commission  of  John  Cunningham  for  the  relief  of  NaijesijL 

This  Magistracy,  etc.  Since  we,  in  order  to  provide  those 
devout  captains,  soldiers,  at  present  beset  and  besieged  by 
the  enemy  in  the  village  of  Naijesijl,  with  all  such  necessaries 
against  the  violence  of  the  enemy,  and  for  the  preservation  of 
the  said  post,  as  may  be  found  of  assistance,  have  thought 
good  to  commission  an  expert  conversant  with  military  affairs 
and  with  all  that  might  be  required  in  such  a  case  and  in 
similar  ones.  Therefore,  being  well  informed  respecting  the 
person  of  John  Cunningham,  Captain  of  Artillery,  and  trust- 
ing to  his  ability  and  experience — with  advice  of  General 
the  Lord  [den  Heere]  Norris,  and  of  the  Lieutenant  Stadholder 
of  Friesland,  have  authorized  and  commissioned,  as  we  do  hereby 
authorize  and  commission  him,  to  communicate  with  those 
acquainted  with  the  situation  of  the  said  redoubt  and  the 
country  round  it,  as  to  succour  or  relief;  and  to  bring  all  such 
means  to  bear  as  may  suggest  themselves  for  effecting  said 


1581]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  79 

relief,  and  that  in  the  surest  possible  manner.  For  which 
purpose  the  said  Cunningham  is  empowered  to  employ  some 
officers  and  soldiers  of  the  ensigns  of  the  said  Lord  Lieutenant 
Stadholder  at  present  lying  in  Dockum,  if  necessary  other 
troops  also,  together  with  all  such  light  vessels,  ships,  and 
other  necessaries  he  may  require  for  the  purpose,  and  can 
obtain  at  Dockum  or  elsewhere.  And  should  the  said 
Cunningham  make  any  promise  to  the  extent  of  one  hundred 
Gulden  or  two,  three,  or  four  hundred,  according  as  occa- 
sion may  require,  in  the  employment  of  persons  to  this 
end,  his  said  promises  shall  be  made  good  and  the  said 
Cunningham  shall  be  indemnified  and  held  free  from 
liability.  We  do  summon  and  also  officially  command  the 
soldiers  of  the  said  two  ensigns,  also  all  such  other  soldiers 
that  the  said  Cunningham  may  require  for  this  exploit  and 
everything  connected  with  it,  to  allow  themselves  to  be 
employed  at  the  command  and  order  of  the  said  Cunningham, 
in  the  matter  already  stated  for  the  service  of  the  Land : 
ordaining  also  that  the  Magistrates  of  Dockum,  and  all  others 
whom  these  projects  in  any  way  concern,  give  all  possible 
help  and  assistance  to  the  aforesaid  Cunningham  towards  the 
accomplishment  of  this  service,  thereby  contributing  signally 
to  the  service  of  the  Land  and  to  the  carrying  out  of  our 
earnest  wishes. 

Given  within  the  City  of  Leuwerden  under  our  Seal,  the 
viii.  October  1581. 


COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  BY  THE  EARL  OF  LEICESTER.1 
Commission  pour  le  Capitaine  Jehan  Balford.2    (John  Balfour.) 

Robert,  Conte  de  Leycester,  etc.  a  tous  ceulx  etc.  Comme 
avons  entendu  des  bonnes  et  longues  services  faictes  en  cestes 
provinces  tant  au  feu  de  tres  heureuse  memoire  nostre  tresscher 
et  bon  cousyn  le  Prince  d'Oranges  comme  aussy  aux  Estatz 
gnaulx  durans  les  precedentes  guerres  par  le  Capn  Jehan  Bal- 


1  Extracted  from  the  '  Commissieboek  van  den  Gouverneur  Graaf  van  Ley- 
cester, begin-nende  met  den  5  March  1586^—18  February  1588.' 

2  See  State  of  War  1586,  p.  50,  note  6. 


80  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1581 

ford,  gentilhomme  Escochois,  ensemble  le  desir  qull  a  d'estre 
accepte  en  nfe  service  a  telle  charge  que  nous  plairait  Temploier, 
scavoir  faisons  que  pour  la  bonne  congnoissance  qu'avons  de  la 
personne  du  diet  Balford  et  de  sa  vaillantesse  et  dexterite  au 
faict  de  la  guerre,  Nous  confians  a  plain  de  sa  fidelite  et  expe- 
rience, Avons  Icelluy  constitue,  ordonne  et  commis,  constituons, 
ordonnons  et  commettons  par  ceste  a  la  charge  de  capitaine 
d'une  compaignie  de  cent  chevaulx  a  schavoir  cinquante  lanciers 
et  cinquante  harquebousiers  desia  dresses  ou  encores  a  dresser 
la  ou  il  trouvera  le  mieulx  convenir  en  luy  donnant  pleyn 
pouvoir,  authorite  et  mandement  especial  de  les  lever 
(Tung  lieutenant,  cornette  et  aultres  officiers  en  oultre  de  com- 
mander a  icelle  compaignie  et  la  conduire  et  emploier  contre 
les  Espaignols,  Malcontens,  leurs  adheriens  et  aultres  nous 
ennemis,  soit  en  campaigne  ou  es  villes  et  places  fortes  que  de 
par  nous  luy  sera  commande,  prennant  soigneux  regard  que 
par  ceulx  de  sa  dicte  compaignie  ne  soit  faict  aulcun  tort  ou 
foulle  aux  bourgeois  et  inhabitans.  Dlcelles,  ains  qu'entre 
eulx  soit  tenu  tout  bon  ordre  et  discipline  militaire.  Suivant 
les  ordonnances  sur  ce  faictes  ou  encores  a  faire  et  au  surplus 
faire  toutes  et  singulieres  offices  qu'un  bon  et  fidel  capitaine  de 
cavaillerie  est  tenu  de  faire  aux  gages  et  traictemens  a  ce 
ordonnes,  sur  quoy  et  de  son  bien  et  fidelement  acquite  en 
ceste  sa  charge  et  commission  ledict  capitaine  Balford  sera 
tenu  prester  le  serment  de  fidelite  en  nous  [sic]  mains.  Si 
donnons  un  mandement  aux  Lieutenant  officiers  et  soldatz  de 
la  dicte  compaignie  de  tenir  et  respecter  le  diet  Balford  pour 
leur  Capitaine  et  Tobeir  comme  pour  Pacquit  de  leur  devoir  il 
convient.  Requirons  en  oultre  a  tous  chefz  Colonnelz,  Magis- 
tratz  et  aultres  qu'il  appartiendra  de  faire  au  diet  Capitaine 
Balford  a  Texecution  de  ceste  commission  toute  faveur,  adresse 
et  assistance  requises  et  sur  ee  sera  tenu  le  diet  Capitaine  de 
monstrer  ceste  au  [sic]  chambre  de  la  Tresorie  pour  en  estre 
registre  et  verifie.  Car  ainsy  pour  le  service  du  pays  Tavons 
trouve  convenir.  Donne  a  la  Haye  le  27  de  Mars  1586,  et 
estoit  soubzsigne  R.  Leycester  et  chachete  en  chire  rouge  du 
cachet  de  son  Exce  sur  le  dos  estoit  ce  jour  d'huy  le  xxixe  de 
Mars  1586  a  Jehan  Balfort  faict  le  serment  de  fidelite  es  mains 
de  messrrs  du  Conseil  d'estat  de  soy  bien  et  deuement  acquiter 


1586]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  81 

comme  Capne  (Tune  Compaignie  de  chevaulx,  suyvant  le  con- 
tenu  de  ceste  commission.  Actum  ut  supra  a  Utrecht,  signe 
T.  Langhe  et  sur  le  dos  estoit  aussy  Les  Deputez  hors  du 
Conseil  d'Estat  pour  la  chambre  de  la  tresorie  le  d*  son  Exce 
consentant  autant  qu'en  eulx  est  que  le  contenu  au  blancq  de 
ceste  soit  faict  et  accompli  en  la  forme  que  sa  dicte  Exce  com- 
mande  et  entend  estre  faict  par  Icelle  faict  ut  supra  et  estoit 
soubzsigne  G.  Zuylens. 

Mars  1586.  Commission  pour  le  Capitaine  Alexandre  Witchart. 
Ecossois  d'une  compaignie  de  cent  chevaulx  harequebouseiers. 

Robert,  Conte  de  Leycester,  Baron  de  Denbigh,  etc.  Lieu- 
tenant de  Sa  Majeste  d'Angleterre,  Gouverneur  et  Capitaine 
General  des  Provinces  Unies  des  Pays-Bas,  a  tous  ceux  qui  ces 
presentes  verront  Saluyt. 

Comme  le  Capitaine  Alexandre  Witchard,  Escossoys  aiant 
cydevant  servi  quelque  bon  espace  en  ces  pays  tant  du  temps 
de  feu  notre  tres  cher  et  bien  ayme  Cousin  le  Prince  d'Orange 
H.  M.  Comme  depuis  avecque  charge  et  jusques  ores  continue 
en  toute  fidelite,  soing  et  debvoir  mesmement  a  la  derniere 
entreprinse  sur  la  dyke  de  Cawesten  et  qu'il  nous  ait  remonstre 
le  bon  desir  qu'il  en  a  decontinuer  et  faire  le  mesme  a  Fadvenir, 
Scavoir  faisons  que  pour  la  bonne  cognoissance  qu'avons  du 
d.  Capitaine  Witschardt  et  de  sa  vaillantsie  et  preudhomie  au 
faict  de  la  guerre,  Nous  confians  a  plain  de  la  fidelite  et  experi- 
ence, avons  Icelluy  establi,  ordonne  et  commis,  establissons, 
ordonnons  et  commettons  par  ceste  a  la  charge  de  Capitaine 
d'une  compaignie  de  cent  chevaulx  harequebousiers,  desia 
dressee  ou  encores  a  dresser,  la  ou  il  trouvera  le  mieulx  con- 
venir,  en  luy  donnans  plain  pouvoir,  authorite  et  mandement 
especial,  de  la  pourveoir  d'un  Lieutenant  cornette  et  aultres 
officiers,  en  oultre  de  Commander  a  Icelle  compaignie  et  la 
conduire  et  emploier  centre  les  Espaignols,  malcontents,  leurs 
adherens  et  aultres  nos  ennemis,  soit  en  campaigne  ou  es  villes 
et  places  fortes  que  de  par  nous  luy  sera  commande,  prennant 
soigneux  regard  que  par  ceulx  de  sa  dicte  Compie  ne  soit  faict 
aulcun  tort  ou  foule  aux  Bourgeois  et  habitans  d'icelle,  ains 
qu'entre  eulx  soit  tenu  tout  bon  ordre  et  discipline  militaire, 
suivant  les  ordonnances  sur  ce  faictes  ou  encores  a  faire,  et  au 

F 


82  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

surplus  faire  toutes  et  singulieres  les  choses  qu\m  bon  et  fidele 
Capne  de  Cavaillerie  est  tenu  de  faire. 


COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  BY  THE  COUNCIL  OF  STATED 

Commission  of  William  Waddel?  as  Captain  of  a  Company  of 
Infantry,  130  strong. 

The  States-General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  to  all  who 
shall  see  or  have  read  to  them  these  our  open  letters  of  com- 
mission, greeting !  ...  Be  it  known,  that  we  consider  it 
necessary  for  the  service  of  the  said  United  Netherlands  to 
keep  certain  Companies  of  the  Scottish  nation  in  the  service  of 
the  said  Lands.  By  reason  of  the  good  report  made  to  us  of 
the  person  of  William  Waddel,  and  of  his  affection  for  the 
service  of  these  Lands,  of  his  ability,  piety,  and  experience  in 
the  business  of  the  war,  and  trusting  completely  to  his  good 
character,  loyalty,  and  diligence,  we  have,  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Council  of  State  of  the  said  Lands,  retained  and  continued 
him,  William  Waddel,  and,  so  far  as  may  be  necessary,  have 
anew  commissioned,  and  do,  by  these  presents,  retain,  continue, 
and  commission  him  to  the  charge  of  a  company  of  Scottish 
infantry,  one  hundred  and  thirty  strong,  included  under  the 
regiment  of  Colonel  Bartho.  Balfour,  the  company  to  include, 
besides  his  person  and  boy,  a  lieutenant  and  ensign,  each  with 
his  boy,  two  sergeants,  three  corporals,  two  drummers,  one 
quartermaster,  one  surgeon,  19  musqueteers,  36  pikemen, 
9  halberdiers,  three  bucklermen,3  and  48  arquebusiers,  giving 
him  full  power,  authority,  and  special  charge,  to  take  com- 
mand of  the  said  company,  to  lead  and  employ  them  against 
the  Spaniards,  malcontents,  and  their  adherents,  and  all  other 
enemies  of  the  United  Netherlands,  whether  afield  or  in 
garrison,  for  the  safeguarding  of  any  towns  or  fortresses,  also, 
should  need  be,  on  board  ships  of  war  therein,  and  when  it 
shall  be  ordered  and  commanded  by  us,  and  by  those  having 
commissions  from  us  in  the  service  of  the  Lands,  or  by  the 
said  colonel.  He  as  captain  keeping  his  soldiers  in  good 


1  From  the  Commission  Book,  1588-1591. 

2  See  State  of  War,  1586,  p. 49,  note  3.  3  Rondasseurs. 


1588]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  83 

order,  watch,  and  discipline  of  war  by  day  and  by  night :  not 
suffering  them  to  burden  or  do  any  injury  to  the  citizens  and 
inhabitants  of  the  places  where  they  shall  be  garrisoned ;  and 
further  to  do  everything  that  a  devoted  and  loyal  captain  is 
bound  to  do,  in  accordance  with  the  ordonnance  and  regula- 
tions made,  or  to  be  made,  for  the  conduct  of  the  war ;  and 
this  on  the  payment  for  the  whole  company,  as  above  stated 
130  strong,  of  the  sum  of  1500  pounds  of  40  Flemish  grotten1 
every  32  days.  In  particular,  he  is  to  content  himself  from 
this  date  with  payments  at  the  end  of  every  48  days.  With 
which  he  the  captain,  his  subordinate  officers  and  soldiers 
must,  like  others  in  the  service  of  the  Land,  content  themselves, 
serve  us  and  the  said  Lands  loyally  without  any  contention, 
and  allow  themselves  to  be  mustered  at  every  journey,  or  at 
any  time  when  told  to  do  so. 

And  that  he  may  in  all  these  respects  acquit  himself  well 
and  loyally,  he,  William  Wad  del,  captain,  holds  himself 
bound  to  take  the  proper  oath  before  us,  or  before  the  members 
of  said  Council  of  State :  and  he  shall  cause  this  his  com- 
mission to  be  registered,  as  well  by  the  said  Council  of  State, 
as  by  the  commissioned  Councils  of  the  States  of  Holland,  on 
whose  repartition  he  shall  forthwith  be  paid.  Hereupon,  there 
shall  also  be  granted  him  thereto  an  Attache  from  their  Lord- 
ships the  Governor  and  the  commissioned  Council  of  the  States 
of  Holland.  Which  done ;  we  charge  and  command  the  lieu- 
tenants, commanding  officers,  cadets,  and  common  soldiers  of 
the  same  company,  and  also  all  others  whom  it  may  concern, 
to  acknowledge  him,  William  Waddel,  for  our  captain,  obey 
and  submit  to  him,  also  in  case  of  need,  to  give  him  all  assist- 
ance and  direction — and  all  this  till  further  orders.  For  we 
have  found  this  essential  to  the  service  of  the  Lands. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  the  20  June  1588.2 


1  See  note,  p.  85. 

2  Mutatis  mutandis,  similar  commissions  .were  issued  on  26th  June  1 588  to 
Wm.  Murray  and  John  Dallachy,  and  on  27th  June  to  John  Prop,  David  Cant, 
Wm.  Hay,  and  David  Trail. 


84  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 


Commission  in  favour  of  Earth.  Balfour  lfor  his  '  compagnie 
colonelle''  o/*200  men. 


The  States-  General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  unto  all  who 
shall  see  or  shall  have  read  to  them  these  open  letters  of 
Commission,  Greeting. 

Be  it  known  that  we,  considering  it  needful  for  the  service 
of  the  said  United  Netherlands  to  keep  some  companies  of 
the  Scottish  nation  in  the  service  of  the  said  Lands,  and  being 
well  informed  regarding  the  person  of  the  respected  and  noble 
Barth.  Balfour,  colonel  ;  and  of  his  affection  for  the  service 
of  these  Lands,  his  ability,  good  character,  and  experience  in 
the  business  of  the  war,  and  being  thoroughly  assured  of  his 
devotion,  trustworthiness,  and  loyalty,  have  by  a  resolution 
of  the  Council  of  State  of  the  said  Lands,  retained,  continued, 
and  in  so  far  as  is  necessary,  -appointed  anew  Barth.  Balfour, 
colonel  ;  and  we  hereby  do  by  these  presents  retain,  continue, 
and  appoint  him  to  the  charge  of  captain  of  his  compagnie 
colonelle  of  two  hundred  Scottish  infantry,  which  shall  include, 
besides  his  person  and  boy,  a  lieutenant  and  ensign  each 
with  his  boy,  two  sergeants,  two  drummers,  one  piper,  three 
corporals,  one  quartermaster,  a  surgeon,  27  musketeers,  73 
harquebusiers,  63  pikemen,  18  halberdiers,  and  three  buckler 
men  ;  2  giving  him  full  power,  authority,  and  general  command 
over  said  compagnie  colonelle,  to  order,  lead,  and  use  them 
against  the  Spaniards,  the  malcontents,  and  their  adherents, 
and  all  other  enemies  of  these  United  Netherlands,  whether 
afield,  or  in  garrison  for  the  protection  of  any  towns  or 
fortresses  ;  also,  in  case  of  need,  on  board  ships  of  war,. 
wheresoever  he  shall  be  ordered  and  commanded  to  such 
duties  in  the  service  of  the  country  by  us,  and  by  those 
commissioned  by  us;  always  keeping  his  soldiers  in  good 
order,  guard,  and  discipline  of  war,  both  by  day  and  night,. 
not  permitting  them  to  burden  or  in  any  way  to  injure  the 
citizens  or  inhabitants  of  the  towns  and  places  where  they 
may  be  garrisoned.  And  further,  to  do  everything  that  a 


1  See  State  of  War,  1586,  p.  48. 

2  Rondasseurs,  from  rondas—^.  round  shield. 


1588]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  85 

good  and  faithful  captain  ought  and  is  in  duty  bound  to  do, 
in  pursuance  of  orders  and  written  regulations  already  made, 
or  that  may  be  made,  as  to  the  conduct  of  the  war.  And 
this  at  a  pay  for  the  whole  company  of  the  above  strength  of 
200  men  of  the  sum  of  2200  pounds,  of  40  groats l  the  poundj 
every  32  days,  with  the  reservation  that  henceforward  he 
shall  content  himself  with  these  payments  every  48  days. 
With  this  he  and  his  subordinate  officers  and  his  soldiers,  like 
others  in  the  country's  service,  must  content  themselves.  And 
on  this  stipulation  loyally  serve  us,  and  the  Lands  aforesaid, 
without  complaint,  and  at  each  journey  allow  themselves, 
when  called  upon,  to  pass  muster.  And  in  order  that  he 
may  acquit  himself  in  all  these  well  and  faithfully,  he,  Barth. 
Balfour,  acknowledged  as  Captain,  is  bound  to  take  the  proper 
oath  at  our  hands,  or  those  of  the  Council  of  State  aforesaid, 
and  to  cause  register  this  his  commission  both  by  the  said 
Council  of  State  and  by  the  commissioned  Councils  of  the 
States  of  Holland,  upon  whose  repartition2  he  shall  forthwith  be 
paid.  In  addition  also  there  will  be  granted  to  him  the  attache 
(or  confirmation)  of  the  Lord  Governor,  and  of  the  commis- 
sioned Councils  of  the  States  of  Holland.  Which  being  done, 
we  charge  and  command  the  lieutenant,  commanding  officers, 
cadets,  and  common  soldiers  of  the  said  company,  and  all 
others  whom  it  may  concern,  to  acknowledge  him,  Barth. 
Balfour,  as  our  captain,  submit  to  and  obey  him ;  also  when 
necessary  to  render  him  all  help  and  direction ;  and  all  this 
till  our  further  orders;  for  we  have  found  this  essential  in 
the  service  of  the  Land. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  the  26  June  1588. 

(Initialed)  J.  VALCKE  V*. 

Docqueted  (below) : — 

By  order  of  my  Lords,  the  States-General  of  the  United 
Netherlands,  relative  to  the  report  of  the  Council  of  State  in 
respect  of  this  commission.  (Signed)  Cnr  HUYGENS. 


1  Old  Flemish  pound  equal  to  n  shillings  sterling :  40  grotten=is.  iod.,  or 
one  guilder  :  groot  =  ^d.:  pound  =  ios. 

2  Repartitie  =  division  into  smaller  parts. 


86  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

And  sealed  with  a  hanging-out  seal  in  red  wax  on  doubled 
string.  Indorsed  (on  back)  : — 

This  fifth  day  of  July  1588,  Bartolt.  Balfour  took  the 
pfoper  oath  before  the  Council  of  State  as  captain  of  a  com- 
pany according  to  the  commission  on  the  other  side  of  this. 

Cnr  HUYGENS. 

Original  Dutch  of  the  preceding. 

Commissie  voor  Bartolt  Balfour  voor  sijne  compagnie  collonnelle  van 
IP  hoofden. 

Die  Staten  Generael  der  Vereeniehde  Nederlanden  alien  den  ghenen 
die  dese  opene  brieven  van  commissie  sullen  sien  oft  hooren  lesen,  Saluyt. 

Doen  te  weeten  dat  wij  noodich  achtende  tot  dienste  van  de  selve 

Vereeniehde  Nederlanden  eenighe  Compaignien  van  de  Schotze  natie  in 

dienste  der  voorz  landen  te  houden,  om  de  goede  kennisse  die  wij  hebben 

van  den  persoon  des  edelen  erentfesten  Bartolt  Balfour  collonnel  ende 

van  sijne  affectie  tot  deser  landen  dienst,  cloecheyt,  vromicheijt  ende 

experiente  in't  stuck  van  der  oirloge.     Ons  gantschelick  betrouwende 

zijnder  vromicheyt,  getrouwicheyt  ende  neersticheyt,  hebben  bij  deliberatie 

van  den  Rade  van  State  derselver  landen  hem  Bartolt  Balfour,  collonnel 

onthouden,  gecontinueert  ende  voor  200  veel  des  noot  zijnde  op  nijes 

gecommitteert,  onthouden,  continueren  ende  committeren  bij  desen  tot 

den  last  van  Capiteyn  van  zijne  compaignie  collonnelle  van  twee  hondert 

Schotze  voetknechten,  daeronder  sullen  wesen  neffens  sijnen  persoon 

ende  jongen,  eenen  Lieutenant  ende  Vendrich,  elcx  met  heurl  jongen, 

twee  Sergeanten,  twee  trommelslagers,  een  pijper,  drie  corporalen,  een 

forier,  een  chirurgijn,  sevenentwintich  musketters,  drie  ende  tzeventich 

harquebousurs,  drie  ende  tsestich  spiessen,  achtien  hellebaerden  ende 

drie   rondassuers,   hem    gevende  vol   comen    macht,   auctoriteijt  ende 

generael  bevel  over  deselve  compaignie  collonnelle  te  gebyeden,  die  te 

geleijden  ende  te  gebruye-ken  gegens  den  Spangaerden,  malcontenten 

ende  heuren  aenhangeren  ende  alien  anderen  vianden  deser  Vereeniehde 

Nederlanden  't  zij  te  velde  ofte  in  garnisoen  tot  bewaringe  van  eenige 

steden  ende  stercten,  oock  op  de  schepen  van  oirloge  des  noot  sijnde, 

daer  ende  soe  hem  sulcx  bij    ons  ende  bij   den  ghenen  van  ons  last 

hebbende  tot  der  landen  dienst  sal  worden  geordonneert  ende  bevolen, 

houdende  sijne  soldaten  in  goede  ordre,  wacht  ende  crijchs  discipline  soe 

bij  daghe  als  bij  nachte,  sonder  te  gedoogen  dat  sij  den  burgeren  ofte 

ingesetenen  van  de  steden  ende  plaetzen,   daer  zij   zullen  garnizoen 

houden,  eenigen  last  ofte  schade  aen  doen.     Ende  voorts  alles  te  doen 

dat  een  goet  ende  getrouwe  Capiteyn  schuldich  is  ende  behoort  te  doen, 

achtervolgende  d'ordonnancien  ende  artyckelbrief  op  't  beleyt  van  der 

oorloge  gemaect,  ofte  alsnoch  te  maken.      Ende  dit  op  de  gagie  voor 

de  geheele  compaignie  als  boven,  sterck  sijnde  twee  hondert  hoofden,  te 

summe  van  twee  ende  twintich  hundert  ponden  van  veertich  grooten  't 


1588]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  87 

pondt  alle  twee  en  dertich  daghen,  behoudelick  dat  hij  hem  voortaen  sal 
contenteren  mette  betalinge  van  acht  en  veertich  daghen  te  acht  en 
veertich  daghen  daermede  hij  sijne  onderhoorige  bevelhehberen  ende 
soldaten,  hen  gelijck  anderen  in  dienst  van  den  lande  sijnde,  sullen 
moeten  contentereu  ende  daerop  ons  ende  de  voorz-landen  getrouwelick 
dyenen  sender  eenich  wederseggen  ende  hem  telcken  reijse  te  monsteren 
laten  des  vermaent  zijnde.  Ende  omme  hem  in  alien  desen  wel  ende 
vertrouwelick  te  quyten,  wert  hij  Bartolt  Balfour  als  Capiteyn  gehouden 
den  behoorl.  eedt  te  doen  aen  handen  van  ons  ofte  die  van  den  Rade 
van  State  voorz,  ende  dese  sijne  Commissie  te  doen  registreren,  soe  wel 
bij  den  voorz.  Rade  van  state  als  bij  de  gecommitteerde  Raden  van  de 
Staten  van  Hollandt,  op  wijens  repartitie  hij  voortaen  betaelt  sal  wordeji, 
daertoe  hem  oock  attache  van  den  Heere  Gouverneur  ende  gecommitteerde 
Raden  van  de  Staten  van  Holland  sal  worden  verleent  't  Welck  gedaen 
weesende  lasten  ende  ordonneren  wij  den  Luetenant,  Bevelhebberen, 
Adelborsten  ende  gemeene  soldaten  van  deselve  compaignie  ende  oock 
alien  anderen  dyen't  aengaen  mach,  hem  Bartolt  Balfour  voor  onsen 
Capiteyn  te  erkennen,  hem  te  gehoorsamen  ende  obedieren.  Oock  des 
noot  sijnde  alle  hulp  ende  addres  te  doen,  ende  dat  alles  tot  onsen 
wederseggen,  want  wij  sulex  tot  dienste  van  den  lande  bevonden  hebben 
te  behoiren. 

Gegeven  in  's  Gravenhage  den  xxvi.  Junij  xvc  acht  ende  tachtentich. 
Geparapheert  J.  Valcke  v*.  Op  de  ply  eke  stont  ges-  ter  ordonnan  van 
myn  Heeren  de  Staten  Generael  der  Vereeniehde  Nederlanden.  Ter 
relatie  van  den  Rade  van  State  der  selve.  Onderth  Chr.  Huygens. 
Ende  besegelt  met  een  uythangende  Zegel  in  rooden  wassche  aen 
dubbelde  strecke.  Opten  rugge  stondt.  Op  huyden  den  vijffden  July 
xvclxxxviii  heeft  Bartolt  Balfour  den  behoorlicken  eedt  gedaen  aen  die 
van  den  Rade  van  State  als  Capn  van  een  Compaignie  volgende  de 
comissie  aen  d'andere  sijde  van  dese.  CHR.  HUYGENS. 

Commission  of  William  Brog  as  Sergeant  Major  over 
the  Scots. 

The  States-General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  etc.  Be  it 
known  that  we,  considering  it  necessary  for  the  service  of  the 
Land,  and  the  good  direction  of  the  affairs  of  the  war,  to 
appoint  a  qualified  sergeant-major  over  the  Scottish  soldiers 
and  regiment  under  Colonel  Balfour,  and  other  Scottish 
captains  in  the  service  of  the  Lands :  We  have,  on  account 
of  the  good  knowledge  we  possess,  of  the  person  of  the  doughty 
William  Brog,  as  also  of  his  ability  and  experience  in  the 
conduct  of  the  war,  and  trusting  to  his  capacity  and  diligence, 
at  a  meeting  of  the  Council  of  State  of  the  said  United  Lands, 


88  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

retained,  placed,  and  appointed  the  same,  and  we  do  by  these 
presents  retain,  place,  and  appoint  him  to  the  position  and 
office  of  sergeant-major,  and  Watchmaster  (Wachtmeester) 
over  the  said  Scottish  regiment  and  soldiers,  giving  him  com- 
plete power,  authority,  and  particular  charge,  to  enter  into  the 
service,  and  serve  in  all  faithfulness,  whether  in  towns,  fortresses, 
or  afield;  therein  to  take  good  heed  and  to  see  that  marches 
and  watches  be  well  provided,  and  faithfully  carried  out, 
according  to  circumstances,  and  to  this  end  he  must,  at  the 
proper  moment,  give  the  word  of  command,  or  the  watchword 
to  those  who  ought  to  have  it,  and  he  may  ask  it  to  be 
repeated  at  his  pleasure,  also  he  is  to  make  his  rounds  with 
great  strictness,  or  cause  them  to  be  made.  He  is  occasionally 
to  test  the  corps,  the  guards,  the  sentinels,  in  every  place,  and 
is  to  take  particular  care  lest  through  neglect  of  these  measures 
any  troubles  should  occur ;  also  to  take  good  oversight  of  the 
common  soldiers  and  troops,  and  take  care  that  every  one  be 
provided  with  such  weapons  and  accoutrements  as  his  place 
demands ;  and  on  the  detection  of  fraud  by  any  one,  the  cap- 
tains and  other  officers  whose  duty  it  is  to  see  to  it,  are  to  be 
earnestly  exhorted  to  take  proper  action  in  the  matter.  Also  at 
times  and  on  occasions  when  musters  or  reviews  shall  be  held  on 
the  part  of  the  Land,  he  is  to  render  all  good  assistance  to  the 
commissary  [or  muster  master]  or  commissaries,  and  to  exert 
himself  that  such  may  be  carried  out  in  the  best  order,  and  as  may 
be  best  for  the  service  of  the  Land.  And  further,  in  general  and 
particular,  he  is  to  do  all  that  pertains  to  the  maintenance  of 
good  discipline  of  war  and  order  among  the  soldiers,  and  in 
other  respects  to  do  what  a  good  and  loyal  sergeant-major,  as 
aforesaid,  is  in  duty  bound  and  ought  to  do.  And  since  it 
is  likely  said  regiment  of  Scottish  soldiers  will  not  remain 
always  together  with  the  others  in  one  place,  but  at  times  the 
companies  of  it  will  be  employed  in  various  quarters  or  places 
according  as  the  service  of  the  Land  may  require,  he  shall  be 
bound  to  allow  himself  willingly  to  be  employed  on  all  other 
occasions,  and  when  good  opportunity  offers  in  the  service  of 
the  Land,  when  ordered  in  his  quality  as  sergeant-major;  and 
in  particular  to  let  himself  be  employed  and  serve  as  sergeant- 
major-general,  when  that  shall  be  asked  of  him  in  the  service 


1588]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  89 

of  the  Land ;  and  that  at  a  salary  of  80  pounds,  of  40  Flemish 
groats  per  pound  a  month.  And  in  order  to  acquit  himself 
in  this  his  post  and  office  honestly  and  devoutly  he  is  held 
bound  to  take  the  proper  oath  of  loyalty,  before  the  Council 
of  State  aforesaid,  and  to  allow  his  commission  to  be  registered, 
as  well  by  the  said  Council  of  State,  as  by  the  commissioned 
Councils  of  the  States  of  Holland  on  whose  repartition  he  shall 
forthwith  be  paid.  Thereto  also  a  proper  attache  shall  be 
granted  him  by  the  Lord  Governor,  and  by  the  commissioned 
Council  of  the  States  of  Holland.  The  which  being  done,  we 
invite  and  command  Colonel  Balfour,  those  under  him  in  his 
regiment,  together  with  all  other  Scottish  captains,  officers, 
and  common  soldiers  being  in  the  service  of  the  Land ;  and 
further,  all  others  whom  these  presents  in  any  way  concern, 
to  acknowledge  the  said  William  Brog  in  the  quality  of 
sergeant-major,  hold  him  for  such  and  respect  him.  Also 
in  the  fulfilment  of  his  duty  and  commission,  if  need  be,  and 
he  require  it  to  render  him  unhesitatingly  all  good  help  and 
assistance ;  for  we  have  found  this  indispensable  in  the  service 
of  these  Lands. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  the  twelfth  July  1588,  etc. 

Commission  of  Alexander  Murray  as  Captain. 

The  States-General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  etc.  Since 
Captain  William  Murray  has  informed  us  that  on  account  of 
certain  private  affairs,  he  finds  it  needful,  with  our  consent, 
to  leave  the  service  of  these  Lands  to  go  to  Scotland,  having 
also  presented  and  delivered  over  the  company  of  infantry, 
led  and  commanded  by  him  for  some  time  past,  and  up  to  this 
date.  We  therefore  find  it  necessary  to  provide  the  same 
company  again  with  a  qualified  captain.  Be  it  known  that 
we,  owing  to  the  good  knowledge  we  have  of  the  person  of 
Alexander  Murray,  and  of  the  good  services  done  by  him 
during  a  considerable  time  for  these  United  Lands,  in  his 
quality  of  captain  of  a  company  of  infantry,  and  having  con- 
fidence in  his  ability,  experience,  and  honesty,  have,  at  a 
meeting  of  the  Council  of  State  of  the  said  Lands,  continued, 
etc.,  in  place  of  the  foresaid  William  Murray,  the  said  Alexander 


90  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

Murray  in  the  post  of  captain  of  the  said  company  of  infantry, 
130  men  strong,  including,  besides  his  own  person  and  boy,  a 
lieutenant  and  ensign  each  with  his  boy,  two  sergeants,  three 
corporals,  two  drummers,  one  quartermaster,  one  surgeon, 
fifteen  musketeers,  36  pikemen,  nine  halberdiers,  4  broad- 
swordsmen,1  48  arquebusiers,  giving  him  full  power,  etc. 
The  payment  of  the  whole  company  aforesaid,  130  strong,  to 
be  the  sum  of  1500  pounds,  of  40  groats  Flemish  per  pound, 
every  32  days,  etc. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  the  nineteenth  September  1588.2 


Commission  of  William  Edmond  3  as  Captain  of  a  Company 
of  sixty  mounted  Lancers. 

The  States-General,  etc.  Seeing  we  have  found  it  advisable 
and  necessary  for  the  prosecution  of  the  present  war,  and  to 
resist  the  common  enemy,  to  take  some  more  cavalry  into  the 
service  of  the  Land,  be  it  known,  that  on  account  of  the  good 
report  received  by  us  regarding  the  person  of  the  doughty  and 
honest  William  Edmond,  and  relying  on  his  ability  and  ex- 
perience in  war,  we  have,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Council  of  State 
of  the  said  united  Lands,  appointed  and  commissioned  and  do 
appoint  and  commission  him,  by  these  presents,  as  speedily  as 
possible  to  raise  and  take  command  of  a  company  of  sixty 
lancers  cavalry,  giving  him  complete  power,  authority,  and 
a  special  order  to  take  command  thereof  as  captain,  to  lead 
it  and  employ  it  against  the  Spanish,  the  malcontents,  their 
adherents,  and  all  other  enemies  of  the  United  Netherlands, 
whether  afield  or  in  garrisons,  and  for  the  defence  of  any 
towns  or  fortresses  there  and  wherever  he  may  be  ordained 


1  Slagzwaard  =  two-handed  sword,  probably  the  meaning. 

2  In  1586,  in  '  a  band '  drawn  up  by  '  the  haill  name  of  Murray,'  the  signatures 
appear  together  of — 

'  WILLIAM  MURRAY  of  Pitcairles. 

ALEXANDER  MURRAY  of  Drumdeway. 

In  another  similar  bond  of  1598  there  appears  the  signature  of — 
'ALEXANDER  MURRAY  of  Drumdeway,  Colonel.' 
See  also  supra,  p.  50,  note  I,  and  infra ,  pp.  153,  166,  170. 

3  See  State  of  War,  1595,  p.  54,  note  i. 


1589]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  91 

and  commanded  in  the  service  of  the  Lands  by  us,  or  by  those 
having  authority  from  us ;  holding  his  cavalry  in  good  order, 
watch,  and  discipline  of  war  as  well  by  day  as  by  night,  with- 
out suffering  them  to  burden  excessively  or  to  injure  the 
citizens  or  the  inhabitants  of  the  towns  and  country  districts ; 
further,  to  do  all  that  a  good  and  faithful  captain  ought 
and  is  in  duty  bound  to  do  in  accordance  with  the  rules  and 
letters  of  instructions  on  the  conduct  of  the  war,  already  made 
or  yet  to  be  made.  And  this  for  payments  such  as  other 
captains  and  cavalry  are  in  receipt  of;  provided  that  he,  his 
under  officers,  and  cavalry  shall  rest  satisfied  with  receiving 
one  month^s  pay  every  48  days,  like  others  in  the  service  of 
the  Land  ;  that  he  shall  serve  us  and  the  said  Lands  faithfully, 
without  any  contention,  and  always  allow  his  company  to  be 
passed  in  muster  if  called  upon.  And  that  he  shall  have  no 
power  outside  the  United  Netherlands  to  arrest  or  molest  any 
of  the  said  Land's  inhabitants  in  their  persons  or  goods  on  the 
account  of  this  or  other  company  for  past  services ;  but  must 
comfort  himself  with  the  thought  that  he  is  being  treated  in 
everything  like  other  companies  of  these  Lands  in  the  Land's 
service.  And  that  he  may  acquit  himself  in  all  this  well  and 
faithfully,  the  said  Captain  Edmond  binds  himself  to  take 
the  proper  oath  at  our  hands,  or  at  those  of  the  Council  of 
State  aforesaid,  and  to  cause  register  his  commission,  as  well 
by  the  same  Council  of  State,  as  by  the  appointed  Councils  of 
the  States  of  Holland,  upon  whose  repartition  he  shall  be 
paid.  Thereto  shall  also  be  granted  to  him  the  attache  of 
the  Lord  Governor,  and  of  the  appointed  Councils  of  the 
States  of  Holland,  which  being  accomplished,  we  charge  and 
command  the  lieutenant,  officers,  and  common  horsemen  to 
receive  him  into  their  company ;  and  all  others  whom  it  may 
concern,  to  acknowledge  the  said  William  Edmond  for  our 
appointed  captain,  submit  to  and  obey  him.  Also  in  case 
of  need,  to  lend  him  all  assistance,  help,  and  direction,  and 
all  this  till  further  orders ;  for  we  have  found  this  essential  to 
the  service  of  the  Land. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  the  tenth  June  1589,  etc. 


92  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1593 

Commission  of  Patrick  Bruce  as  Captain  of  Horse  over  a 
Company  of  a  hundred  mounted  Lancers. 

The  States- General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  etc.  Seeing 
that  Captain  Patrick  Bruce  has  offered  to  recruit  a  company 
of  lancers  for  our  and  the  service  of  the  said  United  Lands, 
his  payment  to  be  found  in  contributions  levied  in  the  country 
parts  of  Flanders,  which  he  is  to  bring  under  the  safeguard 
and  control  of  the  State-General :  and  we  having  found  it 
desirable  to  increase  the  cavalry  already  serving  in  defence 
of  the  said  Lands,  in  order  the  better  to  withstand  the  common 
enemy :  we  have  accordingly,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Council  of 
State  of  the  said  Lands,  accepted  the  offer  of  the  said  Patrick 
Bruce  and  retain  the  same,  etc.,  for  captain  over  a  company 
of  good  lancers  of  100  horses ;  giving  him  complete  power, 
authority,  and  particular  charge  to  raise  the  said  company 
with  all  diligence,  so  that  within  the  course  of  the  next  three 
months  it  may  be  ready  to  be  employed  in  the  service  of  these 
Lands,  said  company  he  is  to  take  command  of  and  lead,  and 
is  to  suffer  himself  to  be  employed  against  the  Spaniards,  etc., 
and  particularly  for  the  execution  and  ingathering  of  the  fore- 
said  contributions;  that  is  to  say,  when  and  as  often  as  he 
shall  be  requested  to  do  so  by  the  officers  appointed  over  the 
same,  and  in  doing  so  to  regulate  himself  according  to  the 
measure  and  order  given,  or  that  may  be  given  by  us.  He  is 
to  keep  his  cavalry  in  good  order,  watch,  and  discipline  of 
war,  etc. ;  his  payment  to  be  3000  pounds  per  month  of  32 
days,  the  officers'  salaries  and  horse  fodder  included  therein : 
provided  he  shall  take  care  to  procure,  according  to  his  agree- 
ment, all  such  payments  out  of  said  levies  on  the  country  dis- 
tricts of  Flanders,  the  which  he  is  to  exact  with  all  diligence 
and  put  in  train,  so  that  his  pay  beyond  the  present  incomes 
can  be  escheat  (or  claimed)  out  of  them  ;  and  he,  the  captain, 
his  subordinate  officers,  and  cavalry  shall,  like  others,  rest 
satisfied  with  receiving  a  month's  pay  every  48  days,  it  being 
understood  that  these  United  Lands  do  not  hold  themselves 
bound  in  their  ordinary  payment,  nor  in  the  third  part  of  the 
remainder  due  for  his  services :  reserving  always  an  action,  (or 
law  suit)  by  him  against  the  Lands  of  Flanders. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  the  15  April  1593. 


1594]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  93 

Commission  of  William  Balfour 1  as  Captain  over  Colonel 
Balfour 's  Company  o/150  men. 

The  States- General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  etc.  Seeing 
that  Colonel  Bartolt  Balfour  is  discharged  from  the  post  of 
captain  over  a  company  of  infantry  for  some  years  led  by 
him;  and  that  we  deem  it  necessary  to  continue  the  same 
company  in  the  service  of  these  Lands,  and  therefore  again  to 
place  another  suitable  person  over  them  as  captain :  Be  it 
known,  that  owing  to  the  good  report  made  to  us  regarding 
the  person  of  William  Balfour,  lieutenant  of  the  foresaid 
company,  and  his  long  continued  and  faithful  services  per- 
formed to  these  United  Lands,  together  with  his  experience 
and  honourable  comportment,  wherein  we  trust  he  shall  per- 
severe, we  have,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Council  of  State  of  the 
foresaid  United  Lands,  unanimously  accepted  the  same  William 
Balfour,  etc.,  for  captain  of  the  company  above  mentioned,  in 
the  place  of  Colonel  Balfour,  giving  him  full  authority,  etc., 
to  command  the  said  company,  and  reduce  it  to  150  men,  and 
it  shall  include,  besides  his  person  and  boy,  a  lieutenant  and 
ensign  each  with  a  boy,  two  sergeants,  two  drummers,  a  piper, 
three  corporals,  a  quartermaster  or  clerk,  a  surgeon,  30 
musketeers,'  39  pikemen  with  corselets,  ten  halberdiers,  three 
buckler-men  being  noblemen,  etc. 

Given  at  the  Hague,  19th  February  1594. 

Commission  of  Robert  Barclay  z  as  Captain  of  a  company  of 
Scots  of 150  men. 

The  States-General,  etc.  Having  found  good,  because  of 
the  death  of  Captain  Egger,  that  another  fit  and  trusty  person 
should  be  appointed  to  take  command  as  head  and  captain 
over  the  company  of  Scots  infantry,  formerly  led  by  the 
deceased,  be  it  known  that  owing  to  the  good  report  we  have 
received  regarding  the  person  of  Robert  Bercley,  and  relying 
on  this,  as  also  on  his  ability  and  military  experience,  he 
having  served  for  some  time  as  lieutenant  of  the  company  of 


1  See  State  of  War,  1595,  p.  54,  note  2.  2  Ibid.,  1598,  p.  57,  note  2. 


94  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1595 

Colonel  Murrey :  at  a  consultation  of  the  Council  of  State  of 
the  same  United  Lands,  have  placed  and  appointed  the  same 
Bercley,  etc.,  as  captain  over  the  said  company  of  the  late 
Captain  Egger  to  the  number  of  150  men,  etc. 
The  Hague,  the  21  November  1597. 


Act  of' Commission1  for  Captain  Brogh  z  as  Sergeant- Major 
over  the  said  auxiliary. 

The  States-General  of  the  United  Netherlands.  To  all 
those,  etc.,  whereas  we,  for  the  service  of  the  King  of  France 
and  of  these  Lands,  have  found  it  good  and  necessary  to 
appoint  a  sergeant-major  over  the  two  regiments  of  infantry 
ordered  to  go  to  France  to  the  relief  of  the  town  of  Camerijck,3 
under  the  conduct  and  command  of  the  noble  and  trusty 
Jonker,  Justinus  van  Nassau,  Admiral  of  Zeeland,  general  of 
the  said  auxiliary,  so  for  the  good  carrying  out  of  this  we 
have  taken  the  person  of  William  Brogh,  captain  of  a  com- 
pany of  Scots  soldiers  and  sergeant-major  of  the  Scots 
regiment,  and  believing  his  ability,  valour,  and  experience  to 
be  certified,  vouched,  and  assured,  we  have  appointed  and 
commissioned,  and  do  hereby  appoint  and  commission  the 
foresaid  Captain  Brogh  to  be  sergeant-major  or  Wachtmeester 
over  the  foresaid  two  regiments  of  infantry,  giving  him  full 
power  and  authority  to  lead  said  force  during  its  campaign  in 
France,  to  take  service  of,  and  exercise  the  same,  and  to  take 
the  word  of  command  concerning  it  from  the  said  general,  and 
to  give  it  to  the  officers  who  shall  be  on  duty  in  said  expedi- 
tion, to  take  the  sharpest  heed  that  among  the  soldiers  good 
watch,  ward,  and  war  discipline  shall  be  maintained,  as  well 
by  day  as  by  night.  To  listen  to  all  complaints,  and  to  report 
them  to  the  authority  whose  business  it  is  to  attend  to  them 
that  they  may  be  seen  to  as  is  fitting ;  and  further,  to  do  all 
that  a  good  and  faithful  sergeant-major  or  Wachtmeester 
ought,  and  is  in  duty  bound  to  do  ;  on  a  pay  of  a  hundred  pounds 


1  From  the  Commission  Book  of  the  States-General.      Commissions  1586- 
1625. 
8  See  State  of  War,  1595,  p.  54,  note  3.  3  Cambrai. 


1595]  COMMISSIONS  GRANTED  95 

of  xl.  great  pieces  per  month  (his  ordinary  pay  of  sergeant- 
major  special  over  the  Scotch  regiment  therein  included)  to 
commence  the  first  of  October  next.  It  is  therefore  ordained 
and  commanded  to  all  and  sundry  whom  it  may  concern  that 
they  are  to  recognise,  respect,  and  obey  the  foresaid  Captain 
Brogh  in  his  foresaid  quality  on  pain  of  our  displeasure 
inasmuch  as  we  have  found  this  to  be  essential  to  the  service 
of  the  Land. 

So  drawn  up,  etc.,  the  27th  September  1595. 


96  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1586 


IV 

EXTRACTS      RELATING     TO     THE     CLAIMS     OF 
COLONEL      BARTHOLOMEW    BALFOUR     AND 
THE  POSITION  OF  THE  SCOTTISH  OFFICERS. 
1586-1594 

Council  of  1586,  Septr.  %. — On  account  of  the  arrival  of  150  soldiers  at 
state.1  Amsterdam  [from  Scotland],  and  of  those  which  are  still 
expected ;  orders  about  their  transport ;  also  the  authorities 
of  Amsterdam  are  requested  to  receive  them,  and  to  pay  them 
per  head,  a  captain  1  florin  [  =  1  guilder],  a  lieutenant  10  patars 
[=14  pence],  an  ensign  and  sergeant  6  p.  each,  a  cadet,  cor- 
poral, clerk  6  p.  each,  and  every  soldier  3  p.  daily. 

Novr.  15. — Est  ordonne  que  les  capitaines  Ecossois  seront  en 
deux  colonnels  et  sous  le  commandement  de  Balfour  et  Palton, 
et  le  traitement  party  en  deux  moities,  a  moities  egalement, 
et  que  commissions  soyent  faits  in  forma. 

1587,  January  IQth. — On  General  Norris's  proposal,  it  is 
resolved  to  retain  in  service  the  company  of  Captain  Rally ; 
and  with  reference  to  this  it  was  mentioned  that  before  the 
departure  of  his  Excellency  [the  Earl  of  Leicester]  it  was  fixed 
that  thenceforth  not  more  than  2000  Scots  would  be  kept  in 
service. 

Dec.  ISth. — At  the  request  of  Colonel  Balfour  and  Captain 
Patson2  for  a  resolution  about  the  interests  of  his  regiment 
and  other  Scots  regiments,  gentlemen  are  nominated  to  enter 
into  negotiations  with  them  thereanent. 

Dec.  13^.— Report :  It  was  fixed  that  Colonel  Balfour  shall 
have  in  his  Regiment  the  10  Companies  mentioned  here,  each 


1  Generale  Index  op  de  Notulen  van  den  Raad  van  State,  1584-1600,  door 
A.  Bogaers.     Deel  3.     P— Z. 

2  i.e.  Aristotle  Patton.     See  pp.  26  and  46. 


1588]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR      97 

containing  150  men,  and  the  Colonel's  company  containing 
200  men.  Regarding  his  pay,  it  shall  be  at  the  rate  of  40 
guilders  per  month  paid  to  him  for  each  company.  It  was 
also  resolved  that  Captain  Arobel  Patson  shall  be  colonel  of 
the  four  Scots  companies  here  mentioned,  and  to  send  him  his 
commission ;  lastly,  to  consider  as  to  how  many  officers  shall 
be  henceforth  in  each  company,  and  what  arms  officers  as  well 
as  privates  shall  bear. 

Addendum,  Dec.  QQth. — The  salary  of  colonel  was  fixed  at 
400  guilders,  of  the  sergeant-major  at  80,  and  of  the  provost 
at  50. 


ACTA  CONSILII  STATUS  PRO  VINCI  ALIUM  CONFOEDERATORUM. 
Differences  between  the  States  and  Colonel  Balfour. 

1588,  Saturday,  May  28. — Colonel  Balfour  was  asked  to 
come  in,  and  was  informed  that  their  Honours  understood  he 
and  his  captains  and  officers  felt  themselves  aggrieved  at  being 
asked  to  accept  pay  at  the  rate  of  32  days  for  a  month  (nothing 
else,  he  must  recollect,  was  undertaken  during  this  war,  in  par- 
ticular, too,  in  respect  of  the  Scots,  and  so  likewise  with  his 
comrades  and  other  regiments  brought  over  for  the  service  of 
the  land),  and  it  being  well  known  that  he  was  a  lover  of  their 
Fatherland,  their  Honours  did  not  doubt  but  that  he  would 
be  willing  to  put  up  with  that,  and  give  no  occasion  that 
through  him  the  generally  accepted  footing  be  infringed  upon. 
After  various  allegations  brought  forward  by  the  colonel,  and 
among  others  that  he  had  persuaded  his  captains  so  far  that 
they  had  been  altogether  willing  to  be  reasonable,  but  that 
they  had  allowed  themselves  to  forget  many  things,  he  ulti- 
mately undertook  to  urge  his  captains  to  rest  contented  with 
the  arrangement. 

And  it  having  further  been  intimated  to  the  colonel  that 
great  complaints  had  been  made  by  certain  people  who  had 
been  fetched  by  his  soldiers  from  Maas  and  Waall,  he  answered 
in  effect  that  it  had  been  done  through  a  misunderstanding,  he 
not  being  aware  that  those  peasants  were  under  Sauvegarde ; 
but  having  ascertained  this,  he  had  given  orders  that  satisfac- 


98  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

tion  should  be  made  to  the  peasants;  and  he  would  take 
measures  so  that  such  complaints  should  cease,  or  would  be 
himself  answerable  for  them. 

1588,  Monday,  June  13. — Captains  Wm.  Meurrey,  Nysbeth, 
and  Waddel,  having  compeared,  the  resolution  of  the  Lords 
States-General  and  the  Council  was  communicated  to  them, 
with  the  intimation  that  they  should  render  their  accounts, 
and  would  receive  a  month's  pay,  and  henceforth  they  would 
be  paid  each  48th  day  by  the  authorities  of  Holland.  Where- 
upon they  answered  that  they  were  willing  to  go  and  to  serve 
the  country,  but  that  they  must  have  the  means  to  make  their 
soldiers  willing  and  to  satisfy  them.  Being  asked  what  means 
they  desired,  they  explained  that  they  desired  to  get  some 
security  about  the  settling  of  accounts.  Whereupon  it  was 
explained  to  them  at  some  length  that  they  had  no  reason 
to  insist  upon  that,  or  to  refuse  to  serve  the  country  on  that 
account,  and  they  were  again  charged  not  to  fail  to  have 
their  companies  ready  to  march.  So  then  the  said  captains 
left  the  Council  to  have  a  consultation.  And  thereafter  it 
was  resolved  that  the  foresaid  Scottish  captains  shall  be  pro- 
vided with  new  commissions  in  the  name  of  my  Lords  the 
States-General,  containing  the  express  stipulation  that  they 
must  be  satisfied  with  a  pay  of  48  days  for  a  month,  and 
thereupon  take  a  new  oath.  And  should  any  objection  be 
made  by  them  to  accept  this  commission,  or  take  the  oath, 
that  they  should  be  given  their  leave  and  discharge. 

1588,  Wednesday,  June  15. — The  Scottish  captains  having 
yesterday  undertaken  to  declare  their  opinion  to-day  as  to 
whether  they  should,  under  the  terms  of  the  commission 
offered  to  them  yesterday,  continue  in  the  service  of  the 
country  or  not,  it  is  resolved  to  summon  them  to  appear 
before  the  gentlemen  who  were  also  present  yesterday,  and 
ask  for  their  declaration. 

June  15. — The  Scottish  captains  being  called  in,  their  declara- 
tions anent  the  commissions  offered  them  yesterday  were 
asked  for.  Whereupon  they  answered  that  they  could  not 
accept  any  change  in  their  commissions  before  the  arrival  of 
their  Colonel;  and  it  having  been  represented  to  them  that 
such  pretexts  were  oo  frivolous,  and  that  the  distress  of  the 


1588]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR      99 

country  could  not  bear  any  delay,  but  that  the  soldiers  must 
be  employed  now  against  the  enemy,  they  were  urged  there- 
fore to  give  the  matter  further  consideration.  And  mean- 
while it  was  resolved  that,  having  heard  their  declaration,  the 
•captains  not  agreeing  to  the  terms  should  receive  their  dis- 
charge at  once.  The  captains,  having  come  in  again,  declared 
that  they  were  willing  to  serve  the  Lands,  but  as  they  wished 
to  give  some  satisfaction  to  their  soldiers,  they  asked  to  get 
with  the  accounts  some  written  security,  particularly  on  the 
part  of  Holland,  as  otherwise  they  dare  not  go  back  to  their 
soldiers ;  and  if  they  could  not  get  such  security  they  would 
prefer  to  be  discharged  and  leave  the  country,  and  for  that 
"they  made  request  for  ships  and  provision.  On  this  the 
meeting  was  adjourned,  and  it  was  resolved  to  come  to  a 
decision  in  presence  of  my  Lords  the  States-General  in  the 
.afternoon. 

Afternoon. — As,  after  many  consultations,  the  Scottish 
-captains  would  not  accommodate  themselves  to  what  is  offered 
them  in  polite  and  reasonable  manner,  but  have,  after  repeated 
discussions,  finally  declared  that  they  could  only  remain 
longer  in  service  on  condition  of  receiving  security  for  their 
accounts,  it  was  necessary  at  last  to  declare  that  the  States 
would  not  hinder  them,  willing  or  unwilling,  from  departing, 
and  gave  them  their  discharge.  And  in  case  they  should 
insist  on  departing  with  their  companies,  it  was  intimated 
that  the  companies  would  be  disbanded,  and  every  soldier 
might  then  do  as  he  liked.  Which  they  would  not  accept, 
saying  that  they  had  paid  the  companies'  way  from  Scotland 
at  their  own  expense,  and  they  desired  that  a  rendezvous 
should  be  granted  where  all  the  companies  might  be  brought 
together,  to  depart  also  together.  The  captains  having  left 
'[the  Council  chamber],  it  was  resolved  that  the  disbanding 
rshall  be  proceeded  with,  that  commissioners  should  be  deputed, 
who  would  discharge  every  company  in  each  town  in  the 
country,  and  announce  to  them  at  the  same  time  that  every 
•one  who  might  still  desire  to  remain  in  the  service  of  the 
country  would  be  treated,  as  hitherto,  as  an  honest  soldier. 
It  being  not  at  all  advisable  to  allow  them  a  rendezvous,  but 
it  is  considered  better  to  embark  the  discharged  companies 


100  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 

one  after  the  other,  with  [a]  reasonable  [amount  of]  provisions. 
And  of  this  action  and  the  necessary  resolutions  notification 
shall  be  sent  to  all  the  provinces  and  governors,  as  also  to  the 
Count  of  Hohenlohe  and  Colonel  Balfour,  with  the  explanation 
that  the  Council  has  been  forced  to  do  so,  and  if  they  would 
have  accepted  any  reasonable  satisfaction  the  Council  would 
have  been  willing  to  retain  them  in  the  service.  And  it  is 
also  resolved  that  those  of  the  Scottish  captains  shall  be 
written  to  that  are  elsewhere,  and  in  this  action  have  probably 
been  in  sympathy  with  the  other  captains,  as  for  instance,. 
Nysbeth,  Dallachy,  Cant,  Hay,  to  inform  them  of  what  has 
been  decided ;  but  that,  as  they  were  not  present  with,  nor 
included  among  the  others,  they  were  not  to  be  considered  as 
discharged,  and  could  therefore  continue  in  their  service,, 
marching  or  in  garrisons,  as  ordered. 

1588,  Friday,  June  17. — Colonel  Balfour  having  come  inv 
begged  to  be  informed  of  all  that  had  been  discussed  and 
transacted  between  their  Lordships  and  the  captains.  And 
after  he  had  been  asked  whether  he  had  received  the  letter  of 
the  Council,  and  he  declared  that  he  had  not,  the  minute  was 
then  read  to  him,  and  all  that  passed  with  the  Scottish  cap- 
tains on  the  previous  day  was  told  to  him  at  length,  and  even- 
tually he  requested  their  Lordships  to  allow  him  to  confer 
with  the  captains,  and  promised  to  give  as  soon  as  possible  a 
report  of  his  conference. 

1588,  Saturday,  June  18. — There  was  also  read  a  certain 
remonstrance  of  Colonel  Balfour  and  his  captains,  appearing 
to  indicate  that  it  would  not  be  agreeable  to  him  if  the 
Scottish  companies,  lately  determined  to  be  discharged,  were 
to  leave  the  service  of  the  country  for  want  of  the  necessary 
security,  but  that  he  would  prefer  that  he  should  enter  into 
negotiations  with  them  in  order  that  his  own  and  the  others'* 
companies  should  still  continue  in  their  service,  with  reasonable 
concessions.  Which  also  the  Advocate  of  Holland,  Barneveldt, 
being  present  before  the  States-General,  reported  that  he  had 
that  day  been  led  to  understand  by  the  said  Balfour.  There- 
upon, by  the  States- General  together  with  the  Council,  it  wasy 
after  deliberation,  resolved  that  the  decision  arrived  at  three 
days  before  shall  take  effect,  but  in  such  a  manner  that  the 


1588]      CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    101 

despatches  already  sent  for  the  discharge  of  the  companies 
shall  be  executed,  and  that  the  captains  of  the  companies  in 
reference  to  which  a  despatch  was  not  sent,  who,  however,  were 
present  in  the  Council  when  the  entreaty  and  protest  of  the 
Scottish  captains  was  made  three  days  ago — namely,  Waddell 
and  Traill — may,  if  they  choose,  continue  in  the  service  as 
before,  and  that  the  despatch  and  the  effect  of  discharge  shall  be 
as  respects  them  cancelled.  And  in  regard  to  the  request  for 
some  security  for  their  accounts,  this  is  still  to  continue  in 
terms  of  the  act  of  the  States-General  by  which  the  settlement 
is  promised.  Whereupon  Colonel  Balfour,  coming  in  and 
being  spoken  to  on  the  subject,  answered  that  it  was  a  strange 
way  to  deal  with  the  captains  who  had  served  so  long,  the 
more  as  they  are  content  to  continue  their  service  on  reason- 
able conditions ;  and  when  it  was  said  to  him  that  it  was  a 
matter  of  certainty  that  by  far  the  greater  portion  of  the 
soldiery  who  were  to  be  discharged  would  wish  very  much  to 
stay  in  the  country,  he  answered  that  peradventure  they  might 
be  mistaken,  as  he  indeed  was  sure  that  not  a  single  one  would 
remain  here.  And,  besides,  he  had  also  been  specifically  in- 
formed that  the  captains,  as  to  whom  the  despatches  of  dis- 
charge had  been  already  sent  away,  were,  the  two  Murrays, 
John  Balfour,  Blair,  and  Prop. 

June  18,  afternoon. — The  matter  of  the  Scottish  captains 
and  companies  was  discussed  again  in  the  presence  of  the 
Advocate  of  Holland,  Oldenbarnevelt,  Colonel  Balfour  being 
present  also,  who  earnestly  insisted  that  these  captains  and 
their  companies  should  be  retained  in  service,  representing  in 
his  speech  that  they  had  for  years  long  done  good  service,  that, 
though  they  had  made  their  demand  indiscreetly,  the  Council 
should  be  pleased  to  consider  that  they  were  soldiers,  and  that 
the  Council  ought  to  put  into  use  its  wisdom  and  discretion 
against  their  indiscretion,  to  secure  that  the  service  of  the 
country  should  not  be  harmed  by  such  a  little  cause.  Finally, 
they  seemed  to  incline  to  the  view  of  the  said  Advocate,  that 
those  who  were  designated  before  should  be  discharged ;  and 
no  despatch  of  discharge  should  be  sent  regarding  the  others, 
those,  namely,  like  Trail  and  Waddel;  and  regarding  the 
remainder  that,  in  order  to  preserve  authority,  they  should 


102  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

cause  them  to  embark,  and  so  make  evident  some  tokens  of 
obedience ;  but  that,  thereafter,  some  resolution  may  be  arrived 
at  regarding  their  retention  in  service. 

1588,  Thursday,  June  23.— The  States-General  being  met, 
it  was  announced  that  Colonel  Balfour,  having  been  present 
yesterday,   had   requested   information    as   to   what    further 
arrangements  had  been  made  in  the  case  of  the  discharged 
Scots  companies,  and  that  the  said  colonel  had  been  told  that 
their   Honours   could   make   no  alteration  in  the  resolution 
taken  by  the  States-General;   thereupon  he  again  requested 
that  further  consideration  might  be  given  to  the  matter,  and, 
should  they  not  see  fit  to  retain  the  discharged  soldiers  and 
companies  any  longer,  that  at  least  some  satisfaction  might  be 
given  them  ;  he  recounted  also  the  wearing  service  rendered  by 
Captain  Blair  to  these  Lands.  Which,  being  taken  into  delibera- 
tion, it  was  resolved  that  in  order  to  maintain  authority,  the 
three  companies  already  discharged  were  to  remain  discharged, 
and  orders  were  promptly  issued  that  ships  and  victuals  be  got 
ready  for  those  of  them  who  wished  to  return  to  Scotland ; 
and  to  give  them  some  satisfaction,  an  agreement  was  to  be 
made  with  said  captains  as  to  their  arrears  of  pay,  the  furthest 
practicable  day  and  terms  to  be  fixed,  namely,  eight  to  ten 
years.     And  regarding  the  other  companies  which   also   are 
designated  for  discharge,  this  not  being  as  yet  carried  out,  it 
was  for  certain  considerations  resolved  that,  if  by  the  captains 
or  colonel  in  their  name  a  request  should  be  made  that  they 
be  continued  in  the  service,  they  should  be  retained,  provided 
that  they,  captains,  by  solemn  deed,  in  the  first  place  shall 
renounce  the  combination  entered  into  by  them  mutually,  and 
promise,  moreover,  that  they  will  always,  without  any  refusal 
or  excuse  about  their  colonel  or  otherwise,  put  themselves  at 
the  disposal  of  the  service  of  the  country,  where  such  shall  be 
ordered  by  the  States-General  or  by  the  Council  of  State. 
And  that  they  will  content  themselves  with  the  pay  of  a  month 
each  forty-eighth  day ;  and  that  they,  also,  during  the  time 
of  their  service,  will  make  no  pretension  to  get  any  security  for 
their  account  or  terms  of  pay ;  on  condition  that,  if  the  state 
of  the  country  should  require  the  discharge  of  some  of  their 
companies,  that  these  captains  will  be  treated  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  captains  who  were  discharged. 


1588]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    103 

Afternoon. — The  resolution  taken  this  forenoon  in  the  busi- 
ness of  the  Scots  was  communicated  to  Colonel  Balfour,  he 
being  present,  and  he  insisted  and  begged  much  that  the 
officers  of  the  three  dismissed  companies  should  be  placed 
under  the  flags  of  the  others,  and  some  support  should  be 
granted  them.  It  was  resolved  to  enrol  and  distribute  under 
the  other  flags  the  lieutenants,  ensigns,  and  sergeants  of  the 
three  discharged  companies,  and  with  a  view  to  this  their 
names  are  to  be  given  'up  to  the  Council,  and  that  every 
lieutenant  is  to  receive  twenty  pounds  [= guilders],  every 
ensign  eighteen,  every  sergeant  eight  pounds,  in  addition  to 
the  salary  of  10  pounds  a  month. 

1588,  Friday,  the  24  June,  afternoon. — Considered  and 
read  the  Requests  of  Captains  Blair  and  Murray,  resolved  that 
the  discharge  decreed  is  to  take  effect,  but  Blair  is  to  be 
retained  in  the  service  for  a  time  till  some  order  and  arrange- 
ment can  be  made  as  to  his  arrears  and  the  payment  of  them, 
not  the  United  Provinces  alone  being  held  bound  in  the  large 
sum  that  he  fixes  as  his  amount  of  arrears.  And  as  to  Murray, 
as  he  is  a  nobleman  of  high  rank,  and  has  behaved  himself 
always  with  great  discretion,  without  meddling  much  with  the 
protest  of  the  Scottish  captains,  is  resolved  that  he,  therefore, 
is  to  be  retained  on  a  reasonable  monthly  pay  till  opportunity 
occurs  of  employing  him  again  either  by  permitting  him  later 
on  to  form  a  new  company  out  of  the  disbanded  Scottish  com- 
panies, or  by  appointing  him  to  a  vacant  company. 

1588.     Declaration  to  be  subscribed  by  the  Scottish  Captains. 

Since,  owing  to  the  corruptions  that  arose  among  the 
soldiery  and  to  other  troubles  occurring,  the  State  of  the 
United  Netherlands  has  been  weakened  and  injured,  so  that  it 
is  necessary  to  provide  against  the  recurrence  of  such  corrup- 
tions and  troubles  by  the  best  and  surest  means,  therefore, 
we,  the  undersigned  colonel  and  captains,  together  and 
severally,  with  special  regard  to  the  receipt  of  our  accounts  in 
the  service  of  the  said  United  Netherlands,  made  up  to  the 
last  day  of  April  last,  and  likewise  of  our  new  commissions,  of 
our  own  free  will  and  to  show  the  good  Christian  zeal  we  have 


104  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

to  the  true  Christian  religion  and  the  welfare  of  said  lands, 
generally  and  particularly,  for  which  the  heavy  charges  of  war 
are  borne,  and  for  which  we  have  taken  up  arms,  have  promised 
and  do  promise  in  good  faith,  honourably  and  devoutly  by  this 
declaration,  for  ourselves  and  our  soldiers  under  us,  that  we 
shall  honestly  and  faithfully  serve  the  States  of  the  said  lands 
after  the  tenor  of  our  new  commissions  aforementioned,  and 
shall  be  content  and  satisfied  with  receiving  a  full  month's 
pay  at  intervals  of  48  days,  whether  in  more  than  one 
payment  or  delivery  as  may  be  most  convenient  to  them  (but 
not  counting  five  or  six  days  which  sometimes  elapse  before 
payment,  as  often  happens  when  provisions  and  other  neces- 
saries are  delivered  which  cannot  quickly  be  liquidated) ;  and 
on  these  terms  maintain  good  military  discipline  ourselves  and 
among  our  soldiers  under  us,  in  accordance  with  the  rules  of 
war  and  the  oath  we  took,  and  that  we  shall  not,  because  of 
the  third  part  of  our  pay  (which  in  future  service  is  to  remain 
for  us  and  our  soldiers  in  arrear)  or  even  because  of  what  the 
lands  owe  us  for  services  rendered,  refuse  any  service  or  permit 
or  suffer  any  corruption,  but  oppose  such  to  the  uttermost  of 
our  power.  We  having  entire  confidence  that  the  Sovereign 
States,  according  to  their  Highnesses1  resolution,  will  settle 
accounts  with  the  whole  soldiery  for  their  past  services,  and 
take  action  from  this  date,  and  that  said  reckonings  be  made 
in  accordance  with  the  wealth  of  the  Government  of  the 
country,  we,  as  regards  times  of  security  and  payment,  to  be 
treated  and  favoured  as  others  who  have  rendered  the  like 
services:  and  as  regards  our  future  arrears,  they  are  to  be 
reckoned  and  satisfaction  given  as  in  the  case  of  others.  And 
to  uphold  this  we  have  pledged  and  do  pledge  each  one  of  us 
our  respective  persons  and  goods,  and  in  witness  signed  the 
beginning  with  the  year  1588. 

[On  24th  June  1588,  the  following  officers  signed  this 
declaration : — J.  Balfour,  John  Prop,  David  Cant,  William 
Waddel,  William  Hay,  William  Murray.  The  Dutch  text  is 
as  follows  : — ] 

Alsoo  den  Staet  van  de  Vereenigde  Nederlanden  duerende  d'alteratien 
ontstaen  onder  het  volck  van  oorloghe  ende  andere  voorgevallen 


1588]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    105 

swaricheyden  geswackt  ende  gecreuckt ;  dat  nootlick  tegens  gelycke 
alteration  ende  swaricheyden  by  de  beste  ende  versekertste  middelen 
dient  voorzien. 

Soo  hebbeii  wy  ondegescreven  Colonnel  ende  Capiteynen  tsamen  ende 
elcx  byzonder  int  ontfangen  van  onse  affrekeninghen,  van  den  dienste 
der  voorsz,  vereenichde  Nederlanden  tot  den  laetsten  April  lestleden 
toegedaen,  mitsgaders  van  onze  nyeuwe  commissien  wt  onse  vrye  wille, 
ende  omme  te  thoonen  den  goeden  Christelicken  yver  die  wy  hebben 
totte  ware  christelicke  Religie,  ende  den  welstande  der  voorsz.  Landen. 
Int  generael  ende  byzonder,  daer  vooren  de  beswaerlicke  lasten  van  den 
oorloghe  gedraghen  wordden  ende  voor  de  welcke  wy  de  wapenen  ge- 
bruycken,  ter  goeder  trouwen  by  eere  vromicheyt  belooft  ende  beloven 
by  dezen  voor  ons  ende  onsen  onderhebbenden  crychsluyden,  dat  wy 
volgende  de  voorsz,  onze  nyeuwe  commissie  den  Staten  vande  voorsz 
Landen  zullen  vromelick  en  getrouwlick  dienen  ende  ons  tevreden 
houden  ende  genoughen,  mits  van  Achtende  veertich  tot  achten  veertich 
daghen  (onbegrepen  vyff  oft  zes  daghen  dat  somwylen  de  betalinghe 
zoude  moghen  verloopen.  In  regard  dat  dickwils  vivres  ende  andere 
behouften  gelevert  wordden,  die  zoo  haest  niet  en  comen  wordden  geli- 
quideert)  ontfangende  een  voile  maendt  solts  tzy  van  eene  oft  meer 
betaleugen  oft  leveringhen  naedat  hen  best  zal  wesen  gelegen,  ende 
daerop  mit  onse  onderhebbende  crychsluyden  ons  in  goede  dissipline 
militaire  te  houden,  ende  te  achtervolghen  de  ordonnancien  van  der 
oorloghe  ende  onsen  gedanen  eedt,  zonder  dat  wy  ter  oorsaecken  van  het 
derdeudeel  van  onze  besoldinghe  (welcke  wy  voor  ons  ende  onse  onder- 
hebbende Crychsluyden  voor  de  toecomende  dienste  ten  achteren  blyven 
sullen)  oft  oyck  voor  tghene  de  Landen  ons  van  onsen  voorgaenden 
dienste  schuldich  zyn,  eenighe  dienst  weygeren,  f  oft  eenighe  alteratie 
toestaen,  oft  gedoghen  zullen,  maer  nae  onse  wterste  vermoogen  deselve 
beletten  Ons  volcomelick  betrouwende  dat  die  Heeren  Staten  volgende 
Haer  E.  resolutie  mit  alle  het  volck  van  oorloghe  tot  affrekeninghe  van 
voorleden  dienst  voortaen  zullen  doen  procederen  ende  dat  deselve 
affrekeninghe  gedaen  synde  nae  het  vermoge  ende  den  staet  van  den 
Lande,  wy  zoo  inde  termynen  van  betalinghe  als  versekeringhe  zullen 
getracteert,  ende  gefavoriseert  wordden,  als  yemandt  anders  van  gelycke 
diensten,  ende  dat  ons  van  tgene  wy  voor  den  toecomenden  tyde  ten 
achteren  zullen  blyven,  als  anderen  affrekeninghe  en  contentement  zal 
wordden  gegeven,  ende  van  het  onderhoudt  van  desen  hebben  wy  ver- 
bonden  en  verbinden  by  desen  een  yegelick  onse  respective  personen 
ende  goederen,  ende  ten  oorconde  dese  geteyckent  den 
beginnende  met  den  jaare  1588.1 

1588,  Saturday,  Sep.  10. — Resolved :    to   inform   Captain 
Muray,   by   Secretary   Huyghens,   that    he   is   offered   eight 

1  Instructie  Boek  van  den  Raad  van  Staaten. 


106  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1592 

hundred  guilders  with  permission  to  depart  for  Scotland  as 
requested,  and  to  leave  his  company  to  Captain  Muray,  his 
brother ; l  and  if  he  accepts  this,  that  the  States  of  Holland 
shall  be  communicated  with  and  induced  to  grant  him  pay- 
ment of  this  money.2 


Sir  Bartholomew  Balfour  and  the  King's  Commission. 
Resolutions  of  1592,  December  14. — Compeared  the  Conservator  of  Scot- 
land  and  delivered  a  certain  letter  of  His  Majesty,  dated 
St.  Croix  [Holy rood],  the  24th  Oct.  last,  in  which  His  Majesty 
declares  that  he  makes  and  appoints  Sir  Bartholomew  Balfour 
one  of  his  lords-in-waiting  as  colonel-general  and  captain- 
in-chief  of  all  His  Majesty's  companies  of  foot  and  horse. 

N.B.  Extract  from  the  Conservator's  Letter  of  Instruction. 

.  .  .  Qu'aucun  general  ou  colonel  ne  soit  recognu  sur  noz 
subiects  presentement  en  service  soubz  les  Estats,  excepte 
seulement  Colonel  Balfour. 

Qu'il  rendra  paine  et  negotiera  que  les  dits  Estats  prennent 
quelque  pied  pour  le  soulagement  de  la  pauvrete  de  nos  sub- 
jects, illecq  en  leur  service,  affin  de  faire  cesser  leurs  con- 
tinuelles  doleances. 


N.B.  Extract  from  the  answer  of  the  States-General 
to  the  Conservator. 

.  .  .  Les  dits  Estats  remercient  le  Roy  bien  humblement  de 
ce  qu'il  Luy  a  pleu  leur  permettre,  comme  ont  fait  aussy  autres 
Roys,  Princes  et  Republicques  chrestiens,  qu'ils  se  soient  serviz 
a  la  soulde  de  ces  pays  de  leurs  subiects,  avec  lesquels  les 
Estats  ont  accoustume  de  traicter  sur  le  faict  de  leurs  com- 
mandemens,  commissions,  instructions  et  payemens,  tant  en 
qualite  des  Colonnels  et  capitaines  que  d'aultres,  ainsy  quails 
ont  aussy  faict  avec  le  Colonel  Balfour  et  feront  encore  d'icy 


1  See  Commission,  p.  89,  notes  p.  50. 

2  On  Sept.  20th,  1596,  the  States  of  Holland  resolved  'henceforth  to  pay  the 
companies  every  42  days  in  the  place  of  every  48  days.' 


1592]      CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    107 

en  avant  de  temps  a  aultre  comme  sera  trouve  convenir  pour 
le  plus  grand  bien  et  service  de  ces  pays,  selon  les  occasions  et 
occurences. 

1592,  December  18. — Colonel  Balfour  was  asked  whether  he 
held  any  commission  from  the  King  of  Scotland  to  assume 
here  in  this  Land  command  of  the  Scottish  companies. 

He  declared  that  it  would  not  be  his  first  commission  of 
that  kind,  that  he  has  had  other  commissions  and  appoint- 
ments from  His  Majesty  in  Scotland. 

Finally,  that  the  Conservator  of  Scotland  had  a  certain 
commission  for  him  from  His  Majesty,  which  he  had  seen,  but 
not  yet  received — the  authority  of  the  States-General  not 
being  prejudiced. 

Whilst  here  in  this  Land,  he  desired  no  other  commission 
than  that  of  their  Highnesses,  with  which  he  would  be  well 
contented;  but  that  the  foresaid  commission  from  the  king 
must  be  of  service  to  him  should  he  go  to  Scotland,  against 
those  of  his  nation  whom  he  had  commanded,  and  the  friends 
of  those  who  had  died,  or  been  executed  by  him  in  justice  and 
otherwise.  At  the  same  time,  he  did  not  presume  to  make  a 
practical  use  of  the  same  in  these  Lands,  otherwise  than  only 
with  the  advice  of  his  lords  and  masters. 

After  consultation  on  this,  the  said  Balfour  was  informed 
that  their  Highnesses  the  States  felt  completely  assured  of  the 
good  judgment  of  the  King  of  Scotland,  and  his  earnest  desire 
for  the  preservation  of  the  government  of  these  Lands,  and 
the  maintenance  of  the  common  cause  of  the  same ;  also  of  the 
trustworthiness  of  the  said  Balfour  in  the  service  of  the  Lands. 
And  since  it  behoves  the  States  to  see  carefully  to  the  main- 
tenance of  equity  in  the  Land  and  order  in  the  same,  and  con- 
sidering that  in  the  foresaid  commission  there  were  divers 
points  in  conflict  therewith,  which  their  Highnesses  would  not 
conceal  from  him,  that  they  could  not  permit  him  to  make 
use  of  the  same  in  their  Lands,  and  therefore  desired  that  he 
should  hand  over  in  writing  his  ultimate  opinion  on  the  sub- 
ject, which,  having  been  declared,  further  injunctions  might 
be  given  accordingly. 

Dec.  18,  post  prandium. — Compeared  Colonel  Balfour,  and 
exhibited,  according  to  the  desire  of  the  States,  a  certain 


108  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1592 

memorial  in  writing,  containing  his  declaration  respecting  the 
Commission  sent  to  him  by  the  King  of  Scotland. 

The  foresaid  memorial  having  been  read,  it  was  resolved 
that  the  said  Colonel  Balfour  be  to-morrow  told  authorita- 
tively that  the  States  are  convinced  that  he  cannot  serve  in 
this  country  (the  rights  of  the  same  remaining  conserved) 
except  on  the  Commission  of  their  Highnesses  the  States- 
General  ;  that  he  must  therefore  declare  whether  he  will  serve 
on  the  commission  of  the  same  and  no  other,  or  not ;  and  that 
the  agent  from  Scotland  be  handed  a  memorial  in  writing, 
giving  the  reasons  why  it  can't  be  thought  of,  that  the  said 
Colonel  should  serve  in  these  Lands  with  such  said  commission 
from  the  king. 

Memorandum  of  the  States  to  Mr.  Denistoun,  on  account 
of  Col.  Balfour*s  commission. 

Les  Estats  generaux  des  Provinces  Unies  des  Pays  Bas, 
Aians  veu  et  examine  Toriginale  commission  qu^il  a  pleu  au 
Serenissime  Roy  d'Escosse  envoier  au  Colonnel  Balfour  par  les 
mains  du  Sr  Denistoun,  Conservateur  des  privileges  de  la 
nation  Escossoise  en  ces  Pays  Bas,  pour  commander  aux  com- 
pagnies  Escossoises  qui  sont  en  leur  service,  datee  le  xxi 
Novembre  Mil  cinq  cent  quatre  vingt  et  onze,  declairent  qu*il 
ne  peult  subsister  avecq  le  droit  et  authorite  du  pays,  que 
aucun  colonnel  ou  capitaine  qui  s'est  mis  volontairement  au 
service  de  ces  pays  soubz  la  soulde  d'Icelluy,  se  serviroit  aux 
pays  d'aultre  commission  que  des  dits  Estats  generaux,  oultre 
ce  que  en  lad.  commission  se  retrouvent  plusieurs  pointz  con- 
trarians directement  au  droict,  authorite  et  louables  usages 
des  ditz  pays,  comme  : 

De  faire  la  soulde  des  soldats,  d'autant  qull  y  a  un  ordre  en 
cela  au  pays  selon  lequel  tous  les  Colonnels  et  capitaines  sont 
tenuz  se  regler. 

Letter  of  Colonel  Balfour  to  the  States-General. 

MESSEIGXEURS, — Messes  Les  Estats  generaulx  des  Provinces 
Unies  des  Pays  Bas. 

Le  Colonnel  Balfour  desirant  donner  contentement  a   vos 


1592]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    109 

Seigneuries  sur  la  proposition  que  luy  a  ete  faicte  par  Icelles, 
touchant  Texecution  de  la  commission  qu^il  a  pleu  a  sa  Mate 
d'Escosse,  son  Prince  Souverain,  luy  envoier. 

Declare  ne  s^en  volloir  prevaloir  au  prejudice  de  I'authorite 
de  voz  Seig168,  ny  des  ordonnances  militaires  de  par  decha,  mais 
seulement  pour  augmenter  son  authorite  et  tenir  soubz  meil- 
leure  discipline  les  troupes  commises  soubz  sa  charge. 

Et  combien  que  la  formalite  de  la  comission  soit  par  quelques 
circonstances  dissemblables  au  stille  des  commissions  de  par 
decha,  si  est  qu'elle  n^est  aultre  que  toutes  elles  que  sa  Ma*6  a 
de  coustume  depescher  en  tel  faict,  affin  que  son  authorite  soit 
recognue  entre  ses  subiectz,  quelque  part  qu'ils  soient. 

Parquoy,  suivant  la  bonne  preuve  que  le  dit  Colonnel  a  faict 
de  la  fidelite  et  versance  envers  vos  Seigies  et  la  cause  duquoy, 
est  resolu  persister  jusques  a  la  fin,  vos  Sies  se  peuvant  reposer 
sur  sa  prudhommie  et  le  serment  preste  a  Icelles. 

Et  si  par  quelques  circumstances  contenues  en  la  dite  com- 
mission, voz  Sies. 

Item,  de  lever  et  casser  des  capitaines  et  aultres  principaux 
officiers. 

Item,  d'ordonner  et  faire  les  moustres  des  compagnies,  des- 
quels  deux  pointz  la  disposition  appartient  au  pays. 

Item,  de  recevoir  et  payer  la  soulde  des  compagnies  d'aultant 
que  Ton  n'est  accoustume  de  payer  es  mains  du  colonnel  que  la 
soulde  de  sa  propre  compagnie,  oultre  son  tractement  de 
colonnel,  et  a  chacun  capitaine  la  sienne. 

Item,  de  faire  et  enioindre  telle  discipline,  reglement  et  loix 
qu11  advisera  estre  requises  parceque  les  loix  et  ordonnances  sur 
la  discipline  militaire  se  font  de  temps  a  aultre  de  la  part  des  d. 
Estats  generaux,  suivant  lesquelles  s^administre  droit  et  justice. 

Faict  a  Tassemblee  des  dits  Sieurs  Estats  Generaux  a  la 
Haye  en  Hollande  ce  dix  huictiesme  jour  de  Decembre,  L*an 
mil  cincq  cens  vingt  et  douze,  soubzcr.  par  ordonnance  des  ditz 
S*8  Estats.  (Signe)  AERSSEN. 

Having  consulted  about  the  request  presented  by  Colonel 
Balfour,  as  well  for  himself  as  for  the  captains  of  his  regi- 
ment, it  was  resolved,  that  he  be  told  in  the  assembly,  that 
he  has  no  reasons  to  complain — in  respect  that  he  and  the 


110  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1592 

captains  of  his  regiment  receive  their  pay  every  48  days,1 
as  they  had  been  informed  they  should.  And  if  they  have 
not  had  the  best  pay  in  France,  on  the  other  hand,  in  other 
quarters  and  garrisons  within  these  Lands,  it  has  been  better. 
However  the  States  desiring  to  deal  with  the  foresaid  regiment 
in  all  reasonableness,  notwithstanding  this,  have  resolved  and 
granted  the  foresaid  colonel,  for  his  extraordinary  expenses 
incurred  in  the  march  to  France,  six  hundred  guilders,  and  to 
each  of  his  captains  three  hundred  guilders  in  one  payment, 
and  more  than  that,  are  willing  to  make  payment  in  clothing, 
when  the  petitioners  shall  desire  it,  to  the  extent  of  one 
month's  pay  for  each  company,  that  thereby  the  soldiers  may 
be  brought  up  to  the  mark  in  accoutrements  and  order,  so  as 
to  be  of  service  to  the  Land,  always  with  the  understanding 
that  said  month's  pay  shall  be  deducted  from  the  pay  of  the 
'foresaid  Company,  during  the  next  six  months,  a  sixth  part 
thereof  every  month.  Wherewith  the  above-mentioned  colonel 
and  captains  shall  have  to  content  themselves.  And  touching 
the  remaining  points  of  his  request,  they  will  be  gone  into  at 
a  fitting  time. 

Request  of  Colonel  Balfour. 

Lectum,  November  21,  1592. — A  Messeigneurs  les  Estatz 

generaulx  des  Provinces  Unies  des  Pays  Bas.     Remonstre  en 

Collection  of    toute  reverence  et  humilite  Colonel  Balfour^  tant  en  son  propre 

to*  the  States*  nom  (lu'ai1  nom  ^es  Capital  nes  de  son  Regiment. 

General.  Que   passe  un  an  ou  environ   se  trouvantz  surcharges   de 

debtes  crees  pour  Fentretement  de  leurs  compagniez,  comme 

ne  pouvant  suffire  la  paye  de  48  par  mois,  Ils  presentment 

requeste  a  voz  Seigies,  tendant  au  contentement  que  leur  fut 

promis  au  mois  d'Apuril  1588  pour  le  deu  de  leur  service  avecq 

leurs   compagniez,   depuis   leur    sortie    d'Anvers,   iusques   au 

premier   May  1588,   dont   ils   ont   descompte   arrestez.     Sur 

laquelle  reqte  fut  donnee  responce  de  dilay,  et  depuis  survenant 

le  voyage  de  France,  les  dits  remonstrants  ont  tellement  aug- 

mente   leurs    debtes,   si    pour    Fequipage    qu'entretennement 

extraordinaire   de   leurs   compagnies,   durant    le   dit   voyage, 


1  See  note  p.  106. 


1592]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    111 

avecq  la  recrute  qu'il  leur  a  convenu  mander  d'Escosse  pour 
le  supplement  de  leur  nombre  perdu  au  dit  extraordinaire 
service,  qu'il  leur  est  du  tout  impossible  se  depettrer  des  dites 
debtes,  ne  jouissant  que  des  payes  ordinaires,  ce  qui  les  a  faict 
esperer  estre  fondes  en  leurs  preventions  representes  en  leur 
requeste  puis  n'aguerres  a  vos  Seigies,  de  laquelle  reqte  n'est 
sorty  le  fruict  espere,  mais  au  contraire  un  simple  renvoy  a 
Messeig8  les  Estatz  de  Hollande  pour  leur  paye  de  48  jours 
par  mois.  En  quoy  leurs  Sies  ont  consent!  d^entrer  en  liquida- 
tion a  la  charge  que  tout  ce  que  Ton  trouvera  par  les  ditz 
remonstrantz  avoyr  este  recu  tant  en  argent,  vivres,  qu'armes, 
excedant  la  dite  paye  de  48  jours,  qu'il  sera  deffalque  de  leur 
paye  courante.  Lesquelles  extremitez  recherchees  centre  eux, 
seroyt  cause  de  leur  totalle  ruyne  et  dissipation  de  leurs 
trouppes.  Ce  qu'il  n'esperent  estre  les  mercedes  ou  recom- 
pensse  de  leurs  tant  fidelles  et  loyaux  services.  Et  comme 
a  rayson  de  la  presente  necessite  et  serieuses  debtes  qui  les 
accablent,  lesquelles  sont  procedantes  du  dit  extraordinaire 
et  non  oblige  service,  ne  se  trouvent  aulcunement  accomodes 
de  la  paye  ordinaire  de  48  jours,  laquelle  comme  diet  est,  ne 
peut  suffire  pour  Tentretennement  quotidien  de  leurs  com- 
pagnies,  sont  contraintz  de  recheff  suplier  vos  Sies  entrer  en 
descompte  advenant  32  jours  par  mois,  suivant  le  contenu  de 
leurs  derniers  contracqs,  et  en  conformite  des  promesses  a  eux 
faictes  a  la  despeche  de  leurs  derniers  descomptes,  entrer  en 
traicte  pour  Tasseurance  du  payement  de  leur  entier  deu ; 
desquelles  lettres  d'asseurances  ils  se  pourront  servire  pour 
subvenir  a  leurs  necessitez,  payement  de  leurs  debtes  et  entre- 
tennement  de  leurs  soldats  au  service  du  pays. 


Continuation  ofBalfour's  business. 

Dec.  19. — The  Conservator  of  Scotland  compeared,  and  the 
foresaid  resolution  was  communicated  to  his  lordship,  the 
clerk  being  charged  to  hand  it  over  to  him  in  writing. 

Colonel  Balfour  compeared,  and  was  informed  of  the  resolu- 
tion arrived  at  regarding  the  memorial  handed  in  by  him  in 
reference  to  the  commission  sent  to  him  by  the  King  of  Scot- 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1592 

land.  He  declared  that  he  does  not  wish  to  make  use  of  it  in 
these  Lands,  nor  to  serve  in  virtue  of  any  other  commission, 
but  only  on  the  commission  of  the  States-General,  his  lords 
and  masters. 

Dec.  20. — Colonel  Balfour  compeared  and  presented  his 
answer  to  the  offer  made  by  the  States  to  him  and  the 
captains  of  his  regiment,  which  answer  is  inserted  below 
as  follows : — 

*  Response  de  Monsieur  Balfour,  Colonnel  et  ses  Capitaines, 
sur  la  proposition  a  eux  faicte  par  Messeigneurs  les  Estats 
Generaux. 

<Le  dit  Colonel  et  ses  Capitaines  declarent  ne  chercher 
aultre  chose  de  mesditz  Seigneurs,  sinon  de  voir  leurs  soldatz 
soulagez  par  quelque  convenable  moien  de  leur  presente 
necessite.  II  a  pleu  a  mesditz  Seigneurs  de  faire  un  offre 
d'un  mois  en  drap  pour  chacune  compagnie  et  estre  rabatu 
en  six  paiemens ;  sauve  la  correction  de  vos  Sies,  le  soldat  ne 
sera  en  cet  endroit  soulage,  puis  plus  tost  charge  davantage, 
quitant  la  sixiesme  partie  de  sa  paye,  Tespace  de  six  mois. 

6  Mais  s'il  plaisoit  a  mes  d.  Seig8  de  vouloir  accorder  un  mois 
en  drap  en  tant  moins  et  a  bon  compte  de  ce  qui  est  deu  par 
d'escompte  faicte,  ou  sera  trouve  deu  par  d'escompte  de  leur 
present  service,  alors  le  diet  Colonel  et  Capitaines  obliger  de 
remercier  vos  Sies. 

'  Us  remerchient  aussy  voz  Sies  de  Foffre  faicte  a  leurs  per- 
sonnes  en  recompense  des  grands  frais  par  eux  faictz  durant 
le  voiage  en  France.  Us  ne  sauront  avecq  si  petite  somme 
donner  contentement  a  leurs  crediteurs,  car  ils  desirent  plus 
tost  de  voir  leurs  soldats  soulages  que  leur  particulier. 

'Touchant  d'entrer  d'escompte  avec  voz  Sies  et  quieter  un 
sixiesme,  le  dit  colonnel  et  capitaines  ne  sauront  ceder  a  ceste 
poinct  sans  meure  deliberation  et  advis  de  leurs  officiers  et 
soldats,  et  aultres  respectz. 

6  Quant  a  la  commission  expediee  par  sa  Maw  d'Escosse  au 
Colonnel,  cela  tend  plus  pour  se  guarantir  centre  aucuns  qui 
vouldroient  prendre  action  centre  luy  en  Escosse,  comme  il 
a  desia  declaire  par  escript.  Car  il  est  prest  de  continuer  a 
voz  Sies  le  service,  comme  il  a  faict.  Pour  tant  prient  bien 


1593]     CLAIMS  OF  BARTHOLOMEW  BALFOUR    113 

affectueusement  led.  Colonnel  et  Capte8,  qu'il  plaise  a  Voz 
Seigies  considerer  la  longue  et  fidele  service  par  eux  faicte  par 
decha,  et  Tintime  affection  qu'ilz  ont  de  continuer  jusques  au 
dernier  de  leur  vie  et  leur  accorder  moitie  en  drap  en  tant 
moins  et  a  bon  compte  comme  dessus.  Car  voians  leurs 
soldatz  soulagez,  ils  sont  prestz  en  union  et  bon  accord  de  se 
soubzmettre  a  toutes  choses  qifil  plaira  a  Messeigneurs  leur 
commander  pour  le  prouffit  et  service  du  pays.' 

Dec.  24. — The  foresaid  answer  having  been  considered,  it  was 
resolved  to  declare  in  regard  to  it  that  the  States  by  no  means 
understand  that  he  is  at  liberty  to  serve  and  help  himself  in 
any  manner  in  these  Netherlands,  with  any  commission,  in  his 
position  as  colonel  in  command  of  the  Scottish  companies, 
they  being  in  the  service  of  these  Lands,  other  than  with 
the  Commission  of  the  States  only,  in  conformity  with  the 
foregoing  declaration  made  respecting  this. 

Then  as  regards  the  deduction  for  the  clothing  or  accoutre- 
ments agreed  to  by  the  States,  that  the  same  shall  be  carried 
out  according  to  what  shall  be  found  to  be  just  and  reason- 
able. 

1593.  Alleged  Plot  of  the  Scots     Transaction  with  Balfour. 

Dec.  2. — On  the  remonstrance  being  made,  that  apparently  Resolution  of 
some  plot  might  be  entered  into  by  the  Scots,  which  in  future  States-General 
times  might  tend  to  injure  the  condition  of  the  Land,  it  was, 
during  a  long  consultation  suggested  and  advised  in  what 
manner  this  might  be  dealt  with,  so  that  the  Land  might  be 
assured  of  their  services ;  and  with  that  end  in  view  several 
plans  and  suitable  methods  were  proposed.  Thereafter  nothing 
•else  was  resolved  on  than  that  his  Excellency  [Prince  Maurice] 
should  be  advised  to  divide  the  Scottish  companies  in  the 
garrisons,  and  post  them  in  such  places,  that  they  may  not, 
and  cannot  do  any  ill. 

Dec.  4. — A  consultation  was  once  again  held  as  to  how  in 
time  to  come  they  could  be  assured  of  the  service  of  the  Scots. 
And  it  was  thought  good  in  the  first  place  to  try  to  satisfy 
Colonel  Balfour,  concerning  the  payment  requested  by  him  of 
the  arrears  of  his  salary  ;  and  for  that  end  to  offer  1000  dollars 
ready  money,  and  further  1000  dollars  yearly,  till  paid  in  full. 

H 


114  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1593 

Item.  To  sound  the  intention  of  the  said  Balfour,  in  regard 
to  his  accounts  of  his  company.  Also  what  is  due  him  for  the 
services  afterwards  performed  by  him,  with  the  foresaid  com- 
pany ;  and  to  resolve,  that  it  shall  be  accumulated  with  the 
principal,  till  report  shall  have  been  made  and  heard,  of  what 
has  occurred  concerning  this.  As  to  this,  it  being  well  under- 
stood that  the  system  be  still  insisted  on  of  keeping  the  com- 
panies apart,  and  that  they  ought  to  be  placed  in  such  garrisons 
that  it  shall  not  be  in  their  power  to  do  any  ill.  Finally,  in 
order  that  the  foresaid  Scots  be  fitly  treated,  the  act  shall  be 
renewed,  signed  by  the  captains. 

Feb.  12. — The  Council  was  requested  to  go  to  the  Assembly 
of  the  States-General,  and  went  accordingly.  And  there 
Colonel  Balfour,  Captains  Murray,  Dalachy,  Brog,  Prop,. 
Egger  and  Waddel  were  informed  that  since  they  will  not 
content  themselves  with  the  settlement,  of  which  an  offer  has 
been  made  them  severally,  nor  otherwise  with  such  pay  as  the 
other  captains  are  in  receipt  of,  that  therefore  they  are  dis- 
charged from  their  service,  and  loosed  from  their  oath.  But 
should  any  one  among  them  desire  to  continue  in  the  States' 
service,  it  is  devised  that  he  shall  come  to  an  agreement  with 
the  same. 

Dec.  6. — The  Lord  Advocate  of  Holland  was  commissioned 
and  authorised  to  treat  with  Colonel  Balfour,  as  to  the  pay- 
ment of  the  outstanding  salary  of  the  same,  for  the  sum  of 
1500  guilders  ready  money,  and  1500  guilders  a  year  till  said 
salary  be  paid  in  full.1 

1  See  States  of  War  supray  and  also  p.  245. 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       115 


PAPERS  RELATING  TO  THE  CLAIMS  AND  EM- 
BASSIES OF  COLONEL  SIR  WILLIAM  STEWART 
OF  HOUSTON,  SIR  WILLIAM  MURRAY,  AND 
OTHERS,  AND  REPORTS  OF  THE  DUTCH  EM- 
BASSIES TO  ENGLAND  AND  SCOTLAND  IN 
1588,  1589,  AND  1594. 

1588-1595      » 

Transactions  with  Colonel  Stewart.^ 

1588,  August  20. — There  appeared  before  the  assembly  a   council  of 
person  claiming  to  be  an  ambassador  of  the  King  of  Scotland,   state< 
and  after  preliminary  greetings  and  compliments  on  the  part 
of  His  Majesty,  he  briefly  intimated  that  he  was  charged  to 


1  Colonel  William  Stewart  of  Houston,  by  whom  this  claim  was  made,  was 
(according  to  Douglas)  the  second  son  of  Thomas  Stewart,  fourth  Laird  of 
Galston,  in  Ayrshire,  descended  from  Alexander,  brother  of  John,  first  Lord 
Darnley,  and  first  Earl  of  Lennox  of  the  Stewart  line.  But  it  seems  doubtful 
whether  he  was  legitimate.  Sir  Walter  Scott  describes  him  as  a  relation  of 
Captain  James  Stewart,  created  Earl  of  Arran  in  1573,  whom  he  seems  to  have 
succeeded  as  Captain  of  the  King's  Guard.  He  must  be  distinguished  from 
Arran's  brother,  Sir  William  Stewart,  who  was  dead  before  Stewart  of  Houston 
became  Sir  William.  The  Earl  of  Arran  was  the  second  son  of  Andrew,  third 
Lord  Ochiltree,  and  it  is  a  curious  fact  that,  obnoxious  as  he  was  to  the  party  of 
the  Kirk,  his  sister  was  the  young  wife  of  old  John  Knox. 

The  first  record  of  William  Stewart's  military  service  is  a  request  in  October 
JS7S  t°  purchase  arms  in  England,  having  received  a  captain's  commission  under 
the  Prince  of  Orange.  After  the  Pacification  of  Ghent,  he  is  said  to  have  served 
the  town  of  Dantzick  against  Poland  with  a  regiment  (or  some  Scottish  com- 
panies), which  he  brought  to  Flanders  on  the  resumption  of  hostilities  with  Don 
John  of  Austria,  and  which  was  taken  into  pay  by  the  associated  provinces. 
In  June  1577  he  is  described  as  'captain  of  two  companies  and  Lt-colonel 
of  the  Scottish  regiment.'  In  one  list  of  1579  his  regiment  is  said  to  consist  of 
eight  companies  (Balfour's  being  given  as  of  eight  also),  and  in  one  of  1580  of 


116  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

speak  in  reference  to  the  debt  due  to  Colonel  Stuart  for  his 
past  services  rendered  to  these  Lands,  and  since  he  could  not 
very  well  lay  that  matter  before  them  in  a  speech,  he  intimated 
that  he  has  drawn  up  a  statement  in  writing,  which  he  had 


five — Balfour's  regiment  being  stated  in  the  same  list  as  consisting  of  eighteen 
(Renom  de  France).  In  one  document  the  establishment  of  his  regiment  as 
from  ist  March  1579  to  April  i8th,  1581  is  given  as  ten  companies,  of  which  one 
was  latterly  commanded  by  Patton,  and  in  December  1586  the  command  of 
the  Scottish  companies  was  re-arranged,  Barthold  Balfour  being  given  ten  and 
Patton  four.  Stewart's  final  settlement  with  the  States  in  1593  was  made  for  five 
companies,  apparently  the  strength  of  the  regiment  on  passing  from  the  employ- 
ment of  the  associated  provinces  to  that  of  the  Northern  Union  in  1579. 

Stewart  apparently  married  when  serving  in  Flanders,  for  in  noticing  some  of 
the  good  things  that  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  foreign  adventurers,  Lettenhove 
says,  *Le  Colonel  Stuart  obtient  la  main  de  la  veuve  du  Comte  de  Manderscheidt. ' 
He  afterwards  married,  in  Scotland,  the  widow  of  Halkett  of  Pitfirrane. 

Mr.  James  Melville  descrfbes  Colonel  Stewart  as  '  a  pensioner  of  the  Prior  of 
St.  Andrews  '  ;  and  Calderwood  says  that,  having  been  a  colonel  in  Flanders,  he 
was  '  brought  home  and  in  credit  with  the  king  by  the  Earl  of  Cowrie's  moyen, 
of  purpose  to  counterpace  the  greatness  and  credit  of  James  Stewart,  Earl  of 
Arran.'  When  the  Duke  of  Lennox  approached  Edinburgh  in  November  1582, 

*  Colonel  Stewart,  with  the  men  of  war  lately  taken  up,  watched  in  the  abbey.' 
He  went  on  an  embassy  to  England  in  1583,  and  subsequently  accompanied  king 
James  in  the  sudden  move  to  St.  Andrews  which  emancipated  the  king  from  the 
control  of  the  Cowrie  faction.    In  August  1 583  he  had  been  made  Commendator  of 
Pittenweem.     It  was  to  him  that  the  plain  speaking  of  the  Rev.  David  Ferguson 
was  addressed  in  one  of  the  interviews  of  the  Presbyterian  ministers  with  the  king : 
'  Assure  yourself  if  yee  counsell  him  to  place  and  displace  the  nobilitie  as  yee 
please  they  will  not  bear  it  at  your  hands,  who  is  but  a  meane  man.'     *  The 
Colonel,'  says  the  narrator,  *  stormed  at  first,  but  grew  calm  incontinent.'     The 
Commendator  of  Dunfermline  is  said  to  have  sent  him  a  purse  with  thirty  gold 
pieces.     The  colonel  informed  the  king,  and  gave  the  pieces  to  thirty  of  the 
guard,  who  wore  them  in  their  hats  as  they  marched  from  Perth  to  Falkland, 
with  the  purse  upon  a  spear-point.     In  November  1583  he  appeared  before  the 
Presbytery  of  Edinburgh,  and  '  purged  himself  of  having  carried  a  double  message 
to  England,'  and  in  the  following  month  an  alteration  was  made  in  the  coinage, 
'to  get  silver  to  Colonel  Stewart  to  pay  the  waged  men  of  war.' 

In  February  1584  he  was  *  sent  to  St.  Andrews  as  a  spy  to  entrap  Mr.  Andrew,' 
and  alleged  to  the  king  that  Andrew  Melville  had  '  compared  his  mother  to 
Nebuchadnezzar,  who  was  chased  from  the  kingdom.'  He  subsequently  appeared 
as  Melville's  accuser,  '  wha  bruikit  that  name  for  ignominie  many  yeares  after, 
"  Wilyeam  Stewart  the  Accusar," '  and  two  months  later  rode  with  some  horsemen 
to  arrest  the  Earl  of  Gowrie  at  Dundee.  Upon  the  earl  resisting  he  promptly 

*  bringeth  ordinance  out  of  the  ships,'  and  with  the  assistance  of  the  town  of 
Dundee  besieged  the  house  and  secured  his  prisoner.     On  the  demonstration  by 
Cowrie's  friends  at  Stirling,  Stewart  at  once  rode  there  with  five  hundred  men,  and 
the  army  of  the  Lords  melted  away.     He  was  with  the  king  at  Dirleton  in  May 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       117 

handed,  together  with  an  authentic  copy  of  the  commission  and 
charge  given  him  by  the  King.  This  being  in  Latin  was  read, 
and  it  was  found  to  conclude  with  a  protestation  that,  in  case 
of  failure  to  pay,  His  Majesty  would  consent  to  grant  letters 


1585,  where  '  they  passed  the  time  with  the  play  of  Robinhood.5     On  the  return 
of  the  banished  Lords  in  October,  he  went  against  them  with  a  hastily  raised 
company  to  Jedburgh,  but  fell  back,  rinding  them  too  strong.     At  the  taking  of 
Stirling  he  *  made  some  shew  to  have  resisted,' and  'was  followed  so  hardlie  ' 
by  Mr.  James  Haldane,  that  Haldane,  *  as  he  was  laying  hands  on  him  was 
shot  by  the  Colonel's  servant. '    The  king's  stipulation  for  his  life  on  the  surrender 
of  the  Castle  of  Stirling  was  not  assented  to,  and  Calderwood  gives  this  account 
of  him :    *  Colonel  Stuart  was,  as  is  constantly  reported,  first  a  cloutter  of  old 
shoes.     He  went  to  the  Low  Countries,  where  he  served  in  the  wars,  first  as 
soldier,  then  as  a  captain,  at  last  as  a  colonel.     He  returneth  home,  and  was 
employed  by  the  king  to  apprehend  any  subject  in  any  corner  of  the  kingdom 
that  the  Court  had  any  quarrel  at.     He  wanted  not  likewise  his  reward,  for  he 
was  gifted  with  the  Priory  of  Pittenweem,  and  married  the  Lady  Pitfirrane,  not 
without  suspicion  of  the  murder  of  her  former  husband.'     Both  the  Earl  of 
Arran  and  Colonel  Stewart  were  obnoxious  to  the  clerical  party,  and  the  state- 
ments of  the  ecclesiastical  historians  in  regard  to  them  must  be  taken  cum  grano 
salts*     Mr.  James  Gibson,  minister  of  Pencaitland,  had  a  lively  interview  with 
King  James  for  having  said  'he  thought  it  had  been  Capt.  James  Stewart, 
Colonel  William  Stuart,  and  Ladie  Jesabell  that  had  long  persecuted  the  Kirk, 
but  he  saw  that  it  was  the  king  himself,  because  he  passed  forward  in  that  cursed 
course  that  they  began.'     In  1585  he  was  suspected  by  the  English  of  being 
'  the  principal  dealer  in  Scotland '  between  King  James  and  the  Jesuits,  and  on 
his  dismissal  in  the  end  of  that  year  his  movements  were  closely  watched.     He 
was  preparing  shipping ;  was  expected  to  go  and  serve  the  King  of  Spain ;  was 
again  in  great  favour  in  February,  and  expected  to  be  ambassador  to  Denmark 
(St.  Pap.  Border).      He  had  previously  obtained  an  Act  of  Parliament  (1584, 
c.  49)  deputing  a  commission  to  the  Estates,  urging  them  to  make  payment 
of  the  arrears  due  to  him,  *  having  served  during  the  space  of  ten  or  twelve 
years';  and  in  December  1586  he  was  with  the  King  of  Denmark,  who  was 
'  urging  the  States  to  make  him  satisfaction  for  injuries  and  restore  his  wife's 
provisions.'     In  April  1587  he  was  said  to  be  '  in  great  credit  with  the  Prince  of 
Parma,  who  had  restored  him  to  all  his  wife's  living  again.'    The  movements  of 
his  messengers  were  reported  on.    He  had  sent  a  ship  for  one  Nisbet,  and  one  of 
his  friends  had  boasted  that  '  within  two  months  the  Colonel  would  himself  be 
with  the  king  at  whose  return  other  news  would  be  known  than  were  yet '  (Border 
Papers).     But  a  little  later  it  was  acknowledged  '  so  as  where  we  thought  it  was 
Colonel  Stewart  that  had  been  the  doer  of  these  matters,  it  is  Colonel  Sempill 
that  had  been  the  doer  with  the  King  of  Spain.'     Stewart  returned  by  Den- 
mark, and  kept  himself  very  quiet,  but  in  the  eventful  year  1588  was  credited 
with  '  very  boldly  and  openly '  urging  King  James  to  accept  the  King  of  Spain's 
offers,  and  declaring  that  he  would  '  find  more  dalliance  than  gain '  from  Eng- 
land.    '  But  it  is  said  that  the  king's  answer  hath  little  pleased  him  *  (Border 
Papers).     In  1588  Lord  Huntly,  then  in  favour,  recommended  his  restoration  as 


118  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

of  marque  ;  he,  nevertheless,  not  having  any  intention  to  break 
any  point  or  clause  of  the  accord  and  treaty  of  peace  existing 
between  His  Majesty  and  the  Lands.  Whereto  the  reply  was 
promptly  given  that  he  had  addressed  himself  to  the  wrong 
quarter,  and  that  he  ought  to  apply  to  the  States-General,  to 


Captain  of  the  Guard,  and  he  was  specially  mentioned  along  with  Lord  Huntly 
as  one  of  '  the  papists  and  apostates  which  shall  happen  to  resort  to  Court  or  to 
the  town  of  Edinburgh,'  who  were  to  be  proceeded  against  by  order  of  the 
Assembly^  Restored  to  favour,  he  obtained  the  letters  of  marque  against  the 
Dutch  ships,  which  were  to  prove  far  more  effectual  than  the  representations  of  the 
monarchs  of  Scotland  and  Denmark.  In  1589  he  went  to  Denmark  along  with 
the  Earl  Marischal,  the  ambassador,  in  connection  with  the  royal  marriage,  and 
was  again  sent  to  sea  to  search  for  the  Queen's  fleet ;  and  in  the  following  year 
he  again  took  over  a  ship  to  bring  the  King  and  Queen  home.  In  1590  he  *  took 
^"500  from  the  Queen  of  England  to  the  King  of  Scots,'  and  went  as  ambassador 
to  'the  partes  of  Almany,'  and  in  1591  had  a  lawsuit  with  John  Shairp  of 
Houston.  In  1592  an  act  was  passed  acknowledging  *  his  great  services  in 
foreign  parts,'  and  he  was  warded  in  the  castle  because  *  the  Queen  used  him  as 
an  instrument  to  disgrace  the  chancellor.'  He  was  again,  in  August  I592>  warded 
in  reference  to  an  accusation  brought  by  him  against  the  Laird  of  Spynie,  who 
'  offered  the  single  combat,'  for  which  a  day  was  assigned.  In  1593  he  went  on 
an  embassy  to  Holland,  and  succeeded  in  getting  his  claims  settled,  and  on 
1 9th  December  he  was  present  at  one  of  Mr.  Robert  Bruce's  sermons.  In  1596 
he  received  a  commission  of  lieutenancy  in  the  Highlands  and  Islands,  obtained 
authority  in  August  to  levy  1000  men,  and  in  November  reported  his  proceedings 
in  Kintyre.  In  January  1597  it  was  reported  that  'the  king  would  have  him 
Constable  of  Dumbarton,'  and  in  1598  he  acted  on  a  commission  for  erecting 
towns  in  the  Highlands,  went  as  ambassador  to  Denmark,  and  was  one  of  the 
'  undertakers  for  the  Lewis.' — P.  C,  Reg. ,  passim. 

His  son,  Frederick  Stewart,  was  created  Lord  Pittenweem  in  1609,  but  died 
without  issue. 

The  substantial  question  between  Colonel  Stewart  and  the  Estates  was  as  to 
whether  the  Northern  Union  was  liable  for  all  the  arrears,  including  those  for 
services  to  the  whole  United  Netherlands,  in  the  campaigns  in  the  time  of  Don 
John  of  Austria.  The  States  contended  that  the  Colonel  had  had  a  commission 
from  Holland  and  Zealand  in  1576  as  a  captain,  that  after  the  Pacification  of 
Ghent  he  had  been  commissioned  by  those  States  'among  others,'  and  that 
afterwards  he' was  in  the  service  of  the  States-General  of  the  other  provinces, 
from  whom  he  received  his  colonel's  commission.  They  complained  also  that 
he  demanded  payment  of  Colonel  Patton's  debt,  who  had  betrayed  Gueldres. 

The  ultimate  arrangement  was  that  Stewart  was  to  give  up  his  claims  for 
services  beyond  the  Meuse,  reserving  his  action  against  the  other  provinces,  to 
demand  nothing  for  services  prior  to  March  1579,  to  assign  certain  claims 
which  he  and  his  officers  had  for  the  period  from  1st  March  1579  to  the  date 
when  'they  were  licensed,'  which  the  States  might  recover  from  the  reconciled 
provinces,  to  surrender  the  letters  of  marque,  and  to  deliver  the  '  record  made 
at  Delft  in  January  1581,'  and  the  States  to  pay  him  56,000  florins. 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       119 

which  his  commission  was  addressed ;  that  it  was  not  in  order 
to  produce  a  protestation  of  that  kind  here.  Notwithstanding 
lie  persisted,  saying  that  his  orders  included  a  special  instruc- 
tion that,  in  case  the  States-General  were  not  in  Session,  he 
was  to  address  himself  to  the  Council  of  State,  and  he  wished 
to  show  this  instruction,  and  desiring  that  his  declarations 
should  at  all  events  be  taken  down  in  writing  and  minuted. 
Which  the  Council  refused,  being  unwilling  to  take  any  cog- 
nisance of  it.  Whereupon  he  desired  Captain  Blayr,  and  two 
other  persons  who  had  entered  with  him,  to  bear  witness  of 
how  he  had  done  his  duty,  and  of  how  he  had  been  treated  ; 
and  on  that  footing  he  left.  The  secretary  Zuylen  being  sent 
to  the  States- General  to  inform  them  of  it,  reported  that  he 
found  nobody  there. 

Thursday,  August  25. — A  summary  was  given  of  the 
copy  of  a  mandate  brought  here  to  this  chamber  some  days 
ago  by  a  Herald  of  the  King  of  Scotland,  and  of  how  he 
received  his  dismissal,  and  the  matter  was  taken  up  at  a 
meeting  of  the  States-General,  where  it  was  in  place,  and  also 
the  resolution  taken  thereanent  by  the  S tates- General :  it  was 
agreed,  as  to  said  nobleman,  that  all  the  documents  that  can 
be  got  that  are  in  anyway  connected  with  the  accounts  of 
Colonel  Stuart  are  to  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Lord 
Chancellor,  so  that  a  reply  to  His  Majesty  thereanent  may  be 
drawn  up,  in  which,  above  all,  it  is  to  be  proved  that  the 
Herald  in  his  procedure  has  greatly  exceeded  the  powers  given 
him  by  His  Majesty,  that  also  the  States  of  these  Provinces 
are  not  aware  that  they  owe  anything  to  Stuart,  and  should  it 
be  the  case  that  they  owe  him  anything,  he  should  take  legal 
proceedings  to  recover  it  (a  refusal  of  which  was  never  made, 
though  His  Majesty's  mandate  is  founded  on  that),  and  no 
potentate  or  prince  could,  so  long  as  the  war  was  going  on, 
fully  satisfy  the  soldiers'  claims  of  arrears,  nor  had  any  of 
them  up  to  this  time  consented  to  grant  open  reprisals  or 
letters  of  marque,  that  they  prayed  His  Majesty,  in  this  acting 
according  to  the  true  Christian  religion,  not  to  grant  them, 
...  as  shall  be  more  fully  and  minutely  fixed  and  resolved  in 
the  Council,  nevertheless  they  agreed  to  summon  the  Assistant 
of  the  said  Herald,  and  inform  him  of  the  irregular  procedures 


120  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

of  the  said  Herald  ;  and  that  he  had  as  little  requested  audi- 
ence of  the  States-General  as  caused  them  to  assemble  for  that 
business ;  that  he  would  have  been  well  received  both  by  them 
and  as  well  by  this  Council. 

Van  der  VocMs  proposed  visit  to  Scotland. 

1588,  Tuesday,  September  27. — Mr.  Lenert  van  der  Voecht, 
Pensionary  of  Delft,  having  been  summoned  and  appeared, 
was  informed  that,  in  spite  of  the  written  representations  of 
his  principals,  he  cannot  be  excused,  and  he  was  requested  and 
ordered,  accordingly,  to  prepare  himself  for  the  journey  to 
Scotland  with  all  diligence,  the  business  being  of  great  import 
to  the  Lands;  and  after  consultation  it  was  agreed,  on  the 
advice  of  Advocate  Barneveldt,  that  he  is  to  go  by  way  of  Eng- 
land ;  and  the  Agent  Ortel  is  to  be  charged  to  assist  him  there, 
and  to  travel  with  him  to  Scotland,  so  that  together  they 
may  bring  matters  to  a  favourable  issue;  and  the  Recorder 
Aerssens  is  ordered  to  seek  for,  and  extract  from  the  registers 
of  the  previous  business  of  the  allied  States,  all  such  minutes 
and  duplicates  as  may  have  some  reference,  and  be  of  service, 
to  the  said  business  with  Scotland,  to  prevent  the  issue 
of  the  letters  of  marque;  and  similar  orders  shall  be  given 
to  the  Recorder  of  Holland,  de  Rechtere ;  for  which  purpose, 
likewise,  the  Master  of  Accounts,  de  Bye,  and  Advocate  van 
der  Necke,  might  also  be  heard  and  examined  as  to  their 
knowledge  of  past  transactions,  as  they  were  at  that  time 
Deputies  of  Holland  and  Zeeland  in  the  Assembly  of  the 
Allied  States. 

Resumption  of  the  business  of  Colonel  Stuart. 

Friday,  September  30,  afternoon. — Minutes  were  read  in 
reference  to  the  business  of  Jan  de  Jonge,  Scotsman,  agent  of 
Colonel  Stuart,  and  the  advice  of  the  Advocate  Barneveldt 
having  been  communicated  by  Counsellor  Valck,  it  was  resolved 
to  summon  said  Scotsman  to  the  Cleves  chamber  next  to  the 
CounciPs,  and  inquire  of  him  through  their  notary  and  wit- 
nesses, in  presence  of  Secretary  Zuylen,  whether  he  does  not 
possess,  in  addition  to  the  mere  copies  handed  in  by  him, 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       121 

some  original,  authentic,  or  other  copies  of  the  obligations, 
accounts,  or  specifications  whereby  the  said  Stewart  might 
authenticate  his  pretended  arrears  for  services  alleged  to  have 
been  rendered  to  the  Lands,  and  whether  he  would  be  willing 
to  produce  the  same.  Also  thereafter  again  to  try  and  per- 
suade him  to  take  to  the  King  the  letters  written  by  the 
Council  containing  a  full  reply  to  all  the  requests  made  by 
His  Majesty's  Herald  in  regard  to  the  said  pretended  arrears  : 
the  said  notary  was  instructed  to  draw  up  in  writing,  from  the 
answers  of  Jan  de  Jonge,  a  statement  thereanent,  with  inser- 
tions of  all  documents  that  the  said  agent  has  already  delivered, 
or  may  yet  hand  in. 

October  1. — Resolved  that  Mr.  Voocht,  who  shall  travel  to 
the  Majesty  of  Scotland,  may  take  with  him  three  servants, 
and  that  there  shall  be  given  to  him  one  thousand  guilders  for 
travelling  money,  and  an  act  of  security  that  he  shall  be  freed 
in  case  of  captivity. 


1588-1589.  First  Report  of  Pensionary  de  Voocht,  sent  to 
England  in  connection  with  the  case  of  Colonel  Stuart. 

HONOURABLE,  NOBLE,  WISE,  LEARNED,  MOST  PRUDENT  SIR  : — In  accord- 
ance with  the  charge  and  Commission  given  me  by  the,  my  Lords 
Councillors  of  State,  on  the  part  of  your  Highness,  I,  Leonard  Voocht, 
Pensionary  of  the  town  of  Delft,  on  October  18th  last  travelled  from  the 
Hague  to  Zeeland,  and  after  having  waited  there,  in  the  town  of  Middel- 
burg,  for  favourable  winds,  betook  myself  on  the  29th  of  the  same  month 
to  England,  where  I  arrived  at  the  Foreland,  on  the  last  day  of  the 
month,  and  having  taken  the  ordinary  post  to  Marigat  [Margate?],  I 
entered  the  city  of  London  on  the  2nd  November,  and  after  I  had 
addressed  myself  to  Mr.  Ortel,  and  shown  him  my  aforesaid  charge  and 
Commission,  went  next  day  in  pursuance  thereof,  accompanied  by  the 
said  Mr.  Ortel,  to  the  house  of  Mr.  Douglas,  the  King  of  Scotland's 
ambassador  to  the  Queen  of  England,  and  there  I  handed  over  to  him 
the  letters  of  Your  Hon.,  and  informed  him  very  fully  of  the  situation  of 
the  business  of  Colonel  Stuart,  together  with  his  pretended  [arrears].  I 
also  showed  my  further  orders  to  repair  to  Scotland,  and  on  behalf  of  the 
States  to  kiss  His  Majesty's  hands,  also  personally  to  inform  His  Majesty 
of  the  said  business  in  such  a  manner,  that  the  connived-at  execution  of 
the  letters  of  marque  granted  to  Coloiiel  Stuart  might  be  averted  from 
the  states  and  that  all  good  friendship  and  unity  between  His  Majesty 
and  the  States  might  be  preserved.  Whereupon  His  Excellency  declared 


122  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

that  he,  having  been  informed  some  time  ago  by  Mr.  Ortel  of  the  situa- 
tion of  the  said  business,  had  notified  His  Majesty  about  it,  who  in 
a  certain  missive  of  September  14th  last  (which  His  Excellency  showed 
us)  had  charged  him  to  declare  to  the  said  Mr.  Ortel,  that  nothing 
would  be  more  pleasing  to  His  Majesty  than  to  maintain  all  good  friend- 
ship with  the  States ;  but  that  His  Majesty  could  not  shut  his  eyes  to  the 
manifold  complaints,  made  not  only  by  the  said  Colonel  Stuart,  but  also 
by  many  others,  and  among  them  divers  widows  and  unfortunate  people 
who  had  risked  their  persons  and  lives  in  the  service  of  the  States, — that 
some  citation    be  granted    in  virtue  of  which   Your  Hon.   might  be 
summoned  to  give  some  satisfaction  to  the  persons  aforesaid ;  charging, 
however,  the  said  Mr.  Douglas  to  settle  the  matter  by  the  best  measures 
possible.     But  when,  on  the  contrary,  I  had  shown  that  from  various 
reasons,  the  States,  and  especially  those  of  Holland  and  Zeeland,  were 
not  involved  in  the  said  debts ;  and  that  I  was  not  the  least  in  the  world 
authorised  to  enter  into  any  composition  or  agreement  about  them,  but 
only  to  offer  remonstrance  to  His  Majesty  in  regard  to  the  great  wrong 
done  by  Stuart,  His  Excellency  declared  that  if  I  had  no  other  charge 
from  Your  Highness  to  the  King  of  Scotland,  it  would  be  unnecessary 
at  this  time  of  the  year  to  proceed  on  the  journey  to  Scotland.     But  that 
His  Majesty,  on  being  rightly  informed  by  letter  of  the  reasons  adduced 
by  me,  would,  doubtless,  suspend  the  execution  of  the  said  letters  of 
marque  ;  and  to  that  end  His  Excellency  also  in  fact  offered  to  write  to 
His  Majesty,  but,  as  I  explained,  I  was  minded  to  give  effect  to  Your 
Highness's    commission,    and    so    for  that  day   I    took   leave    of  His 
Excellency. 

On  the  4th  of  the  same  month,  accompanied  as  before,  I  waited  on 
Lord  Borlay  [Burleigh],  First  Lord  of  the  Treasury,  and  Lord  Walsyngam, 
first  secretary  of  Her  Majesty,  etc.,  ...  I  very  earnestly  requested  their 
Lordships  graciously  to  use  their  best  endeavours,  that  in  furtherance  of 
my  intended  journey  to  Scotland  Her  Majesty  might  grant  me  suitable 
letters,  both  of  passport,  and  especially  of  petition,  to  the  King  of 
Scotland,  so  that,  by  Her  Majesty's  intercession,  the  execution  of  the 
said  letters  of  marque,  wherewith  the  States  were  threatened  so  unjustly, 
might  be  averted  from  them. 

This  having  been  promised  me  by  their  Lordships,  thereafter,  on  the 
6th  of  the  said  month,  Lord  Walsirigam  requested  me  to  put  the 
principal  points  and  motives,  in  justification  of  the  States  against  the 
pretensions  of  Stuart,  into  writing,  in  order  that  having  been  handed  to 
their  Lordships  they  might  be  communicated  to  Her  Majesty,  and  that 
a  resolution  might  be  arrived  at  concerning  them  such  as  Her  Majesty 
might  find  most  serviceable  to  the  interests  of  the  country.  In  accord- 
ance with  this  request,  I  arranged  the  said  points  in  writing,  and 
delivered  them  to  His  Lordship  on  the  7th  of  the  same  month,  and  also 
strongly  recommended  him  to  lose  no  time  in  the  matter. 

Having  been  summoned  on  the  9th  to  Court,  Lord  Walsingam  there 
announced  to  me  the  resolution  of  Her  Majesty  and  of  the  Counsellors 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       123 

of  Her  Majesty,  regarding  the  said  points  handed  in  :  namely,  that  Her 
Majesty  having  perceived  that  Colonel  Stuart  was  in  the  wrong,  had 
resolved  to  write  with  her  own  hand  a  strong  letter  to  the  King,  in  order 
that  the  connived-at  execution  of  the  said  letters  of  marque  might  be 
cancelled  and  suspended  ;  that  also  the  members  of  the  Council  had 
earnestly  charged  His  Lordship  to  write  to  Mr.  Absky  [Wm.  Asheby], 
Ordinary  Ambassador  of  Her  Majesty  to  the  King  in  Scotland,  with  full 
instructions  to  remonstrate  to  His  Majesty  about  the  wrong  done  by  the 
said  Stuart ;  and  that  I  should  abandon  my  proposed  journey  till  the  King 
of  Scotland  should  answer  the  said  letters  of  Her  Majesty  and  should 
have  declared  his  intention  regarding  the  remonstrance  of  the  said 
Ambassador,  not  doubting  that  the  King  would  come  to  such  a  resolu- 
tion as  to  said  matter  that  the  States  need  expect  to  suffer  no  loss  or 
prejudice  from  the  said  Colonel  Stuart. 

On  the  same  day  I  had  also  access  to  Her  Majesty,  and  after  I  had, 
with  all  due  respect,  on  behalf  of  your  Highnesses,  kissed  Her  Majesty's 
hands,  I  briefly  recounted  the  principal  causes  of  my  embassy  to  Scotland 
and  very  sincerely  thanked  Her  Majesty  for  her  good  resolution  adopted 
regarding  it,  announced  to  me  by  Lord  Walsingam  on  behalf  of  Her 
Majesty,  and  I  declared  that  I  would,  nevertheless,  fain  proceed  on  the 
said  journey ;  especially  because  the  King  of  Scotland  had  been  in- 
formed of  my  coming,  and  it  was  plain  the  postponement  thereof  might 
cause  some  dissatisfaction  to  the  King  of  Scotland,  and  be  of  disadvan- 
tage and  prejudice  to  the  States.  Thereupon  it  was  declared  by  Her 
Majesty  that  the  King  of  Scotland  might  well  forbear  to  bestow  a  single 
execution  of  letters  of  marque  in  favour  of  one  individual  as  against  Her 
Majesty's  friends  and  allies^  and  that  Her  Majesty  had  expressed  all  that 
very  strongly  in  a  letter  written  with  her  own  hand.  Nor  did  I  omit  to 
remonstrate  with  Her  Majesty  on  the  condition  of  the  town  of  Bergen-op- 
Zoom,  etc.  ...  As  to  that,  Her  Majesty  declared  that  the  Council  had 
issued  foolish  orders  in  the  business  referred  to.  And  therewith  having 
taken  leave  of  Her  Majesty,  the  following  day  we  came  to  Court  with  the 
said  Mr.  Ortel  to  talk  over  with  Mr.  Bodsley  and  Walsingam  the  business 
of  the  powder.  Lord  Walsingam  handed  to  us  the  letters  from  your 
Highnesses  to  the  King  of  Scotland,  despatched  by  Jasper  the  messenger, 
and  stopped  at  Barwyck,  and  conveyed  back  to  Her  Majesty  at  Court. 
And  after  we  had  given  orders  about  the  discharge  of  the  said  messenger, 
I  waited  on  the  said  Mr.  Duglas  on  November  10th,  and  communicated  to 
His  Excellency  the  resolution  of  Her  Majesty  and  also  the  duplicate  of 
the  said  points,  requesting  that  His  Excellency  might  kindly  add  to  his 
letters  the  letters  of  your  Highnesses  addressed  to  the  King  of  Scotland  ; 
all  the  duplicates,  both  of  the  said  points  concerning  the  case  of  Stuart, 
and  of  a  certain  memorial  concerning  the  case  of  the  Earl  of  Orkenan, 
and  to  despatch  for  the  purpose  a  special  messenger,  in  order  that  he 
might  be  sure  to  hand  them  to  His  Majesty,  that,  from  the  contents,  His 
Majesty  might  be  fully  informed  of  the  circumstances  of  both  the  cases 
mentioned.  That  also  His  Excellency  might  be  pleased  to  write  to 


124  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

certain  of  the  principal  gentlemen  of  the  Council  of  His  Majesty,  who  are 
well  disposed  to  the  States,  with  assurances  that  the  States  would  not 
neglect  in  a  fitting  time  and  way  to  recognise  the  said  service  of  His 
Excellency.  His  Excellency,  in  pursuance  of  this,  appointed  a  certain 
Nobleman  specially  for  the  purpose,  and  sent  him  to  Scotland  on  12th 
November  with  all  the  said  letters.  Of  all  which  I  have  not  neglected  to 
advise  Your  Highnesses.  In  the  meantime,  having  received  certain  infor- 
mation that  full  commission  and  instruction  had  not  been  granted 
either  to  the'Lord  General  Noreitz  [Norris],  or  to  Mr.  Bothley  to  give 
the  Lands  proper  satisfaction  regarding  the  said  points  as  to  which  redress 
was  previously  sought  verbally  by  me  on  behalf  of  your  Highnesses  both 
from  Her  Majesty  and  from  the  Lords  of  the  Council ;  that,  likewise, 
the  actions  of  Your  Highnesses  are  very  basely  misrepresented  to  Her 
Majesty,  both  in  regard  to  Colonel  Schenck,  etc.  .  .  .  And  having 
heard,  on  December  6th,  that  Her  Majesty  had  received  letters  from  the 
King  of  Scotland,  I  requested  through  Lord  Walsingam  that  I  might 
have  access  to  Her  Majesty,  both  to  hear  the  reply  of  the  King  of  Scot- 
land to  the  letters  of  Her  Majesty,  and  to  bring  certain  matters  to  the 
notice  of  Her  Majesty  on  behalf  of  Your  Highnesses  touching  the  state  of 
the  country.  Having  been  admitted  on  the  8th  of  the  same  month,  Her 
Majesty  declared  to  me  that  it  was  unnecessary  to  proceed  on  the  said 
journey  to  Scotland,  that  the  King  of  Scotland  had  suspended  the 
execution  of  the  letters  of  marque,  that  Her  Majesty  would  not  allow 
such  ways  of  procedure  against  Her  Majesty's  allies,  that  the  King  of 
Scotland,  at  least,  would  certainly  abstain  from  granting  them  against 
the  States,  without  Her  Majesty's  foreknowledge  and  consent.  Whereof, 
after  I  had  profusely  thanked  Her  Majesty  on  behalf  of  Your  Highnesses 
I  delivered  to  Her  Majesty,  etc. 

Having  been  summoned  on  December  llth  to  Mr.  Douglas,  His 
Excellency  informed  me  that  he  had  heard  from  the  King  by  letter,  that 
His  Majesty  was  expecting  me,  that  my  coming  would  be  very  agreeable 
to  His  Majesty,  and  that  His  Majesty  would  give  the  States  all  proper 
satisfaction  ;  but  that  His  Majesty  could  not  comprehend  how  that  could 
be  brought  about  by  the  intercession  of  Her  Majesty  of  England,  or  of 
any  one  else,  telling  me,  moreover,  the  King  of  Scotland  had  been  highly 
offended  at  the  messenger  being  stopped  at  Berwick,  who  was  sent  by 
Your  Highnesses  to  His  Majesty,  also  at  the  letters  addressed  to  His 
Majesty  being  taken  out  of  the  hands  of  the  said  messenger  and  sent 
back  to  the  Court  here,  and  that  His  Excellency  had  been  ordered  to 
remonstrate  about  the  injustice  thereof  to  Her  Majesty,  or  to  Her 
Majesty's  Councillors.  Accordingly,  I  made  all  possible  and  formal  pre- 
parations to  proceed  on  the  said  journey,  and  by  letter  informed  Lord 
Walsingam,  who  was  at  the  Court  at  Greenwich,  both  of  the  above  noti- 
fication made  by  Mr.  Douglas  on  behalf  of  the  King  of  Scotland,  and  of 
my  intention  to  proceed  on  the  said  journey  at  the  first  opportunity,  in 
accordance  with  the  expectation  of  the  said  King  and  the  command  of 
Your  Highnesses.  I  very  earnestly  entreated  his  Lordship  that  he  would 


1589]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       125 

graciously  intercede  with  Her  Majesty,  that,  for  prosecuting  the  said 
journey,  proper  letters  of  passport  and  recommendation  might  be  granted 
me,  in  order  that  all  further  inconveniences  might  be  prevented,  which 
by  longer  delay  and  postponement  of  the  said  journey  might  be  caused 
to  the  detriment  of  the  States. 

Having  come  to  Court  on  the  16th,  to  ask  for  the  resolution  of  Her 
Majesty  regarding  the  aforesaid  missive,  I  was  informed  by  Lord  Wal- 
singam,  that  his  Lordship  had  communicated  the  said  missive  to  Her 
Majesty  and  the  members  of  the  council,  but  that  as  yet  Her  Majesty 
had  taken  no  resolution  regarding  it,  that  he  would  not  neglect  to  hasten 
it  on,  and  to  inform  me  immediately  thereof  by  some  of  his  servants. 
Next  on  the  18th  December,  Mr.  Barford,  first  clerk  of  his  Lordship, 
came  to  me,  and  informed  me  that  Her  Majesty,  for  certain  reasons  which 
influenced  Her  Majesty,  could  not  see  why  the  said  journey  should  be  un- 
dertaken. That  Her  Majesty  would  again  write  in  strong  terms  to  the 
King  of  Scotland ;  that  the  States  need  not  look  for  any  difficulty ;  also  that 
she  would  write  to  Your  Highnesses  for  my  discharge  and  the  withdrawal 
of  my  commission.  And  as  on  the  same  day  I  had  been  very  earnestly  re- 
quested, and  Mr.  Ortel  likewise,  by  the  Earl  of  Essex  to  come  and  visit  his 
Lordship  the  following  day  at  Court.  Accordingly,  being  then  at  Court, 
and  Mr.  Ortel  being  present,  I  asked  Lord  Walsingam  himself  about  the 
said  resolution  of  Her  Majesty,  and  he  declared  that  Her  Majesty's  resolu- 
tion was  exactly  that  communicated  to  us  on  the  previous  day  by  his  clerk, 
and  showed  us  a  certain  missive,  minuted  by  his  Lordship  in  English, 
which  was  to  be  sent  to  the  King  of  Scotland,  the  contents  of  which,  Mr. 
Ortel  declared  were  written  very  much  to  the  point,  but  I  could  not 
obtain  a  copy  of  it.  And  after  his  Lordship  had  made  certain  statements 
to  me,  especially  regarding  the  excessively  great  expenses  borne  by  Her 
Majesty  since  the  Treaty,  where  through  Her  Majesty  had  exposed  her 
state  to  great  risk,  and  after,  in  reply,  I  brought  forward  other 
arguments,  thereupon  I  took  leave  of  his  Lordship.  And  on  the  follow- 
ing day  I  waited  on  Mr.  Douglas,  and  earnestly  requested  His  Excellency 
to  be  so  good  as  oblige  the  States  and  Your  Highnesses,  by  making 
excuse  to  His  Majesty  for  our  delay  in  the  letters  of  His  Excellency.  In 
order  that  Your  Highnesses,  being  advised  thereof,  might  issue  such 
orders  as  the  circumstances  of  the  case,  and  the  rendering  of  satisfaction 
to  His  Majesty  might  be  found  to  require.  Accordingly  we  drew  up  a 
certain  letter,  and  despatched  it  along  with  the  letters  of  His  Excellency 
to  Scotland  on  the  24th,  by  a  certain  Nobleman  appointed  for  the  purpose 
by  Mr.  Douglas.  His  Majesty's  reply  thereto  is  still  expected. 

And  so  to  Mr.  Ortel  on  the  28th  were  delivered,  etc.  .  .  . 

On  January  9th  Mr.  Douglas  informed  me  that  His  Excellency  had 
received  letters  from  Scotland  from  the  first  clerk  of  His  Majesty,  to 
whom  His  Excellency  had  recommended  the  affairs  of  Your  Highnesses. 
That  the  King  had  resolved  to  give  Your  Highnesses  every  reasonable 
satisfaction  ;  and  that  the  letters  for  that  purpose  would  have  been 
despatched,  but  that,  on  account  of  some  obstacle  placed  in  the  way  by 


126  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1589 

Colonel  Stuart,  they,  as  well  as  the  nobleman  of  Mr.  Douglas,  are  yet 
detained.  He  did  not  doubt,  however,  but  that  His  Majesty  would 
persist  in  the  resolution  he  had  taken,  and,  at  least,  defer  the  precognitions 
on  both  sides  in  the  affair  till  a  suitable  opportunity.  He  also  deemed  it 
was  unnecessary  for  me  to  wait  for  the  said  despatches,  especially  as,  in  any 
case,  the  journey  to  Scotland  could  not  be  promoted  from  any  quarters, 
but  that  the  said  despatches  would  be  addressed  to  your  Highnesses  ;  or 
in  case  they  should  be  sent  to  His  Excellency,  that  His  Excellency  would 
not  fail  to  hand  them  over  to  Mr.  Ortel  to  be  despatched  immediately  by 
express  messenger  to  Your  Highnesses  ;  according  to  which  advice  I  have 
thought  it  right  to  regulate  my  conduct,  and  hasten  on  my  return  to  these 
quarters ;  the  more  because  My  Lords  the  Councillors  of  State  had 
recalled  me  by  their  letters  of  November  28th  last.  And  because  Lord 
Walsingam,  having  sent  me  on  January  llth  the  reply  of  Her  Majesty 
to  the  aforesaid  points  delivered  by  me  on  December  8th  last  to  Her 
Majesty,  likewise  my  passports  and  other  despatches  addressed  on  the 
part  of  Her  Majesty  to  Your  Highnesses,  earnestly  entreated  me  to  set 
out  on  my  journey  to  our  parts  and  procure  from  Your  Highnesses  that 
the  promised  assistance  agreed  to  by  your  Highnesses  the  20th  January, 
stilo  anglice,  to  further  the  projected  voyage  to  Portugal,  might  be  kept  in 
readiness,  lest  by  longer  delay  any  detriment  to  the  said  voyage  might 
occur.  To  this  Messrs.  Noreitz  [Norris]  and  Draech  [Drake]  respec- 
tively exhorted  me  daily  very  earnestly,  so  leaving  London  on  the  15th 
inst.,  I  arrived  in  Zeeland  on  the  18th.  And  after  I  had  there  with  the 
states  of  Zeeland  discussed  certain  points,  recommended  to  me  by  the 
Council  of  Her  Majesty,  I  arrived  here  on  the  25th. 

All  which,  Right  Honourable,  Noble,  Wise,  Learned  and  Most 
Prudent  Sir,  is  what  was  transacted  by  me  in  England  with  Her  Majesty, 
both  regarding  the  case  of  Colonel  Stuart  and  in  respect  of  the  points 
delivered  to  me  as  instruction  at  headquarters. 

Dated  at  Delft,  January  25th,  1589. l 

(s.)  LEONARD  VOOCHT. 

ANN  EX  A 
A 

Articles  exhibes  a  Mess™  le  Grand  Thesaurier  et  De  Walsyngem  le  9  de 
Novembre  1588 ;  le  double  desquels  sont  envoyes  vers  le  Roy  d'Ecosse  le 
12  du  diet  moys. 

Que  le  Colonnel  Guillaume  Stouart  est  venu  environ  Tan  XVC  LXXIV 
es  provinces  d'Hollande  et  Zelande  sans  service  ou  charge,  et  que  par  les 
geurs  Estats  des  dits  Pais,  a  la  requeste  du  Sr  Ortell,  par  recommandation, 
du  feu  Sr  Eduard  Chester,  luy  a  este  accorde'  et  paye  pour  son  entretien- 
nement  traictement  de  XXV  florins  par  mois. 


1  On  Dec.  3Oth,  1588,  Roger  Aston  wrote  from  Edinburgh,  that  'the king  was 
much  offended  at  the  stay  of  the  ambassador  from  the  Low  Countries.' — Cal.  of 
St.  Pap.  Scotland. 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       127 

Que  puis  le  dfc  Stouart  estant  pourveu  par  les  dits  Srs  Estats  d'Hollande 
et  Zelande  de  commission  de  Capne  d'une  compaignie  de  gens  de 
pied,  en  1'an  XVC  LXXVI,  apres  la  pacification  a  Gent,  par  les  dits  Srs 
Estats  a  este  licentie  entre  aultres,  et  du  tout  satisfaict  de  ses  services 
passees. 

Depuis  cela  le  dit  Stouart  s'est  donne  en  service  des  Estats  generaulx 
des  aultres  Provinces  et  a  receu  d'iceulx  commission  de  Coloimel  sur 
quelques  compaignies  Ecossoises,  desquelles  services  pour  le  present  sont 
praetenduz  par  le  dit  Stouart  et  ses  complices  les  dits  arrierages. 

Que  ceulx  d'Hollande  et  Zelande  au  mesme  temps  ont  faict  subside 
aulz  ds  Estats  des  aultres  Provinces  de  XXV  compaignies  d'Infanterye 
et  Vc  chevaulx  a  leurs  despens,  sans  qu'en  regard  de  la  generaulte  ils  ont 
este  tenuz  ou  obligez  en  aulcunes  oulterieures  charges  de  guerre. 

Si  que  le  dit  Stouart  debvroit  legitimement  demander  et  pourchasser 
le  pavement  de  ses  arrierages  pretendus  et  non  par  voyes  extraordinaires 
de  repressailles  ou  de  constringer  les  dits  pays  par  aultres  voyes  inde- 
centes  a  satisfaction. 

Qu'oncques  au  dit  Stouart  par  les  dits  Srs  Estats  du  pays  a  este  refuse 
droict  ny  Justice.  Rien  estre  vray  que  le  dit  Stouart  a  aultre  fois  par 
requeste  et  puis  aprez  le  Roy  d'Escosse  par  importunite  d'Iceluy  faict 
interpeller  par  le  Conservateur  de  la  nation  Ecossoise,  demeurant  a 
Quandfeu  [Campvere]  en  Zelande,  les  dits  Seigneurs  Estats  du  pays  a  cause 
du  dit  payement ;  mais  qu'estant  sur  cela  par  les  dits  Srs  Estats  rescribe 
en  pensoit  au  meme  temps  avoir  donne  deu  contentement  a  sa  Majt6.  De 
sorte  que  la  dite  requisition  et  interpellation  respective  a  este  seulement 
extra  indiciatis,  laquelle  n'a  peu  constituer  les  ds  Srs  Estats  en  ung  cas  de 
si  grande  importance  in  mora. 

Signament  d'aultant  que  la  voye  de  justice  a  touiours  este  ouverte  au  dfc 
Stouart  laquelle  les  dts  Srs  Estats  mesmes  obeissent  Joinct  que  les  debtes 
praetendues  illiquides  et  qu'au  d*  Colonnel  Stouart  ne  compete  que  rata 
emeriti  stipendii  et  aulx  aultres  Capnes  et  souldats  leur  portion  a 
1'advenant. 

Que  la  plus  part  des  dts  Souldats  et  aulcuns  des  dts  Capnes  sont  morts, 
enfuys  ou  encores  presentement  en  actuel  service  du  pays  et  que 
solemnelement  ils  ont  promis  de  ne  refuser  aux  dts  pays  aulcun  service 
a  causes  des  dites  arrierages. 

Et  quand  bien  les  debtes  pouroyent  estre  entierement  liquides  (ce 
qu'on  soutient  que  non)  que  toutefois  on  debvroit  faire  surcheance  du 
payement  jusques  a  la  fin  de  la  guerre. 

D'aultant  que  les  plus  puissants  Roys,  Princes  et  Republicques  sont 
reliquatores  et  continuent  journelement  de  beaucoup  de  millions  a  cause 
des  guerres  menees  ou  par  eulx  mesmes  ou  leurs  praedecesseurs  (si, 
qu'encores  aujourdhuy  le  payement  de  pareilles  arrierages  par  iceulx  est 
diffe're'. 

Et  encores  qu'on  le  vouldroit  prendre  a  toutes  extremitez  si  estre  que 
ceulx  d'Hollande  et  Zelande  seroient  de  leur  coste  reduables  au  payement 
des  ds  debtes  non  plus  que  leur  contigent  ne  porte.  II  est  a  presupposer 


128  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 

que  le  payement  des  des  praetenses  ensemble  1'execution  des  des  repre- 
sailles,  en  ces  conjuctures  est  procure  a  1'instigation  du  Prince  de  Parma 
et  aultres  semblables  tant  secrets  que  publicqs  ennemis  de  la  cause  com- 
mune, Ann  de  contraindre  les  d8  pays  de  se  de'fendre  extraordinairement 
a  1'encontre  des  proce'dures  extraordinaires  et  si  irraisonnables,  et 
employer  leurs  vassaulx  de  guerres  tant  a  1'encontre  la  puissance  des 
ennemis  que  particulierement  centre  iceulx  qui  vouldroyent  empescher 
la  negociation  par  mer. 

Par  ou  non  seulement  seroyent  empesches  le  service  de  Sa  Mat6  et 
retarde  touts  aultres  bonnes  actions,  mais  aussy  les  moyens  des  pays 
(lesquels  par  le  regard  des  charges  ordinaires  des  guerres  pre'sentes  n'en 
ont  que  trop  a  porter)  dissipez,  au  grand  praejudice  des  bons  inhabitants 
du  diet  pays  et  oulterieure  ruyne  de  leur  present  estat. 

Que  les  ds  procedures  se  facent  a  1'instigation,  ou  pour  le  moins  par 
praeadvertance  des  ennemis  communs,  cela  ce  peult  appercevoir  ou  con- 
jecturer  par  diverses  circumstances.  Veu  que  le  dit  Stouart  laisse 
entierement  immoleste  les  autres  Provinces,  comme  Brabant,  Flandres, 
Artoys,  Haynault,  Malines  etc.,  des  dictes  praetenses;  nonobstant  que 
les  des  Provinces  ayent  principalement  contracte  avec  luy  et  que  luy 
mesme  par  diverses  fois  depens  n'aguerres  s'y  est  trouve. 

Et  sans  aulcung  respect  et  honneur,  avance  a  demander  entre  aultres 
la  debte  du  Capne  Paton,  lequel  (contre  le  serment  preste  au  dfc  pays)  a 
meschamment  trahy  et  rendu  es  mains  de  1'ennemy  la  bonne  ville  de 
Geldre. 

Pareillement  sera  a  considerer  que  la  citation  n'aguerres  faicte  de  la 
part  du  Roy  d'Escosse  a  1'instance  du  diet  Stuart  par  certain  herault  n'a 
este  exploicte  si  debuement  comme  il  appartient. 

A  cause  qu'icelle  debvroit  estre  faicte  aulx  Estats  gene'raulx,  avecq 
lesquels  le  Sr  Stouart  principalement  avoit  traicte,  lesquels  estats  au 
temps  de  la  dte  citation  n'estoyent  assemblez. 

Que  le  diet  herault  au  moins  cut  deu  attendre  1'assemblee  des  ds  Srs 
Estats  et  a  eulx  mesmes  debuement  faire  1'exploicte  de  la  de  execution. 

San  proceder  par  affichement  de  dte  citation  a  la  chambre  du  Conseil, 
ou  d'user  aultres  voyes  extraordinaires,  soubs  praetexte  du  nom  et  Cou- 
verture  du  Roy,  pour  causer  esmotion  emmy  le  peuple. 

Qu'aussy  le  dfc  he'rault  desalors  debvroit  exhiber  le  contrait  ou  obliga- 
tion praetendue  par  le  dfc  Stouart  ou  pour  le  moins  copie  authentique 
d'icelle,  afin  que  les  Srs  Estats  les  ayant  veus  y  eussent  peu  prendre  telle 
resolution  qu'ilz  trouveroynt  convenir  selon  1'exigence  du  faict. 

Specialement  d'aultant  que  ceulx  du  pays  declarent  qu'ilz  ne  scavent 
parler  d'aulcun  contract  ny  obligation  gene'rale  ny  particuliere,  ou  bien 
qu'avecq  le  dfc  Stouart  on  aye  faicte  contract  ou  passe  obligation  a  son 
proufit,  et  encores  qu'il  n'en  pourroit  avoir,  que  les  memoires  et  papier 
sont  demeurez  au  pays  de  Brabant. 

Si  que  sur  les  raisons  sus  dictes  et  signament  qu'il  n'est  en  la  puissance 
du  dfc  pays  de  payer  tels  praetenses  extroyues,  sans  ruiner  totalement  le 
praesent  Estat  d'iceulx,  il  plaira  a  voz  Sies  d'y  prendre  tel  regard,  que  par 


1588]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       129 

intercession  et  authorite  de  sa  Mate  les  ds  repressailles  comminatoires 
decernees  sur  la  requisition  subiective  du  dt  Stouart  soyent  du  tout 
divertiz,  si  bien  des  Estats  Generaulx,  que  especialement  de  ceulx 
d'Hollande,  Zelande  et  leurs  inhabitans  en  particulier. 


B 

Copie  de  la  lettre  de  sa  Maieste,  envoye  au  S.  Roy  d'Ecosse  le  10  de  Nouembre, 

stylo  AngL 

My  deere  care  for  yo  hono  and  good  estate  (my  deere  brother)  per- 

mittes  me  not  to  overslip  anie  cause  wherein  I  suppose  anie  deminution 

to  fall  to  either  and  driven  by  a  good  grounde  it  will  not  dislike  yo  (I 

make  me  suer)  if  I  write  to  yo  my  mynde  in  such  a  case.     And  this  it 

is  the  States  of  the  Lowe  Countries,  whom  you  are  not  ignorant  I  have 

and  do  aide  to  keepe  them  in  breathe  from  the  extreame  ruyii  that  is 

ment  them,  finde  themselves  sorly  agree ved  that  at  this  tyme  of  theire 

greate  neede  to  releive  their  owne  danger  theire  countries  losse  and 

theire  continuwall  well  nighe  importable  charges,  yo  that  professe  the  free 

religion  and  proteste  such  inwarde  affection  to  advance  that  cause  cannot 

finde  in  your  harte  so  greate  neglecte  of  them  and  their  wantes  as  at 

this  season  so  out  of  season  for  them  to  make  claime  of  debts  owinge  to 

yo  subiectes  which  when  I  hearde  I  could  do  no  lesse  then  make  it  knowen 

into  yo  (my  deere  brother)  how  sory  I  was  to  heare  of  such  a  preposition 

togeither  with  the  menace  of  Ires  of  marc  if  not  spedeler  it  were  not 

answered.      Consider  I  beseeche  you  of  yo  dealinges  in  this  sorte  how 

yo  shall  wound  yo  frendes  glad  yo  foes  and   wronge  your  self;   who 

will  believe  that  yo  passe  of  religion  that  suffer  the  professo  to  perrisse  ; 

who  will  suppose  that  your  amitie  is  founde  to  me  when  yo  afflirte  my 

parte  ;  nay  I  praie  God  the  enemy  who  careth  for  neither  of  us,  maketh 

not  skorne  of  our  frendship  as  thinckinge  it  full  faint  and  feeble.      I 

meane  not  herby  that  it  is  not  reason  for  a  Kinge  to  righte  his  subiectes 

wronge  and  to  procuer  in  time  conveniant  suche  seemelike  remedies  as 

maie  fitt  his  place  and  helpe  his  vassails  losse.      But  the  moste  of  this 

consists  in  the  time  and  for  the  persons.      Ffor  as  yo  shall  perceive  a 

great  some  of  this  greate  valewe  is  not  theire  debte,  but  of  other  countries 

and  captaines  whom  theie  rule  not,  according  as  at  length  my  seruant 

hathe  in  charge  to  tell  you  with  my  moste  affectuous  desier  and  earnest 

request  that  you  more  regarde  the  cause  and  time  then  anie  private  subfc 

sute.    And  that  it  maie  please  you  alle  theise  thinges  well  waighed  to 

surceaste  anie  preparation  that  might  make  shewe  to  annoye.     Albeit  I 

doubt  not  but  theie  mighte  defende  themselves  againste  a  farre  greater 

force.     Yett  lett  no  man  say  that  by  yo  hande  theie  be  afflicted  that  have 

miserie  enough.     And  this  I  ende  with  my  moste  affectionate  petition, 

that  theise  lynes  maie  be  considered  accordinge  to  the  harte  that  writes 

them,  who  never  ceaseth  to  praie  for  your  beste,  as  God  is  witness.     By 

yd  moste  affeconate  sister  and  cosen.  ELIZABETH  REGINA. 

I 


130  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1588 


Copie  de  la  lettre  envoy  e  au  Ser.  Roy  de  Ecosse,  le  14  Dec.  S.  A.  1588 

SIRE, — Nous  ne  faisons  doubte  que  V.  Mat6  soit  plus  que  suffisamment 
informe  tant  par  les  Ires  des  Srs  du  Conseil  d'Estat  des  Provinces  unies  du 
pais  has,  que  par  les  memoires  quelques  jours  passez  par  nous  envoyez,  par 
le  moyen  du  Sr  Ambassadeur  de  Votre  Mat6  Mr.  Duglas,  avecq  quel  tort 
le  Colonnel  Stuart,  si  bien  en  son  nom  prive  comme  aultres  (praetendants 
arrierages  des  services  faictes  aulx  Srs  Estats  gnralx  des  dits  provinces) 
avoit  obtenu  de  vre  Maw  Ires  de  represailles  pour  non  seulement  par 
icelles  executer  leurs  injustes  praetenses,  mais  aussij  particulierement 
susciter  des  malentenduz  entre  votre  Royalle  Mate  et  ceulx  du  dfc  pays, 
qu'oncques  n'ont  desire  aultre  chose,  qu'en  temps  et  lieu  convenable 
faire  paraistre  a  vre  Mat6  1'envie  qu'ilz  ont  de  faire  a  icelle  et  son  Estat 
tous  humbles  et  fideles  services. 

Et  combien  qu'avions  (suyvant  la  charge  a  eu  nous  donnee)  expresse'- 
ment  delibere  voire  appreste  et  aller  trouver  et  baiser  les  mains  de  vre 
Royale  Mat6,  si  bien  au  nom  de  noz  dits  superieurs  qu'en  nre  particulier 
ensemble  plus  specificquement  1'informer  si  bien  de  1'Estat  des  dits 
affaires  comme  aussi  de  faire  oulterieur  ouverture  de  nre  charge. 

Si  estre  toutefois  que  nre  dicte  venue  et  singulier  desir  a  este  differe 
iusques  a  ceste  heure  contraire  toute  expectation  pour  des  causes  que 
nous  ne  scaurions  repeter,  mais  vre  Mat6  pourra  entendre  si  bien  par  Ires 
de  la  Reyne  d'Angleterre,  comme  particulierement  par  le  dct  Sr 
Ambassadeur. 

Tout  nonobstant  n'avons  obmis  d'aduerter  les  dfcs  Srs  Estats  en  toute 
diligence  du  succes  de  noz  aifaires,  comme  aussy  particulierement  de  la 
retenue  le  leur  messagier  et  Ires  a  Berwyck,  si  que  pour  le  present  ne 
pourions  que  suppleerl  vre  Mat6  tres  humblement  (qu'ayant  esgard  a 
1'acquite  de  la  cause  principale  et  present  estat  des  ds  pays,  ensemble  a 
la  singuliere  affection  qu'ils  ont  tousjours  porte  et  portent  envers  son 
service,  comme  aussy  a  notre  ds  retardement ;  II  luy  plaise  de  sa  grace 
effectuelement  et  absolument  faire  descharger  et  annuchiller  les  ds  re- 
presailles avecq  1'execution  d'icelles,  pour  le  moins  pour  tel  terme  de  six 
ou  huict  mois  que  les  ds  Srs  Estat  y  pouvans  mestre  ordre  convenable 
d'ung  coste  et  vre  Mat<5  estre  plus  suffisamment  informee  de  la  verite  de 
1'aultre,  tous  malentenduz  puissent  estre  assarejuz  et  d'icy  en  avant 
estre  vre  Maw  et  le  diet  pays  toute  bonne  et  inviolable  union,  corre- 
spondance  et  amitie,  taut  plus  aussy  que  les  ds  Sies  par  ceste  faveur 
puissent  tant  mieulx  estre  encouragez  en  temps  et  lieu  (et  quand  quelque 
bonne  occasion  se  pourroit  presenter)  de  faire  a  vre  Mate  en  son  par- 
ticulier et  a  son  Estat  en  genal  des  bons  et  signalz  services,  nullement  a 
comparer  a  iceulx  de  personnes  particulieres. 

Au  reste,  ayants  entendu  par  le  diet  Sr  Ambassadeur  le  bon  plaisir  de 
vre  Mat6  touchant  le  batteau  de  guerre  du  comte  d'  Orcnay  ne  fauldrons 
incontinent  procurer  des  ds  Srs  Estats  la  restitution  d'iceluy,  ensemble 


1589]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       131 

le  renvoy  des  prisonniers,  soubs  ferme  confiance  que  vre  Mat6  mesme 
disposera  d'iceulx  comme  icelle  par  les  circumstances  du  faict  et  de  la 
teneur  de  leur  confession  en  acquite  et  justice  trouvera  convenir,  mo- 
yennant  que  par  le  d*  Sr  Comte  soit  premierement  donne  acte  de  descharge 
qu'a  cause  de  la  prinse  du  dfc  batteau  il  ne  fera  ny  consentira  estre  faicte 
aulx  dts  pays  ou  a  leurs  inhabitans  aulcune  oulterieure  recherche  moins 
d'aulcunes  petites  meubles  si  quelques  ungs  a  la  prinse  du  d*  batteau 
pourroyent  defaillir  Estans  baisans  tres  humblement  les  mains  de  vre 
Royale  Mate  et  attendans  etc. 

D 

Letter  of  Queen  Elizabeth  to  the  General  States  on  account  of 
Scottish  affairs. 

Messieurs  nos  bons  Amys,  L'estat  present  de  nos  affaires  qui  lie  vous 
sont  point  incongneuz,  nous  a  faict  appeller  le  Sr  Ortel  pour  luy  communi- 
quer  quelques  occasions  importantes  pour  faire  remettre  le  voyage  de  luy  et 
du  Sre  de  Vooch  votre  Commissaire  pour  Escosse  a  un  aultre  temps  plus 
propice.  Ce  que  toutefois  nous  n' avons  faict  ung  soing  qu'  avons  du  bien 
des  affaires  tant  du  Roy  notre  bon  frere  que  des  votres,  avecq  lesquelz 
nous  estimons  les  notres  conioinctz.  Car  nous  avons  desia  donne  charge 
expresse  a  notre  Ambassadeur  restant  en  Escosse  de  moyenner  la  sur- 
seance  de  la  procedure  qu'avoit  encommencee  centre  les  sujectz  d'iceulx 
pays  bas,  le  Sr  Guillaume  Stewart,  et  en  abolissant  aussy  des  lettres  de 
represaille  que  led.  Stewart  avoit  sollicite  avec  toute  instance.  Sur 
quoy  poura  que  led.  Roy  ne  nous  a  parfaict  entier  refuse,  ains  en 
usant  de  quelques  petites  remises  differer  sa  plaine  resolution  sur  la  venue 
de  votre  Commissaire  en  Escosse.  Nous  1'avons  de  rechef  prie  de  vouloir 
remettre  le  voyage  en  Escosse  au  printemps,  a  celle  fin  que  nous 
puissions  ce  temps  pendant  tant  mieulx  accommoder  nos  affaires  com- 
munes. Ce  que  ne  faisons  doubte  que  led.  Roy  notre  bon  frere  ne 
nous  accorde,  comme  requeste  tres  raisonnable,  et  que  vous  pourriez 
peult-etre  avoir  occasion  cependant  de  vous  servir  des  bons  offices  et 
clebvoirs  du  Sr  de  Vooch,  nous  1'avons  bien  voulu  licencier  pour  se 
retourner  vers  vous  requerant  vouloir  trouver  bonne  la  procedure  qu' 
avons  tenu  en  la  charge  que  vous  luy  avez  baillee,  et  luy  impartira  de 
vos  faveurs  selon  que  ses  bons  debvoirs  en  votre  service  meritent.  Qui 
fera  1'endroict  que  nous  nous  recommanderons  bien  affectionement  a  voz 
bonnes  graces.  Priant  le  Createur  vous  tienne  tousiours  en  la  sienne. 
Escript  a  notre  Chateau  de  Greenwich,  le  xm  Jour  de  Decembre,  1588. 

Votre  bonne  Amye, 

ELIZABETH  R. 

1589,  Wednesday,  February  15. — The  recorder  Aerssen  was  council  of 
further   informed   that  the  Council  judges  it  necessary  that  state* 
the  States-General  should  resolve  to  send  an  embassy  to  Scot- 


132  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1589 

land  and  write  about  the  matter  to  Her  Majesty  of  England. 
The  said  Recorder  hereupon  replied  to  Secretary  Huyghens 
that  the  Lords  States-General  had  resolved  with  reference  to 
it,  that  Ortell  [the  Dutch  ambassador  at  the  Court  of  London], 
should  remain  in  England,  and  that  de  Voocht  and  van  de 
Warck  should  travel  to  Scotland. 

[On  4th  March  1589-90  a  commission  was  granted  to  Sir 
Robert  Melville  and  others  to  c  sight '  the  '  instructions  com- 
mission and  answers  returned  from  the  Estates  of  the  Low 
Countries  of  Flanders,  to  certain  letters  direct  to  them  in 
favour  of  William,  Commendator  of  Pittenweem,  and  others 
who  served  in  the  wars  under  his  regiment  in  the  said  Low 
Countries,  as  also  the  instructions,  etc.,  which  are  to  be  directed 
with  Mr.  John  Skene,  advocate,  to  the  said  Estates.' — Pr* 
Co.  Reg.] 

Report  of  Leonard  Voocht  and  Jan  de  Warck,  about  their 
embassy  to  the  King  of  Scotland.  Anno  1589.  Presented 
to  the  Meeting  of  the  States-General  of  the  United  Nether- 
lands, on  August  \\th,  1590.  (According  to  Resolution) 

REPORT  OF  PROCEEDINGS  during  the  Embassy  to  Scotland,  and  of 
what  was  treated  of  and  negotiated  with  His  Majesty  the  King-  of 
Scotland  James  the  Sixth,  by  the  Deputies  of  the  States-General  of 
the  United  Netherlands,  according  to  the  instructions  given  them  on 
March  20th,  1589,  and  commissions  dated  April  24th  of  the  same 
year,  stilo  novo. 

Inasmuch  as  the  Lords  Councillors  of  the  Admiralty,  invested  with  the 
charge  of  Zeeland  had  chartered  two  men-of-war,  the  one  of  Captain 
Legner  of  Flushing,  and  the  other  of  Captain  de  Haen  of  Hoorn,  the  said 
Deputies  at  the  same  time,  namely,  as  soon  as  the  ships  were  ready,  and 
the  wind  favourable,  set  sail  from  Flushing  on  May  13th,  1589,  on  a 
Saturday,  in  the  afternoon  about  three  o'clock,  and  after  a  fortunately 
prosperous  voyage  arrived  at  Leith  on  the  17th  of  the  same  month, 
namely  on  a  Wednesday  evening  very  late  between  nine  and  ten. 

Having  arrived  in  the  hotel  there,  we  were  immediately  visited  by  the 
two  ministers  of  that  place,  who  came  to  confer  with  us  in  regard  to  the 
business  of  our  embassy  and  other  matters,  and  passed  the  evening  in 
our  company.  And  in  accordance  with  their  advice  we  sent  the  following 
day  to  the  Provost  of  Edinburgh,  who  is  also  provost  of  the  said  place  or 
harbour  of  Leith,  to  inform  him  of  our  arrival  so  that  we  might  be  pro- 
vided with  a  lodging. 

He  expressed  his  pleasure  at  our  arrival,  and  had  us  quant  a  quant 


1589]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        133 

provided  with  lodgings,  namely  the  same  where  formerly  Sir  [P  ?]  Sidney, 
Ambassador  of  the  Queen  of  England  had  been  accommodated. 

Thereafter  we  came  immediately  into  Edinburgh,  where  my  lord,  the 
Chancellor,  did  with  all  respect  inform  the  King's  Majesty  of  our  arrival, 
with  a  view  to  ascertain  when  we  might  obtain  audience  of  His  Majesty. 

Thereafter  on  the  19th  of  said  month  His  Majesty  gave  us  to  under- 
stand through  Dr.  Joannes  Sceineus1  that  our  arrival  in  his  kingdom 
was  very  welcome  to  him,  that  he  was  glad  we  had  had  so  prosperous  a 
voyage,  and  that  the  following  day,  being  the  20th,  he  would  give  us 
audience,  in  the  afternoon  at  two  o'clock.  However  His  Majesty  sent 
an  excuse  by  the  said  Sceineus,  to  the  effect  that  we  could  have  no 
audience  that  day  at  the  appointed  hour,  by  reason  of  other  pressing 
matters  which  had  come  up  for  His  Majesty  to  deal  with ;  but  at  last, 
the  21st,  being  Whitsunday,  was  granted  us,  namely  at  five  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  after  the  sermon. 

At  that  time  we  were  conducted  by  the  said  Sceineus,  accompanied  by 
some  others,  and  audience  was  given  us  in  the  garden  of  the  Chancellor, 
in  whose  house  the  King  lodged  at  that  time  ;  and  that  in  the  presence  of 
all  the  courtiers  of  His  Majesty,  and  of  every  one  who  desired  to  be 
present,  yet  in  such  a  manner  that  we  were  heard  only  by  the  King  and 
the  Lord  Chancellor. 

After  paying  due  homage  and  respects,  and  on  the  part  of  the  Sovereign 
States  their  humble  commendations  and  proffers  of  all  service  and  friend- 
ship possible,  and  after  having  delivered  our  credentials,  which  were 
read  by  His  Majesty,  we,  speaking  in  French,  disclosed  to  His  Majesty  the 
business  we  were  charged  with  in  the  best  form  and  manner  we  possibly 
could,  following  our  commission  and  instruction  with  appended  docu- 
ments, explaining  besides  the  proposition  thereauent  drawn  up  in  writing 
by  ourselves. 

But  although  in  our  instruction  aforesaid  it  was  mentioned  that  we 
were  to  present  to  His  Majesty  four  horses,  afterwards  increased  to  six, 
yet  we  neither  did  so,  nor  did  we  mention  that  we  were  expecting  them, 
as  the  horses,  which  had  been  shipped  in  the  district  of  North  Holland, 
had  not  arrived,  and  we  were  totally  uncertain  when  they  might  arrive. 

His  Majesty  replied,,  also  in  French,  to  our  proposition  extremely  well 
and  wisely,  just  as  we  recorded  the  said  reply  afterwards  in  writing; 
His  Majesty  declaring,  amongst  other  things,  that  he  would  appoint  com- 
missioners who  would  confer  with  us  regarding  the  business  we  were 
charged  with  and  our  commission. 

On  the  following  day,  the  22nd,  we  repaired  to  the  Chancellor's,  and 
commended  to  him  the  object  of  our  embassy,  and  prayed  that  he  would 
be  pleased  to  use  such  efforts  with  the  King  that  the  commissioners  who 
were  to  confer  with  us  and  enter  more  minutely  into  our  business  should 
be  appointed. 

Thereupon  the  said  Chancellor  declared  that  he  was  keeping  our  busi- 
ness in  good  and  favourable  recommendation,  and  that  His  Majesty  would 
very  soon  appoint  commissioners. 

1  Sir  John  Skene  of  Curriehill. 


134  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1589 

But  notwithstanding  that  we  daily  brought  great  pressure  to  bear  for 
that  purpose,  through  the  person  of  Adrianus  Damannus,  formerly 
professor  at  Leyden,  who  we  understood  was  a  favourite  with  His  Majesty, 
with  the  said  Lord  Chancellor,  and  other  principal  personages,,  yet,  on 
account  of  certain  important  affairs,  which  caused  great  anxiety  to  His 
Majesty  and  the  members  of  his  Council,  commissioners  were  not 
appointed  before  the  25th  of  the  said  month,  namely,  Messrs.  Scarpius,1 
Prestonius  2  and  the  said  Sceinius. 

Thereupon  we  entered  into  negotiations  and  conference  with  the  said 
gentlemen  in  the  Chamber  of  Session  or  Parliament  of  Scotland,  on  the 
26th. 

But  as  Colonel  Stuart  had  entered  with  the  said  gentlemen,  and  sat  down 
next  them,  we  first  of  all  requested  that  the  said  Colonel  should  be  obliged 
to  withdraw,  and  leave  the  said  gentlemen  alone  with  us,  as  we  had 
nothing  to  do  with  him,  and  had  not  come  to  meet  him,  nor  were  we 
authorised  to  enter  into  any  discussion  or  controversy  with  him,  but  had 
been  sent  solely  to  His  Majesty  to  make  overtures  to  him  touching  our 
difficulties  in  the  matter  of  letters  of  marque,  which  was  not  a  private 
concern  but  public,  affecting  the  government  of  the  kingdom  of  Scotland 
and  of  the  United  Netherlands,  and  we  expected  in  reference  to  it  not 
any  legal  decision,  but  such  a  kindly  answer  from  the  Royal  Majesty 
as  was  demanded  for  the  preservation  of  the  alliance  and  good  neigh- 
bourly relations  between  the  two  countries. 

That  we,  therefore,  did  not  understand  that  these  negotiations  or 
conferences  had  any  object  further  than  that  His  Majesty,  through  the 
report  of  the  said  Commissioners,  and  from  other  and  more  particular 
information,  might  be  able  more  satisfactorily  to  give  our  principals  and 
superiors  a  favourable  and  fruitful  answer. 

Thereupon  the  said  Commissioners  replied,  the  said  Sceineus  being 
spokesman,  that  this  matter  was  not  so  public,  that  it  did  not  also  concern 
the  said  Stuart,  both  as  he  was  interested  in  it,  and  because  we  desired 
to  accuse  and  bring  charges  against  him.  That  he,  therefore,  ought  in 
justice  to  be  heard  against  these,  and  be  present,  in  order  to  reply  to 
what  we  should  bring  forward,  and  adduce  his  contrary  reasons. 

In  reply  to  this  we  again  said  that  we  had  no  orders  to  enter  into  any 
discussion  whatever  with  Stuart,  much  less  to  accuse  him  ;  and  although 
many  public  affairs  naturally  involved  private  persons,  that,  nevertheless, 
they  were  public  and  concerned  the  government  of  the  country ;  that  we, 
therefore,  refused  to  disclose  the  business  of  our  commission  to  any  one 
except  to  those  appointed  by  the  King  for  the  purpose. 

The  result  was  that  after  some  more  arguments  had  been  brought 
forward,  now  by  one  side,  now  by  the  other,  the  said  commissioners 
ordered  the  said  Colonel  Stuart  to  withdraw,  and  this  without  his  having 
said  a  word  on  the  subject,  or  having  even  understood  the  discussion 
regarding  him,  for  we  and  the  said  commissioners  carried  on  our  discus- 
sion in  Latin. 

1  Mr.  John  Shairp,  advocate  (mentioned  in  P.  C.  Reg.) 

2  Probably  John  Preston  of  Fentonbarns,  appointed  a  judge  in  1595. 


1589]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        135 

After  his  departure  we  declared  that  we  had  not  insisted  upon  it, 
because  we  did  not  wish  him  to  hear  our  reasons,  on  the  contrary  we 
should  have  been  glad  to  let  all  the  world  be  present  at  the  conference, 
but  in  order  that  the  business  might  be  carried  on  more  freely,  and  also, 
chiefly,  because  it  should  not  seem  as  if  the  said  Stuart  having  been  present 
we  had  entered  into  a  judicial  controversy  or  discussion  with  him,  and  we 
still  declared  and  protested  that  we  were  not  authorised  to  do  so,  and 
that  we  were  only  justified  in  making  our  overtures  to  the  gentlemen 
present  there  as  Commissioners  of  His  Majesty,  that  they  might  report 
concerning  them  to  His  Majesty. 

And  in  the  same  declaration  we  recounted  to  the  said  gentlemen  all 
the  reasons  contained  in  the  proposition  made  to  His  Majesty. 

And  as  we  understood  that  the  said  Stuart  was  in  good  favour  with  His 
Majesty,  and,  in  fact,  one  of  his  Lords-in-waiting,  and  that  in  the  previous 
year  he  had  been  Ambassador  jn  Denmark,  we  had  in  our  proposition  to 
the  King  and  at  our  first  interview  avoided  arguments  which  might  in 
any  way  have  been  understood  as  aggrieving  the  said  Stuart ;  as,  for 
instance : 

That  the  said  Colonel  Stuart  with  the  captains  under  him  had  taken 
part  in  several  dangerous  mutinies  to  the  great  and  irreparable  harm  of 
the  country. 

That  also  some  of  his  captains  had  surrendered  to  the  common  foe  the 
places  of  which  they  were  in  charge. 

That  the  said  Stuart  had  himself  been  for  a  long  time  with  the  common 
foe — the  Prince  of  Parma — so  that  one  could  not  but  suppose  that  he  had 
there  rendered  all  sorts  of  bad  offices  against  the  United  Netherlands. 

That  this  was  sufficiently  vouched  by  the  fact  that  he  had  never  asked 
for  letters  of  marque,  until  after  he  had  returned  from  the  Prince  of 
Parma. 

That  he  had  asked  for  the  said  letters  of  marque  only  against  these 
Lands,  where  he  had  received  so  much  honour  and  profit,  and  which  he 
well  knows  were  forced  to  take  up  arms  to  preserve  their  ancient  privi- 
leges and  rights,  and  in  order  to  maintain  the  reformed  true  Christian 
religion. 

At  the  same  time,  leaving  free  and  unmolested  the  provinces  which  are 
subject  to  the  Prince  of  Parma,  which  he  has  served,  and  which  would 
chiefly  be  the  debtors  of  his  pretended  arrears. 

That  he  also  wished  to  have  the  said  letters  of  marque  executed  at  the 
time  when  the  Armada  of  Spain  was  on  the  way  to  attack  England  and 
these  lands,  in  order  by  those  means  to  do  the  greater  injury  to  the 
United  Netherlands. 

And  when  we  had  requested  that  the  said  gentlemen  would  be  pleased 
to  recount  to  His  Majesty  the  said  reasons  and  others  which  we  had 
before  placed  before  His  Majesty,  and  which  we  had  set  forth  at  length 
to  the  said  Commissioners,  and  to  do  as  much  as  would  lead  to  us 
receiving  soon  a  favourable  answer  from  His  Majesty.  The  said  Com- 
missioners replied : 

That  they  had  listened  with  interest  to  the  reasons  stated  by  us  on 


136  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1589 

behalf  of  our  principals,  and  that  they  had  noticed,  amongst  other  things, 
what  was  said  about  the  contracts,,  which  had  been  made  between  the 
Kings  of  Scotland  and  the  House  of  Burgundy ;  and  desired  to  know  if 
we  had  brought  them  with  us. 

Thereupon  we  declared  that  we  did  not  doubt  that  the  said  treaties 
were  in  the  possession  of  the  King  among  other  original  documents  of 
the  Kingdom ;  that,  nevertheless,  we  had  brought  a  copy  of  it  with  us, 
and  had  it  with  us,  and  we  offered  to  have  it  read. 

But  as  some  of  the  gentlemen  declared  that  they  had  seen  it,  they 
further  desired  that  we  should  commit  to  writing  the  reasons  against  the 
letters  of  marque,  in  order  that  they  might  the  better  present  their 
report. 

We  consented  to  do  so,  but  on  the  express  understanding  that  we 
made  no  claims  for  ourselves,  nor  might  we  submit  to  any  judicature 
whatever,  but  that,  for  the  rest,  we  would  await  His  Majesty's  gracious 
reply. 

Thereafter  we  immediately,  that  is,  on  the  following  morning,  delivered 
our  reasons  in  writing  to  the  said  Commissioners. 

On  the  same  day  we  were  at  the  Chancellor's,  and  declared  to  him 
what  had  been  transacted  between  us  and  the  Commissioners,  and  that 
we,  according  to  their  desire,  had  presented  to  them  in  writing  our 
arguments  regarding  the  principal  matter,  that  of  the  letters  of  mark  ; 
and  we  requested  that  the  said  Commissioners  might  be  ordered  to  make 
their  report  so  that  His  Majesty  might  thereafter  give  us  such  a  favour- 
able reply  and  dismissal  as  was  justly  due  to  us,  as  well  as  to  the 
consequence  and  importance  of  our  charge  and  commission. 

The  said  Lord  Chancellor  replied  very  favourably,  declaring  that  he 
would  recommend  the  expediting  of  our  business. 

On  the  same  day  also  we  visited  the  Ambassador  of  England  who 
resided  there  at  Edinburgh,  and  gave  him  a  summary  account  of  what 
had  that  day  been  done  in  the  matter,  and  requested  that  he  would 
kindly  recommend  our  business  and  commission  to  His  Majesty,  as  well 
as  the  early  despatch  thereof;  since  we  did  not  doubt  that  Her  Majesty 
of  England  had  ordered  him  to  do  so,  and  had  written  previously  about 
it  at  length  to  the  King. 

To  this  the  Ambassador  replied  very  favourably,  that  he  had  orders 
from  Her  Majesty,  his  mistress,  and  that  she  would  also  willingly  employ 
him  otherwise  in  our  interests  should  he  find  our  business  founded  on 
right  and  equity  ;  adding  that  he  was  so  certain  of  the  graciousness  and 
justice  of  the  King,  and  of  his  great  zeal  for  the  reformed  religion,  that 
it  was  certain  he  could  give  us  no  other  but  a  favourable  and  fruitful 
answer. 

The  same  evening  we  were  visited  by  the  afore-mentioned  gentleman, 
Joannes  Sceineus,  who  declared  to  us  that  he,  with  his  fellow-Commis- 
sioners, had  seen  good  to  place  our  written  statement  in  the  hands  of 
Colonel  Stuart,  seeing  that  he  wished  to  be  heard  against  it,  and  that 
apparently  he  intended  to  hand  in  a  document  to  the  contrary  effect,  so 


1589]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        137 

as  to  prolong  the  business  to  a  great  length,  and  detain  us  with  our 
ships  of  war.  We  answered  that  we  had  before  declared  and  still  de- 
clare that  we  had  no  authority  to  enter  into  any  lawsuit  or  discussion 
with  Stuart,  or  to  reply  to  any  of  his  writings.  Yet  we  would  not  prevent 
His  Majesty  and  those  of  his  Council  from  obtaining  information  regard- 
ing our  proposition  and  reasons  from  Colonel  Stuart  or  in  any  other 
fashion  they  pleased.  That  we,  therefore,  intended  taking  all  the 
responsibility  of  it  on  ourselves,  to  solicit  and  prosecute  a  reply  from  His 
Majesty. 

On  the  last  day  of  the  said  month  of  May  the  said  gentleman,  Sceineus, 
came  again,  telling  us  that  Colonel  Stuart  had  drawn  up  a  certain  writing, 
first  in  Scotch,  which  was  afterwards  translated  into  Latin ;  but  that  he, 
having  looked  it  over  with  the  other  Commissioners,  had  found  it 
irrelevant  and  otherwise  unseemly,  so  much  so  that  they  had  corrected 
and  altered  it ;  and  it  would  have  to  be  properly  rewritten  ;  which  would 
be  done  within  a  day  or  two,  and  desiring  that  we  should  speak  to  my 
lord  the  Chancellor  about  it,  and  pray  him  that  the  Commissioners  might 
have  their  audience.  This  we  afterwards  did,  and  continue  to  do,  through 
the  afore-mentioned  Adrianus  Damannus. 

Then,  understanding  in  the  meantime  that  the  said  Colonel  Stuart  was 
talking  loudly  and  boasting  that  we  had  been  too  late  in  stating  our 
reasons  against  the  letters  of  marque  he  pretended  to,  inasmuch  as  they 
liad  already  been  granted  in  all  due  form,  and  that  the  King  would  not 
now  recall  what  he  had  done  with  the  consent  of  the  Estates,  we  went  to 
the  Chancellor  and  again  refreshed  his  Lordship's  memory  regarding  the 
reasons  which  we  had  laid  before  His  Majesty  on  that  subject ;  and  in 
order  that  he  might  have  something  to  show  in  writing,  we  gave  the  said 
Lord  Chancellor  a  document  in  French  thereanent,  in  order  that  he 
might  be  pleased,  when  the  Report  of  the  Commissioners  should  be 
considered,  also  to  make  reference  to  it  ;  praying  also  for  a  final 
dismissal. 

In  the  meantime  there  came  to  us  the  Deputies  of  the  towns,  who 
were  assembled  at  Edinburgh  with  the  clergy  and  nobles  to  welcome  us, 
and  to  assure  us  of  their  affection  ;  and  that  they  wished  nothing  more 
than  to  maintain  good  relations  with  the  United  Netherlands,  in  order  to 
preserve  the  freedom  of  the  trade,  which  they  intended  not  to  have 
obstructed  ;  and  so  far  as  they  had  intelligence  as  to  our  commission  or 
might  by  us  be  further  informed,  they  would  be  glad  that  we  should 
make  use  of  their  services. 

We,  in  return,  thanked  them,  making  similar  protestation  ;  and, 
further,  declared  that  the  object  of  our  embassy  was  known  to  every  one, 
as  tending  to  come  to  a  settlement  about  certain  pretended  letters  of 
marque  sought  by  Colonel  Stuart,  in  order  to  obstruct  free  trade  by 
means  of  them,  that  we  were  commissioned  to  address  ourselves  to  the 
King  on  the  subject ;  that  we  had  done  so,  and  set  forth  at  length  our 
reasons.  That  we  had  not  had  an  opportunity  of  addressing  these,  save 
to  the  Commissioners,  whom  His  Majesty  had  appointed  to  meet  us. 


138  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1589 

Praying  none  the  less,  that  the  said  Deputies  would  be  pleased  to  do  all 
in  their  power,  not  only  to  further  the  quick  despatch  of  our  business, 
but  also  that  a  good  and  favourable  answer  might  be  obtained,  all  which 
they  did  choose  to  perform. 

The  Deputies  of  the  city  of  Edinburgh  did  in  particular  greet  us ;  and 
on  the  next  Sunday  evening  invited  and  very  sumptuously  entertained 
us,  as  also  previously  the  Ambassador  of  England  had  done,  and  after 
him  M.  le  Baron  de  Wynes  [Wemyss  ?],  who  had  been  in  the  service  of 
the  King  of  Navarre,  and  who,  to  judge  from  appearances,  was  well 
disposed  to  the  States  and,  especially,  His  Excellency  of  Nassau. 

Thereafter  we  learned  that  the  Lord  Chancellor  had  propounded  our 
business  in  the  presence  of  the  King  and  the  Estates  of  the  Kingdom  at 
the  time  assembled ;  and  that  the  said  Estates  had  commissioned  three 
out  of  the  clergy,  three  out  of  the  gentlemen  and  nobles,  and  the  deputies 
of  three  towns,  viz.,  Edinburgh,  Tondien  [Dundee?],  and  Glasco.  And 
while  we  regretted  that  this  second  appointment  of  other  commissioners 
had  been  made,  we  nevertheless  thought  good  to  request  audience  of  the 
said  gentlemen,  especially  as  we  understood  they  had  received  full  powers 
from  the  King  and  the  Estates.  But  seeing  that  they  were  also  commis- 
sioned to  give  a  decision  in  regard  to  the  deed  of  the  gentlemen  who  had 
taken  up  arms,  as  well  as  of  the  marriage  of  the  king,  a  long  time  elapsed 
before  the  said  gentlemen  could  arrange  to  hear  the  Commissioners  who 
had  negotiated  with  us.  At  last  they  heard  them,  and  communicated 
everything  to  the  Session  or  Parliament  of  Scotland,  who  made  no 
further  resolution  than  that  the  writing  drawn  up  by  the  said  Colonel 
should  be  delivered  to  us,  and  that  in  regard  to  it  we  should  say  whatever 
we  deemed  best.  In  especial,  the  treaties  made  between  the  Kings  of 
Scotland  and  the  Princes  of  the  Netherlands  having  been  read  by  the 
said  gentlemen,  they  had  found  that  these  also  spoke  de  militibus  aut 
stipendariis,  and  that  as  regards  these  letters  of  marque  might  also  be 
granted.  While  neither  the  King's  Majesty,  nor  the  said  Commissioners 
of  the  Estates,  nor  the  members  of  the  said  Session,  nor  even  the  first 
Commissioners  made  any  objections  to  the  said  treaties,  nor  hinted  that 
they  concerned  only  the  Princes  and  not  the  States  [Netherlands]  ;  but,  on 
the  contrary,  they  plainly  acknowledged  that  the  said  treaties  were  to 
the  advantage  of  the  Provinces.  His  Majesty  and  the  said  gentlemen 
likewise  took  the  same  attitude,  and  acknowledged  the  provinces  as 
allies  and  confederates. 

And  in  so  far  as  in  the  last  contract  made  at  Bins  mention  is  made  of 
the  soldiers,  it  is  irrelevant,  as  the  said  treaty  lays  down,  that  in  case  the 
paid  soldiers  of  one  side  or  the  other  be  injured,  in  that  case  letters  of  mark 
should  be  granted  against  the  offending  parties.  But  this  has  no  relevancy 
here ;  for  although  Colonel  Stuart  and  his  regiment  had  been  wronged, 
which  is  not  the  case,  that  could  not  have  befallen  them  as  soldiers  in 
the  service  of  the  King  of  Scotland,  as  the  said  Stuart  and  his  Regiment 
were  soldiers  of  this  country. 

And  as  we  did  not  think  it  advisable  to  reply  to  the  writing  drawn  up 


1589]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS         139 

by  the  said  Stuart,  we  were  at  last  told  that  we  would  once  again  have 
audience  of  the  first  Commissioners,  except  that  in  place  of  Sceineus, 
who  was  engaged  in  the  business  of  Denmark,  would  be  substituted 
Lintseus,1  a  member  of  the  Session  or  Parliament. 

This  was  the  reason  that  on  the  13th  of  June  we  were  again  at  the 
Lord  Chancellor's,  complaining  of  the  delays  which  were  made  in  our 
case ;  and  of  being  detained  with  the  ships  of  war,  which  ought  to  be 
serving  the  States  in  other  affairs  against  the  enemy.  That  we  could  not 
comprehend  how  there  was  any  need  to  hear  us  further,  as  we  had 
roundly  and  sincerely  disclosed  our  commission,  with  the  reasons  for  it. 
That  they  were  sufficient  to  show  at  once  that  the  letters  of  marque  had 
been  obtained  by  evil  and  underhand  means ;  and  that  the  said  Stuart 
ought  to  have  pursued,  and  still  ought  to  pursue,  his  claims  in  the 
Netherlands ;  that  we,  nevertheless,  would  not  refuse  to  receive  such 
reply  or  other  writing,  and  the  other  documents  which  the  said  Stuart 
had  promised  to  hand  over  so  as  thereanent  to  report  to  our  principals 
and  superiors  ;  especially  since  therein  were  contained  many  allegations, 
and  many  documents  were  given,  of  which  we  had  received  no  informa- 
tion, nor  could  receive,  seeing  that  Your  Lordship  had  not  seen  them 
before.  That  we,  therefore,  and  for  many  other  reasons,  which  we 
mentioned,  prayed  that  His  Majesty  would  be  pleased  to  give  us  final 
dismission,  and  that  the  said  Lord  would  be  pleased  to  do  his  best  to 
obtain  it.  To  which  the  said  Chancellor  replied  that,  as  we  declared 
that  we  had  no  further  instructions,  he  also  thought  that  any  further 
audience  or  conference  was  unnecessary ;  and  that,  accordingly,  he 
would  report  everything  to  the  King,  and  obtain  for  us  our  final 
dismission  as  soon  as  the  King,  who  was  gone  for  one  or  two  days' 
hunting,  should  return. 

In  the  interval  there  was  delivered  to  us  the  writing  of  Stuart,  as  well 
as  various  documents  which  he  thinks  serve  his  purpose ;  of  which,  on 
the  one  hand,  he  gave  us  a  memorandum  in  his  own  handwriting,  and, 
on  the  other  hand,  we  made  a  certain  inventory. 

And  as  some  of  the  said  documents  are  original,  we  acknowledged 
faithfully  that  they  had  emanated  from  the  States-General ;  but  declared 
that  they  were  irrelevant,  for  reasons  stated  by  us  at  length. 

The  said  Colonel  Stuart  founded  greatly  on  certain  contracts  of  the 
22nd  and  23rd,  made  in  Delft  in  the  year  1580 ;  and  said  that  in  virtue 
of  them  he  had  been  drawn  from  a  very  good  garrison  of  the  State  of 
Brussels,  through  remaining  in  which  he  would  certainly  have  received 
his  payment,  and  that  he  was  quartered  in  a  vile  place,  viz.,  at 
Vilvoorden. 

That  in  these  United  Netherlands  were  many  rich  and  powerful 
merchants,  and  that  this  was  a  greater  reason  that  each  of  them  should 
give  something  to  pay  his  valid  arrears  rather  than  that  he  and  his 
regiment,  and  many  widows  and  orphans,  should  any  longer  be  dis- 


1  John  Lindsay,  parson  of  Menmuir,  a  Senator  of  the  College  of  Justice,  father 
of  first  Lord  Lindsay  of  Balcarras. 


140  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1589 

appointed.  That  he  would  not  like  to  take  up  arms  against  those  whom 
he  had  so  long1  helped  to  protect;  and  that  he  hoped  that  no  cause 
would  be  given  him  to  do  so ;  with  other  reasons  of  the  same  kind. 

The  King  having  returned  did  through  Mr.  Melville  recommend  to  us 
the  widow  and  orphans  of  Henry  Balfour ;  and  the  present  husband  of 
the  said  widow  and  a  brother  of  the  said  Balfour,1  with  his  two  children, 
came  to  us,  and  delivered  to  us  a  copy  of  the  record  of  their  claims.  We 
replied  to  them  that  we  had  no  instructions  with  regard  to  those  and 
other  similar  matters,  but  that,  nevertheless,  in  order  to  please  His 
Majesty,  and  in  consideration  of  the  faithful  services  rendered  by  the 
said  late  Henry  Balfour  to  the  country,  we  would  be  very  willing  to 
make  a  favourable  report. 

Thereafter,  namely  on  the  17th  of  the  said  month,  after  several  solici- 
tations, and  after  the  Ambassador  of  the  Queen  of  England  had  spoken 
to  the  King  in  reference  to  our  business  and  recommended  to  him  a 
speedy  settlement  thereof,  the  King  sent  for  us,  to  give  us  our  reply  and 
final  dismission.  On  that  occasion  we  appeared  before  the  King  in  the 
Presence-Chamber,  in  the  afternoon  at  two  o'clock  ;  and  after  due 
homage  and  reverence,  we  summarily  recounted  what  had  up  to  the 
present  been  done  by  us,  and  said  that  we  were  expecting  nothing  else 
from  His  Majesty  than  a  gracious  reply,  in  accordance  with  the  proposi- 
tion made  by  us  and  what  was  just  and  reasonable,  and  as  was  expected  by 
us  from  our  firm  confidence  in  His  Majesty's  wisdom  and  prudence.  We 
also  added  the  recommendation  of  the  State  of  this  country,  and  the 
offer  of  every  possible  and  humble  service. 

To  which  His  Majesty  gave  us  a  reply  and  dismission  in  the  form 
recorded  in  writing.  But  as  we  found  a  grievance  in  the  period  of  two 
months,  we  explained  to  His  Majesty  that  we  hoped,  notwithstanding, 
that  it  was  not  His  Majesty's  intention  to  bind  our  principals  to  it 
strictly.  His  Majesty  furthered  declared  that  he  would  not  make  a 
point  of  that,  and  he  desired  to  be  advised  of  further  resolutions  as  soon 
as  possible  after  the  expiry  of  said  time,  wind  and  weather  serving. 

The  said  Stuart  having  been  informed  of  this  answer,  complained  that 
His  Majesty  had  granted  two  months,  after  we  should  have  given  in  our 
report  and  been  discharged  from  our  commission.  And  this,  when  His 
Majesty,  to  please  the  said  Stuart,  as  we  also  took  care  to  do  in  the 
missive  written  to  their  Highnesses  the  Estates,  and  which  we  take  back 
with  us,  altered  many  things,  as  is  plain  from  the  tenour  of  the  said 
missive  and  from  said  verbal  answers  and  dismission. 

On  the  following  day  we  took  leave  of  the  Chancellor,  commanding  to 
him  the  affairs  of  these  lands. 

And  seeing  that,  during  all  the  time  that  we  were  in  Scotland,  we  had 
received  no  tidings  of  the  six  horses  which  we  had  been  ordered  to 
present  to  His  Majesty,  and  that,  nevertheless,  everywhere  at  Edinburgh 

1  Duncan  Balfour,  formerly  an  archer  of  the  Scots  Guard  in  France,  and 
younger  brother  of  Colonel  Henry  Balfour,  was  in  1582  tutor  to  his  sons  William 
and  Henry.  He  is  described  in  1592  as  'bailie  in  St.  Andrews,  brother  to 
Colonel  Bartilmo  Balfour.' 


1589]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        141 

as  well  as  Leith,  there  was  a  report  that  we  were  commissioned  to  present 
His  Majesty  with  some  horses,  and  that  the  King  and  all  the  Court  had 
information  about  it,  we  saw  fit  to  explain  the  circumstances  briefly  to 
the  Lord  Chancellor,  namely  that  the  horses  had  been  shipped  in  another 
quarter,  and  that  the  orders  about  them  had  been  given  to  Captain 
Balfour,  in  order  that  the  said  Lord  Chancellor  might  kindly  excuse  us 
to  the  King,  as  we  did  not  doubt  that  the  horses  would  (save  for  possible 
accident  at  sea  or  otherwise)  arrive  very  soon.  The  Lord  Chancellor 
replied  that  he  would  always  hold  the  affairs  of  these  lands  in  favourable 
recommendation,  and  that  the  King,  his  lord  and  master,  would  also  be 
pleased  to  do  the  same  in  all  conceivable  circumstances,  not  only  on 
account  of  the  common  trade  and  religion,  as  well  as  their  relations  as 
neighbours,  but  also  on  account  of  the  treaty  which  the  Queen  of 
England  had  made  with  our  Lands,  taken  in  connection  with  the  claim 
which  he  had  to  the  succession  to  the  Crown  of  England.  The  Lord 
Chancellor  made  no  remark  about  what  we  had  said  regarding  the 
horses  ;  and  we  then  took  our  leave. 

Thereafter,  we  went  to  Leith  on  the  following  day,  to  embark  with 
the  first  favourable  wind. 

There  the  Deputies  of  the  city  of  Edinburgh  came  to  see  us,  and 
explained  that  they  had  been  charged  to  bid  us  farewell  in  Edinburgh  ; 
but  as  we  had  left,  they  had  followed  us  up  chiefly  to  assure  us  that  the 
city  of  Edinburgh  had  no  other  wish  than,  along  with  the  other  towns 
of  the  kingdom,  to  maintain  good  relations  with  the  United  Netherlands  ; 
and  to  preserve  free  navigation  and  traffic.  Further,  that  some  grievances 
had  been  laid  before  them  by  their  citizens,  whose  goods  had  been  seized 
at  sea,  as  related  in  the  declaration  which  they  handed  to  us,  and  they 
besought  that,  at  the  earliest  convenience  of  the  country,  the  matter 
might  be  attended  to,  in  such  a  way  as  to  lead  to  the  reparation  of  the 
damage  suffered  by  their  citizens.  We  replied  that  they  might  be 
assured  that  on  the  part  of  the  United  Provinces  the  most  cordial 
relations  would  always  be  maintained,  and  that,  further,  we  would  not 
be  unwilling  to  report  about  the  said  grievances  ;  but  that  we  were  not 
authorised  to  receive  any  complaints  or  grievances,  as  we  had  only  been 
sent  to  point  out  the  great  wrong  which  Colonel  Stuart  was  seeking  to 
do  to  the  Confederated  Provinces,  in  virtue  of  certain  pretended  letters 
of  marque  of  his,  not  only  to  the  prejudice  of  the  said  lands  but  also  of 
the  citizens  of  the  said  kingdom,  as  the  free  mutual  intercourse  and 
traffic  would  thereby  be  entirely  hindered  and  ruined  ;  desiring,  as  had 
been  promised  us  before  by  the  said  city  of  Edinburgh  and  other  towns, 
that  they  would  always  do  their  utmost  to  prevent  it,  and  that  the 
inconveniences,  which  would  thence  arise,  might  be  averted. 

And,  as  the  wind  became  favourable,  we  embarked  on  the  same  day 
about  ten  o'clock,  and,  with  favourable  wind  and  weather,  arrived  on  the 
2Gth,  early  in  the  morning,  at  nine  o'clock,  in  the  harbour  of  Flushing. 

(s.)  JAN  VAN  DE  WARCK. 
LEONARD  VOOGHT. 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1593 


of  State. 


Visit  of  WILLIAM  STEWART,  as  Ambassador  from  the  King  of 
Scotland,  to  the  STATES- GENERAL. 

Resolutions  1593,  April  19. — Mr.  Stuart  having  come  as  Ambassador 
of  the  Council  with  credentials  from  the  King  of  Scotland,  both  to  the  States- 
General  and  to  the  Council  of  State,  and  having  delivered 
them,  and  communicated  orally  the  substance  of  his  charge, 
it  was  thereon  replied  to  him,  that  they  were  sorry  to  hear  of 
difficulties  in  the  affairs  of  Scotland  and  of  the  King,  but  were 
glad  to  know  that  things  are  now  better ;  that  they  begged  to 
thank  him  for  the  trouble  he  took  to  communicate  this  to 
them ;  that  they  will  commit  his  proposal  to  writing,  in  order 
the  better  to  attend  to  what  he  says  should  be  done  in  refer- 
ence to  his  principal  instruction ;  then  they  requested  from 
him  a  copy  of  it  alone. 


Council  of 
State. 


1593,  June  17. — Having  deliberated  on  what  was  done 
yesterday,  in  the  business  of  Ambassador  Stuart,  it  was  re- 
solved, that  the  said  Stuart  be  induced  to  come  to  the 
Council,  in  order  that  his  more  extended  knowledge  may  be 
at  their  service.  Whereupon,  having  come  to  the  Council,  he 
declared,  that  in  so  far  as  the  foresaid  troubles  in  Scotland  are 
concerned,  that  the  same  will  appear  clearer,  from  the  deposi- 
tion of  a  nobleman  in  Scotland,  lately  executed ;  which 
deposition  translated,  he  handed  over  some  time  ago,  to  the 
Advocate  of  Holland,  Barneveldt.  And  as  to  the  affairs  of 
Germany,  he  declares,  that  the  King  of  Scotland  being  in 
Denmark,  had  proposed  there,  that  peace  might  be  made 
between  the  King  of  Spain  and  other  Kings  and  Potentates 
and  Republics,  having  an  interest  in  the  religion.  But  should 
such  not  be  achieved,  that  as  a  counterpoise  to  the  King  of 
Spain's  ambition  for  monarchy,  a  counter-league  made  with 
the  Princes  of  Germany  was  needed,  to  whom  he,  Stuart,  says 
that  he  has  been  sent.  He  says  that  he  found  the  said  Princes 
very  favourably  disposed,  and  that  being  sent  chiefly  to  the 
Elector  of  Saxony,  he  also  showed  himself  very  favourable,  but 
persisted  in  the  opinion  that  the  Elected  Princes  were  by  their 


1593]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       143 

oath  prohibited  from  entering  into  any  league  without  the 
Emperor;  but  that  he,  as  well  as  the  other  Princes,  would 
give  every  assistance  to  the  league  existing  between  the  King 
of  Scotland  and  Denmark,  and  also  at  need  stand  by  the  King 
of  France,  and  help  in  action.  Further,  offering  to  hand  over 
the  deposition  of  the  executed  nobleman  to  the  Council,  if 
they  could  not  get  that  of  the  Advocate  of  Holland.  After- 
wards he  gave  in  writing  the  names  of  the  Princes  of  Germany, 
to  whom  he  had  been  sent — the  King  of  Denmark,  the  Elector 
of  Saxony,  of  Brandenburg,  the  Pfaltz,  Count  of  Brunswick, 
of  Wurtemberg,  of  Pommeren,  of  Hesse,  of  Mecklenburg 
d'Anhalt,  of  Luneburgh,  the  Administrator  of  Magdenburg, 
the  Duke  Jan  Casimir. 

1593,  July  3. — Stuart  delivered  his  credentials,  in   which  Resolutions 
much  was  written  about  the  intrigues  of  the  Jesuits  in  Scot- 
land,  with  a  proposal  for  forming  a  Protestant  counter-league 
against  Spain  and  the  Pope. 

[The  '  Instruction  pour  le  loial  et  bien  ayme  Conseiller 
Guillaume  [Stuart]  Commandeur  de  Pettywane,  dirige  a  Mrs 
les  Estats  Generaux  et  Conseillers  d'Estats  des  Provinces 
Unies,'  and  the  Answer  of  the  States  to  the  King,  dated  7th 
July  1593,  contain  nothing  directly  relating  to  the  Scots 
troops,  except  the  following  references  to  Colonel  Stuart's 
claims.] 

Extract  from  the  Instructions. 

'Quant  a  son  particulier  nous  esperons  que  tant  pour  le 
regard  de  noz  requestes  que  a  cause  de  ses  merites  vous  y  don- 
nerez  si  bon  ordre  que  tout  en  sortira  a  son  contentement : 
que  nous  sera  tant  agreable  que  daultant  plus  vous  accroisterez 
nostre  affection  a  ladvanchement  de  voz  affaires  dont  vous  avez 
particulierement  preuve  en  la  permission  de  faire  levee  et 
transport  de  noz  subiectz  soubz  la  charge  et  conduite  de  nostre 
conseillier  pour  vous  en  servir  par  dela  selon  vostre  requeste, 
que  ne  octroierions  point  si  amplement  voluntiers  a  daultres 
sans  son  advis.' 


144  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1593 

Extract  from  the  Reply  of  the  States 

"  Pour  aultant  que  louche  le  particulier  dudict  Sieur  Ambas- 
sadeurr  lesditz  Estats  ne  veuillent  pas  doubter,  ou  sa  Mate 
considerant  meurement  les  raisons  continues  en  leur  responce, 
et  lettres  escriptes  a  sa  Mate  le  douziesme  de  Novembre  qualtre 
vingtz  et  dix,  s'en  contentera  et  acceptera  lune  ou  lautre  pre- 
sentation.1 

19  July. — On  the  request  of  the  States- General  to  have 
advice  touching  the  private  claims  of  the  Mr  Ambassador 
Stuart;  the  Council  has  declared  as  their  advice  that  their 
Highnesses  should  account  the  business  and  request  of  the 
said  Stuart  of  very  great  importance,  and  of  peculiar  conse- 
quence ;  and  therefore  the  Council  find  it  difficult  to  come  to 
a  resolution  thereanent.  But  since  a  beginning  of  negotiations 
with  the  said  Steuart  has  already  been  made,  the  Council 
would  advise  that  it  might  not  be  inexpedient,  if  they  could 
make  an  agreement  with  him,  for  fifty  or  sixty  thousand 
pounds  (to  be  assigned  to  him  on  the  income  of  Brabant  at 
long  terms,  said  contribution,  however,  would,  on  account 
of  its  being  garrisoned  by  the  enemy,  be  likely  to  come  in 
even  very  sparely.  Provided  it  take  place  as  secretly  as  could 
possibly  be  managed,  as,  for  instance,  through  a  third  person  ; 
and  that  he,  Mr.  Stuart,  should  promise  on  oath  to  keep  the 
same  secret,  and  not  reveal  it,  should  also  deliver  up  the 
letters  of  marque,  and  bind  himself  and  promise  not  to  annoy 
or  oppress  the  inhabitants  of  the  Province,  in  any  way,  because 
of  this. 

July  21. — The  Messieurs  van  Oldenbarnevelt,  Vooght,  and 
van  de  Warck  report,  that  according  to  the  resolution  of  the 
States,  they  have  again  been  in  conference  and  communication 
with  Colonel  Stuart,  Ambassador  of  the  King  of  Scotland. 
And,  finally,  after  many  troubles  and  difficulties,  have  come  to 
an  agreement  with  the  same,  to  pay  him  the  sum  of  56,000 
guilders  in  all — 14,000  of  it  in  ready  money,  and  thenceforth 
from  year  to  year — likewise  14,000  guilders ;  the  conditions  to 
be  drawn  up  later  in  writing,  and  afterwards  inserted  ;  and, 
further,  the  said  Lords  Deputes  have  told  him,  that  his  hotel 


1593]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       145 

expenses  are  to  be  defrayed  at  the  Lands'  expense,  to  the 
extent  of  ^2400 ;  and  over  and  above  he  is  to  be  complimented 
with  a  gold  chain. 

1593,  July  21. — Read  and  fixed  the  act  of  transaction  made 
between  the  Lords  General  States  and  the  Colonel  Stuart, 
Ambassador  of  the  King  of  Scotland. 

'  Comme  il  ait  pleu  au  Roy  d'Escosse,  d'envoier  par  decha  vers 
Messieurs  les  Estats  Generaux  des  Provinces  Unies  des  Pays- 
bas,  le  Sr  Guillaume  Stouart,  son  Conseiller  et  Commandataire 
de  Pettewie  pour  son  Ambassadeur,  afin  de  leur  faire  ouverture 
de  sa  part  de  certaine  pointz  concernants  Testat  publicq  qu'il 
luy  avoit  donne  en  charge.  Aiant  sa  de  Majt6  aussy  recom- 
mande  aux  dts  Sieurs  Estats  les  pretensions  particulieres  du  dit 
Sr  Ambassadeur,  au  regard  desquelles  les  deputez  des  dits 
Estats  avoient  par  plusieurs  fois  estez  en  communication  et 
conference  avecq  luy  et  sont  finalement,  apres  plusieurs  diffi- 
cultez  representees  de  part  et  d'aultre,  tombez  d'accord  en  la 
maniere  que  s'ensuit.  Scavoir,  que  le  dit  Sr  Guillaume  Stouart 
promettra,  comme  il  promet  par  cestes,  pour  le  regard  que  les 
dites  provinces  unies,  scavoir  Gueldres,  Hollande,  Zelande, 
Utrecht,  Frise  et  Overyssel,  ont  tousjours  soustenu  qu'elles  ne 
sont  aucunement  obligees  pour  les  services  faictz  par  dela  la 
Meuse,  qu'il  ne  demandera  rien  aux  provinces  unies  pour  soy, 
ses  capitaines,  officiers  et  soldats  du  service  par  eux  faict  es  pays 
bas  avant  le  premier  de  Mars  xvc  soixante  dix  noeufF,  mais  en 
reservera  son  action  contre  les  aultres  provinces  qui  se  sont 
separees  et  tiennent  presentement  encores  le  partie  de  Tennemy, 
tenant  les  dites  provinces  deschargees  pour  aultant  que  besoing 
soit  de  tout  ce  que  pour  luy  ses  haultz  Officiers  et  aultres  de 
sa  Compagnie  Colonelle  pourroit  estre  pretendu  du  dit  service 
et  des  obligations  qui  en  ont  este  pour  ce  donner  et  oultre  ce 
le  dit  Sr  Stuart  a  faict  transport  irrevocable  aux  Srs  Estats  et 
a  leur  prouffict  propre,  comme  il  le  faict  encores  par  cestes,  les 
sommes  cy  dessoubz  expressees,  afin  qu'ilz  les  pourroient  re- 
couvrer  des  dites  aultres  Provinces  separees  par  telles  voies 
qu'ilz  trouveront  convenir  assavoir  les  arrierages  de  son  traicte- 
ment  de  colonel  et  de  ces  haultz  officiers  montantes  quarante- 
ung  mille  six  cens  septante  deux  florins : 

K 


146  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1593 

6  Item  de  sa  Compagnie  Colonnelle  soixante  six  mille  cent  et 
seize  florins. 

'  De  celle  du  Capn  Jacques  Stuart  mille  huit  cent  quarante 
huict  florins :  et 

6  d'Andrieu  Stuart  mille  huict  cents  cinquante  neuf  florins, 

6  Du  Capn  Tamson  dix  noeuff  mille  noeuff  cens  trente  neufF 
florins. 

6  et  du  Cap"  Anstruches  quinze  mille  cinq  cens  soixante  deux 
florins. 

'  Revenant  ensemble  a  la  somme  de  Cent  soixante  trois  mille 
florins  respectivement  pour  tout  le  temps  de  leur  service  depuis 
le  premier  de  Mars  1579  jusques  au  jour  qu'ilz  ont  ete  licenties. 
Aiant  a  ceste  fin  Iceluy  Sr  Stuart  promis  comme  il  promet  par 
cestes  de  faire  tenir  aux  Srs  Estats  et  de  laisser  en  leurs  mains 
les  originelles  lettres  de  represaille  contenants  la  somme  de 
six  cens  et  quatre  vingtz  mile  florins  qu*il  a  obtenus  sur  son 
nom  et  les  Capitaines  de  son  Regiment  de  Sa  Mat6  d'Escosse 
avecq  tous  les  aultres  enseignemens  aux  dites  lettres  servantes, 
dedans  le  terme  de  six  mois  prochainement  venants,  les  tenant 
des  a  present  pour  cassees  et  annullees,  sans  que  en  vertu 
d'Icelles  ou  aultres  semblables  on  pourra  pretendre  aucune 
chose  desdits  srs  Estats  ou  les  manans  et  inhabitans  des  dites 
provinces  unies  en  aucune  maniere.  Comme  de  faict  aussy  le 
Sr  Stuart  est  tenu  de  delivrer  aux  Estats  1'accord  faict  a  Delff 
au  mois  de  Janvier  Tan  quatre  vingtz  et  ung  avec  tous  les 
escomptes  qu*il  a  des  debtes  et  services  y  dessus  specificiees. 
Promestant  par  cestes  ulterieurement  de  tenir  la  main  vers  le 
Roy  d'Escosse  que  nulles  lettres  de  represaille  soient  doresna- 
vant  accordees  au  prouffit  de  qui  que  ce  soit  et  qu'il  aura 
tousiours  les  affaires  des  dites  provinces  en  bonne  recommenda- 
tion. Et  movemant  ce  que  dessus  ont  les  ditz  Srs  Estats  pour 
le  respect  qu'ilz  portent  a  sa  dite  Mat6  d'Escosse  et  le  desir 
qu'ilz  ont  a  luy  faire  service,  ensemble  de  complaire  a  la  nation 
Escossoise  et  de  traicter  avecz  le  dit  Sr  Guill6  Stuart  raisonable- 
ment,  estez  contens  de  promettre  comme  ilz  promettent  par 
cestes  de  furnir  et  faire  compter  a  iceluy  Sr  Guillaume  Stuart 
ou  a  ses  aians  cause  sans  aucune  defalcation  et  francq  de  tous 
arrestz  pour  le  regard  des  personnes  qui  demeurent  et  se 
trouvent  presentement  hors  desdites  provinces  unies  et  aultres 


1593]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       147 

de  la  nation  Escossaise  qui  ont  fait  service  soubz  sa  charge, 
la  somme  de  cinq  six  mille  florins  de  quarante  gros  pieces,  les 
quastorze  mille  contant  et  d'an  en  an  encores  quartorze  mille 
florins  jusques  a  la  parpaie  de  la  somme  de  56,000  florins,  la- 
quelle  ils  ont  assignee  et  assignent  par  ces  presentes  sur  leur 
Receveur  general  Philippe  Doublet  et  tel  aultre  qui  pourroit 
succeder  en  sa  place  afin  de  faire  le  d*  paiement  aux  termes  que 
dessus,  selon  les  quatre  ordonnances  qui  en  seront  depesches 
et  delivres  au  Sr  Stuart.  Obligeans  les  ditz  Srs  Estats  pour 
Taccomplissement  et  furnissement  de  ce  que  dessus  tous  et 
chacuns  les  biens  et  revenus  des  dites  provinces  unies,  et  le  Sr 
Guillaume  Stuart  sa  personne  et  tous  ses  biens  presens  et  ad- 
venir.  Remercians  respectivement  a  toutes  exceptions  et  subter- 
fuges au  contraire,  et  generalement  a  Texeption  partante  que 
generale  exeption  n'a  poinct  de  lieu  si  la  speciale  ne  precede. 
En  tesmoing  de  ce  ont  les  dits  Srs  Estats  ceste  faict  signer  par 
leur  Greffier  et  cacheter  de  leur  cachet  ordinaire  et  a  luy  Sr 
Guillaume  Stuart  signe  et  cachete  la  presente  de  son  nom  et 
armes.  La  vingtiesme  de  Juillet  Tan  mil  cincz  cens  quatre 
vingt  et  treize.  Soubzcript  par  ordonnance  des  ditz  Srs  Estats, 
signe  C.  Aerssens,  et  cachette  de  leur  cachet.  Etoit  aussy 
signe  William  Stuart  et  cachete  de  son  cachet.' 

July  28. — It  is  found  expedient  that  there  be  sent  to  the 
Agent  Caron,  the  copy  of  the  proposal  made  by  Colonel  Stuart, 
Ambassador  of  the  King  of  Scotland ;  also  of  the  replies  made 
to  the  said  Stuart.  Also  as  to  the  transaction,  which  was 
entered  into  with  his  Excy,  regarding  his  private  pretensions. 
And  he  be  told  by  letter,  that  he  must  hear  how  the  said 
replies  shall  taste  there  and  be  taken  up  and  endured.  And 
it  being  understood  that  the  said  Stuart  desires  to  journey 
through  England  to  Scotland,  his  Excy  shall  (on  being  re- 
quested) direct  further  and  assist,  so  far  as  lies  in  his  power, 
the  business  on  which  his  Excy  was  sent  hither  by  the  king ; 
and  shall  further  assist  himself  with  the  arguments  inserted  in 
the  foresaid  transaction,  and  so  far  as  he  may  understand  that 
in  England  this  transaction  is  likely  to  be  used  as  a  precedent  in 
respect  to  others  who  likewise  may  have  served  these  Lands. 

July  29. — Mr.  Ambassador  Stuart  came  to  take  leave  of 
the  Council,  thanking  them  for  the  good  resolution  which  the 


148 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1593 


Council  had  come  to  by  the  States-General,  as  well  as  in  refer- 
ence to  what  he  proposed,  on  the  part  of  the  King  of  Scotland, 
as  to  his  own  private  affairs  ;  promising  to  give  a  good  report 
of  all,  and  to  commend  the  affairs  of  these  Lands  very  strongly 
to  His  Majesty.  And  as  to  his  person,  he  proffered  all  good 
affection  and  service.  He  was  thanked  for  the  trouble  he 
took,  and  the  affairs  of  these  Lands  were  commended  to  him, 
and  he  was  also  requested  to  make  good  report  on  everything 
to  His  Majesty ;  with  the  offer  to  be  good  neighbours  with  His 
Majesty,  and  hold  his  Person  in  good  commendation. 


Book  of  In- 
structions 
given  by 
States- 
General. 


From  the  '  Second  and  Secret  Instructions  Jor  Adrian  Damman.'' 

[In  January  1594  Adrian  Damman l  was  appointed  Agent 
for  the  States  at  the  Scottish  Court.  In  his  Secret  Instruc- 
tions occurs  the  following  passage,  illustrating  the  value  of  the 
Scottish  troops,  and  the  conditions  of  their  earlier  service  :] 

'  It  having  been  the  case  for  some  time  that  proposals  have 
to  be  made  in  regard  to  the  service  of  the  soldiers  of  the 
Scottish  nation  in  these  lands,  you  are  to  endeavour  to  give  good 
information  on  their  employment  here,  being  every  way  pro- 
fitable to  His  Majesty  and  the  kingdom  of  Scotland,  and  that 
they  have  voluntarily  entered  the  service  of  these  Lands,  and 
that  no  proposal  shall  be  directly  or  indirectly  entertained  by 
which  they  shall  in  any  way  be  led  into  anything  against 
their  will,  or  anywise  be  hindered  in  their  service,  which  would 
be  to  the  great  disadvantage  of  the  common  Christian  interests, 
and  to  the  lessening  of  the  honour  of  the  Scottish  nation,  as 
well  as  of  the  favour  in  which  it  is  held  in  these  Lands.  You 
are  to  assure  them  that  not  only  the  foreign  nations,  who  are 
in  the  service  of  these  lands,  but  even  the  inhabitants  of  this 
land  are  not  better  treated  here  than  the  Scotch  have  been 
treated  during  recent  years,  but  that  it  is  impossible  during 
the  troublesome  and  difficult  wars  to  satisfy  everybody  accord- 
ing to  his  desire. 


1  Damman  made  himself  most  agreeable  to  King  James,  and  not  only  to  him, 
for,  the  usual  order  of  things  in  the  incidental  alliances  which  accompanied  the 
national  co-operation  being  reversed,  there  occurs  among  the  list  of  pensions  in 
1609,  '  Lady  Margaret  Stuard,  widow  of  Agent  Damman.' 


1594]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       149 

'  You  are  further  to  endeavour  to  make  them  clearly  under- 
stand over  there  the  difference  that  exists  between  the  States- 
General  of  the  United  Provinces  who  are  at  present  carrying 
on  war  with  the  common  enemy,  and  the  States-General  of  the 
Netherlands  who  on  the  Pacification  of  Ghent  carried  on  war 
for  some  years  with  the  common  enemy,  in  order  that  it  may  be 
clearly  understood  that  the  United  Provinces  are  not  implicated 
in  the  debts  of  the  States-General  of  the  Netherlands  for 
services  rendered  in  Brabant,  Flanders,  Artois,  and  Hene- 
gouwe.  That  the  confederated  or  United  Provinces  after  the 
Union  effected  at  Utrecht  divided  their  government  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Maas,  and  have  kept  it  separate  from  the 
Government  of  Brabant,  Flanders,  etc.  That  all  documents 
and  verifications  of  what  has  passed  in  the  government  of 
Brabant  and  Flanders  have  remained  there,  and  that  this 
government  has  no  knowledge  of  it. 

4  You  are  on  every  occasion  to  inform  us  of  all  occurrences 
that  concern  the  state  of  this  country,  and  communicate  all 
secret  business  in  cipher  or  in  some  other  secret  and  secure 
way.  Dated,  January  4th,  1594.' 

[In  June  1594,  Sir  William  Keith,  gentleman  of  the  King's 
Chamber,  and  Captain  William  Murray,  Provost  of  St. 
Andrews,  arrived  at  the  Hague  on  a  special  embassy  from  King 
James.  On  6th  June  they  presented  a  letter  to  the  States- 
General,  which  contained  the  following  passage  relating  to  the 
services  of  the  Scottish  troops :] 

'Finalement  il  souvient  a  Mess,  que  par  la  permission  et  Resolutions 

i     o    it  r  *  11  i  •  .  of  toe  States- 

conge  obtenu  de  Sa  Mate  un  grand  nombre  de  ses  subiectz  ont  General. 

ete  transportez  par  deca  pour  leur  service,  auquel  beaucoup 
ayans  finy  leurs  jours,  ceux  qui  restent  soubz  la  charge  de 
Mess,  estans  employez  comme  Messieurs  trouvent  expedient 
a  Thazard  de  leurs  vies  journellement  et  aultres  demeurans  en 
Escosse  comme  vieulx,  orphelins  et  ceux  qui  sont  faict'inhabiles 
par  la  guerre  se  plaignant  a  la  Mat6  de  leur  mauvais  traictement 
et  dilay  du  payement,  Sa  Mat6  se  voyant  journellement  fasche 
par  leurs  grievs  complaints  et  estant  touche  d'une  pitie 
naturelle  envers  ses  subiectz  a  trouve  bon  de  recommander 
iceux  a  voz  Seign.  et  qu'il  plairoit  a  Mess,  apres  avoir  compte 


150  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

avec  les  capitaines  et  commandeurs,  les  dormer  tel  contente- 
ment  de  leur  ,  come  leur  fidel  service  a  merite,  et  la 

requeste  de  sa  Mat6  faict  par  nous  en  son  nom  peuvent  procurer. 
Recommandant  en  particulier  les  affaires  de  Capne  Witschart, 
et  ceux  quy  nous  avons  en  charge  pour  recommander  par  bouche. 
Signe  W.  Keith,  W.  Murray.1 

[The  letter  addressed  to  King  James  by  the  States- General 
on  28th  June  1594,  conveying  their  congratulations  on  the 
birth  of  the  Prince  of  Scotland,  contains  no  reference  to  the 
Scots  troops  in  their  service. 

The  representations  made  by  the  Ambassadors  were,  however, 
referred  to  in  the  answer  of  the  States-General  to  the  King 
dated  1st  July  1594,  as  follows  :] 

6  Quant  au  pretendu  payement  des  services  faictz  a  ces  pays 
par  quelques  ungs  de  la  nation  Escossoises,  Lesditz  Estatz 
asseurent  sa  dicte  Mte  que  telz  ses  subiectz  ont  este  traictez  si 
favorablement  par  deca  pour  le  regard  dudict  payement  que 
aulcuns  aultres  de  quelle  nation  ilz  ayent  estez,  mesmes  beau- 
coup  mieux  que  aucun  de  ces  pays  et  que  pour  ladvenir  tandiz 
quilz  seront  en  leurs  service  ilz  continueront  a  leur  donner 
contentement  selon  que  sera  convenu  avec  iceux,  et  la  disposi- 
tion de  leurs  affaires  le  pourra  aucunement  permettre.  Ainsy 
que  nommement  a  aussy  este  faict  au  Capne  Witssart  pour  le 
regard  de  ce  que  luy  pourroit  competer  de  la  Generalite  estant 
en  quil  pretend  ulterieurement  de  la  ville  du  Bommel  une  chose 
particuliere  quy  ne  touche  aux  Estats  recommanderont  neant- 
moins  tres  voluntiers  son  faict  au  Magistrat  dicelle  ville  affin 
quilz  luy  donnent  tel  contentement  comme  en  raison  et 
equite  ilz  trouveront  convenir.  .  .  .' 

July  5. — On  the  request  of  Margaret  Penicuik,  widow  of 
Andrew  Murisson,  Scotsman,  brought  over  and  recommended 
by  the  Lords  Ambassadors  of  Scotland,  it  is  appointed  : 

Combien  que  les  Etats  Generaux  des  Provinces  Unies  des 
Pays  Ba»  ne  sont  en  aucune  maniere  tenus  au  payement  du 
pretendu  de  la  suppliante,  si  ont  ilz  toutefois  par  pure  com- 
miseration faict  presenter  a  Icelle,  comme  Ilz  presentent  encore, 
la  somme  de  cent  florins  une  fois,  saulf  qu'elle  promecte  de 
ne  les  plus  molester. 

On  the  request  of  William  Hunter   de  Menhal  about  pre- 


1594]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       151 

venting  him  holding  transfer  from  the  widow  of  David  Treyl 
[Trail]  over  the  service  arrears  of  the  same,  likewise  brought 
over  and  recommended  by.  the  foresaid  ambassadors  it  is 
appointed  : 

Les  Etats  Generaux  des  Provinces  Unies  des  Pays  Bas, 
aians  examime  le  contenu  de  ceste  requeste,  declarent  que 
apres  le  deces '  de  feu  le  capitaine  David  Treyl,  aiant  sa 
veufe  faicte  poursuite  pour  le  payement  des  arrierages  des 
services  du  d.  son  mary,  Icelle  a  este  grand  ement  favorisee, 
tellement  que  pour  ceste  consideration  et  que  lad.  veufe  est 
natifve  de  ces  pays,  elle  ne  debuoit  ny  peult  faire  aucun  trans- 
port valide  de  semblable  action  a  quelqu*un  estranger  au 
prejudice  de  Testat  ains  patienter,  comme  aultres  et  la  garder 
plustost  pour  une  assurance  du  douaire  promis  a  Icelle  par 
led.  feu  Capitaine  David  Treyl. 

On  the  request  of  Alexander  Wishart,  brought  over  as  afore- 
said, it  is  appointed: 

Les  Etats  Generaux  etc.  aians  examine  cette  deuxieme  re- 
queste du  suppliant,  declarent  qu'ilz  luy  ont  presente,  comme 
ilz  le  font  encores,  de  recommander  ses  affaires  au  Magistrat  de 
la  ville  de  Bommel,  affin  de  luy  donner  tout  raison  de  contente- 
ment,  comme  estant  un  faict  particulier  qui  aultrement  ne 
leur  touche.  Si  neanmoins  il  ne  se  contente  avec  ceste  de- 
claration, ains  ayme  mieux  poursuivre  sa  pretension  contre  le 
Magistrat  ou  quelques  autres  particuliers  par  voie  de  justice, 
sont  aussy  contens  de  recommander  a  la  cour  ou  Magistrat, 
ou  il  conviendrat,  que  brieve  et  bonne  justice  luy  soit  ad- 
ministree,  selon  que  en  droict  et  equite  sera  trouve  convenir 
au  pretendant  quelque  action  particuliere  contre  les  Estats 
de  Hollande,  de  Zelande,  s'il  la  desire  poursuivre  les  ditz 
Estats  generaux  luy  feront  toute  Taddresse  a  eux  possible,  la 
et  ainsy  qu'il  sera  besoing. 

July  5. — Received  a  letter  from  the  King  of  Scotland,  dated 
at  Edinburgh  the  last  day  of  April,  in  favour  of  the  widow 
of  Walter  Cant,  heir  of  the  late  Captain  David  Cant,  in  order 
that  the  same  should  receive  arrears  of  payment  for  services  of 
said  captain. 

Item.     Another  letter  from  the  foresaid  king,  dated  at  St. 


152  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

Croix  [Holyrood]  the  8th  May,  in  favour  of  the  son  of  the  late 
Captain  William  Renton  who  formerly  served  the  Lands  in 
Brabant,  regarding  arrears  of  payment  for  the  services  of  the 
same. 

The  Lords  Ambassadors  of  Scotland  handed  over  a  certain 
written  statement,  of  which  the  tenor,  hereafter  inserted, 
follows : 

(  A  Messieurs  les  Estats  generaux  des  Provinces  Unies  des 
Pays  Bas. 

4  Les  Ambassadeurs  de  Sa  Majeste  d'Escosse,  estant  en  charge, 
tant  par  leur  commission  que  par  credence,  de  recommander 
au  nom  de  Sa  Maj6  a  vos  Seigneuries  le  contentement  et  satis- 
faction de  ses  subiectz,  aiant  faict  service  en  ces  Pays  bas,  et 
considere  plusieurs  difficultez  qui  se  peuvent  mouvoir  en  la 
liquidation  d^icelles  debtes,  a  raison  qu'elles  sont  de  diverses 
natures,  prient  de  pouvoir  entendre  par  escript  Tintention  de 
voz  Sies  sur  les  pointz  suyvans. 

'  Scavoir,  comment  ilz  entendent  de  traicter  ceux  qui  sont  en 
arriere  pour  le  service  faict  par  dela  la  Meuse,  avant  la  ren- 
dition cTAnvers,  si  comme  les  heritiers  de  feu  Henry  Balfour, 
colonel,  et  de  feu  capitaine  Renton,  avecq  leurs  semblables, 
tant  vefues  que  aultrement. 

'Es  comme  ilz  entendent  avec  ceux  qui  ont  faict  service  par 
dela  la  Meuse  depuis  la  rendition  d'Anvers,  si  comme  les 
heritiers  de  feu  Capitaine  David  Treyl  et  leurs  semblables,  a 
ce  qu'ilz  puissent  donner  contentement  a  Sa  Maj6  sur  ce  faict.' 

Answer  of  the  States- General 

Which  writing  being  read,  it  is  thereafter  resolved  as 
follows : 

1594,  July  5. — Les  Estates  Generaux  des  Provinces  Unies 
des  Pays  Bas,  pour  satisfaire  a  la  requisition  de  Messieurs  les 
Ambassadeurs  du  serenissime  Roy  d'Escosse,  declarent  sur  les 
deux  points  de  cest  escript,  qu^ilz  ont  tousiours  soustenuz  et 
par  plusieurs  lettres  et  escripts  remonstre  aud.  Sme  Roy,  mesme 
par  Fenvoy  de  leurs  deputez  en  Escosse,  que  les  dites  Provinces 
Unies  n'estoient  aucunement  tenues  paier  aucunes  debtes,  si 
peu  des  services  des  gens  de  guerre  que  aultres  faicts  et  con- 
tractez  par  dela  la  Meuse,  pour  les  raisons  par  eux  amplement 


1594]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       153 

et  largement  deduites  et  alleguees  centre  les  pretensions  du  Sr 
Guillaume  Stuart  et  aultres,  lesquelles  Ilz  s'asseurent  que  Sa 
Mate  aura  advoues,  tellement  que  les  pretendans  denommez  en 
ce  premier  point  dud.  escript,  s'en  doibvent  contenter  sans 
qu'ilz  ont  matiere  de  pretendre  quelque  chose  contre  eux  pour 
les  services  faictz  par  dela  la  Meuze. 

Sur  le  IIe. — II  a  este  convenu  et  accorde  sur  quelques  con- 
ditions et  articles  avecq  les  Capitaines  Escossais,  sur  lesquelz 
ils  sont  entrez  avec  leurs  compagnies  au  service  du  pays  par 
de£a  la  Meuze,  lesquels  leur  ont  aussy  este  tenuz  et  satisfaictz, 
comme  ilz  le  seront  encores  tandiz  qu^ilz  seront  au  service 
desditz  Estats,  en  tant  que  la  disposition  de  Testat  le  pourra 
aucunement  permectre.  Et  pour  le  regard  des  arrierages  en 
sera  use  comme  font  tous  Roys,  Princes,  Potentatz  et  aultres 
Republicques,  en  reservants  les  payemens  d^icelles  jusques  a 
la  fin  de  la  guerre,  bien  entendu  advenant  qu^il  y  eult  aucun 
des  capitaines  qui,  ne  pouvant  attendre  ce  temps,  se  presentoit 
laisser  traicter  raisonnablement  et  qu^il  y  eut  quelques  con- 
siderations particulieres  pour  lesquelles  on  les  pourroit  ac- 
comoder.  Les  ditz  Estatz  monstreront  en  tel  evenement  aux 
Escossois,  comme  ilz  ont  tousiours  faict  plus  de  faveur  que  a 
aucune  aultre  nation. 

1594,  July  5. — On  the  report  made  by  the  Advocate  Olden- 
barnevelt  and  the  Recorder  Aerssen,  that  they,  on  the  footing 
of  the  foregoing  proposal  and  intentions  of  the  States,  as  to 
which  they  had  a  charge  committed  to  them,  fully  carried  out 
the  transaction  about  the  payment  of  accounts  which  was 
made  with  Sir  William  Murray,  Ambassador  of  the  King  of 
Scotland  in  Antwerp,  the  10  September  "83,  he  being  Captain 
of  a  Company  of  Scots,  and  to  be  paid  for  the  services  done 
by  him  and  said  Company  since  the  4  March  1582  till  the  last 
of  August  1583 ;  said  account  amounting  to  the  sum  of 
twelve  thousand  and  two  pounds,  ten  shillings,  and  ten  pence, 
on  the  same  footing  as  the  transaction  with  Colonel  Stuart, 
viz.  for  the  eight  and  a  half  pence,  a  sum  amounting  to 
fourteen  hundred  and  twenty-three  pounds,  fifteen  shillings, 
and  three  pence,  and  over  and  above,  as  a  complement  to  the 
sum  of  altogether  two  thousand  pounds ;  a  deed  of  transac- 
tion being  drawn  up  was  now  read  and  signed  by  the  foresaid 


154  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

Captain  Murray,  in  so  far   as   it  may  please  the   States  to 
approve  and  agree  to  the  same. 

The  foregoing  transaction  having  been  read,  the  same  was 
approved  and  ratified,  and  it  was  resolved  that  the  Receiver- 
General  should  be  commissioned  by  two  injunctions  to  pay 
the  said  two  thousand  pounds  out  of  the  moneys  received  by 
him  from  the  contributions  of  the  Provinces.  The  foresaid 
c£J1423,  15  s.  3  p.  in  discharge  of  the  foresaid  account,  and 
the  balance  of  the  said  £2000  to  be  employed  for  certain 
services  to  the  advantage  of  the  Land,  and  in  such  manner 
that  on  both  sides  it  is  promised  that  the  matter  shall  be  kept 
secret. 

[The  States,  who  had  been  invited  by  King  James  to  act  as 
sponsors  at  the  baptism  of  his  son,  sent  Walraven,  Lord  of 
Brederode,  and  Mr.  Jacob  Valcke,  Treasurer-General  of  Zea- 
land, to  represent  them  at  the  ceremony.1  Their  instructions, 
dated  19th  July,  contained  nothing  relative  to  the  Scottish 
troops,  but  their  Report,  given  on  7th  November,  on  their 
return  to  Holland,  contains  several  allusions  to  the  officers, 
and  is  of  such  general  interest  that  it  is  given  in  full.] 

Resolutions          1594,  November  7. — In  a  meeting  of  the  Sovereign  States- 

of  Holland.       General  a  report  was  made  by  the  Lord  of  Brederode  and  the 

Treasurer  Jacob  Valck,  of  how  they  had  fared  in  their  Legation 

in  Scotland,  and  thereanent  they  communicated  their  official 

statement  as  follows : — 

RELATION  of  what  happened  and  was  experienced  by  us  the  undersigned 
Ambassadors  of  my  Lords  the  States-General  to  His  Royal  Majesty 
of  Scotland,  in  and  during  our  legation,  from  day  to  day,  following 
the  new  style. 

It  having  pleased  my  Lords  the  States-General  aforesaid  to  commission 
us  Walrauen,  Lord  of  Brederode,  etc. ,  and  Jacob  Valcke,  Treasurer  of 
Zeeland,  to  travel  to  the  King  of  Scotland,  James  the  Sixth  of  that  name, 
with  Credentials  and  Instructions  consisting  in  three  principal  points : 


1  These  ambassadors  carried  '  magnificent  presents  to  the  infant  prince,  and 
an  annual  pension  for  life,  the  contract  for  which  was  presented  in  a  gold  box. 
.  .  .  On  the  departure  of  the  ambassadors,  1500  Scots  were  sent  over  to  Holland 
to  augment  the  Brigade. '—  Hist.  Acct.  For  a  full  account  of  the  ceremony  see 
Calderwood's  Historie,  vol.  v.  p.  342. 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        155 

to  wit,  in  order  to  assist  at  the  baptism  of  the  young  Prince  of  Scotland, 
to  renew  the  old  alliances  and  friendships  between  Scotland  and  these 
Lands  and  to  negotiate  a  secret  treaty  with  the  other  Princes  against  the 
usurpations  of  the  Spaniards  in  such  manner  as  stands  more  fully  related 
in  the  prescribed  Instruction.  So  it  came  about  that  on  the  first  of 
August  fifteen  hundred  and  ninety-four,  after  having  taken  leave  of  my 
Lords  the  States-General,  and  having  received  our  despatches  and  neces- 
saries, we  left  the  Hague  for  Veere,  arriving  there  on  the  third,  and  as  we 
did  not  find  the  ship  named  The  Dolphin  there,  and  also  learnt  that  the 
captains  of  the  two  pinnances  were  at  Zierikzee,  we  wrote  to  them  respec- 
tively, and  the  following  day  both  the  captain  of  The  Dolphin  with  his  ship 
and  the  other  captains  there  put  in  an  appearance,  and  thereafter  they  got 
everything  so  prepared  that  they  were  ready  to  sail  with  the  first  favour- 
able wind  :  so  indeed  we  embarked  on  Monday  the  eighth  of  August  and 
under  God's  protection  set  sail,  encountering  a  variety  of  wind,  weather, 
and  other  occurrences,  but  making  such  progress  that  we  arrived  on 
Saturday  the  thirteenth  of  August  in  the  roadstead  of  Leith  in  Scotland  : 
then  it  must  also  be  told  that  in  the  interval  an  accident  happened  to  the 
two  pinnances  of  our  voyage,  they  having  run  against  each  other  and 
damaged  each  other,  and  that  not  without  great  danger.  On  the 
thirteenth  foresaid,  seeing  we  could  not  for  lack  of  wind  and  tide  come 
ashore,  there  came  to  us  first  the  Agent  Dammen  and  thereafter  these 
gentlemen,  Mr.  John  Scheneus,  Advocate  Fiscal  of  the  King  and  Coun- 
sellor to  the  Queen,  Mr.  Robert  Deneston,  Keeper  of  Veere  [Campvere], 
and  Mr.  David  Lindesay,  minister  of  Leith,  with  four  of  the  King's 
trumpeters  :  and  after  having  congratulated  us  on  our  arrival,  in  a  good 
oration  in  Latin,  embracing  considerations  concerning  the  new-born 
prince,  and  this  having  been  briefly  replied  to  by  us,  we  stepped  into  their 
boat  with  this  company  and  rowed  to  land,  where  on  the  shore  waiting  for 
us  and  receiving  us  we  found  the  Lord  Baron  of  Carmicle,  chief  equerry  to 
His  Majesty,  and  the  gentleman  James  Melvin,  knight,  steward  and  coun- 
sellor to  His  Majesty,  with  nineteen  of  the  King's  horses  :  which  gentle- 
men, after  demonstration  of  our  being  welcome  took  horse  to  Leith  and 
we  likewise,  and  then  to  the  inn,  and  were  conducted  to  bedchambers 
since  dinner  was  being  prepared  on  the  part  of  the  King,  and  we  were 
requested  still  to  remain  a  day  there  at  the  King's  expense,  and  while 
doing  so,  we  advised  my  Lords  the  States-General  of  our  arrival. 

On  the  fourteenth  of  August,  being  Sunday,  we  were  conducted  by  the 
foresaid  gentlemen  and  the  magistrates  to  the  preaching,  where  places 
were  provided  for  us  with  spreads  and  cushions  of  velvet,  and  the  preach- 
ing in  Scotch  being  ended,  the  minister,  after  exhortation  to  the  people 
in  reference  to  us,  addressed  himself  to  us  in  the  French  language, 
thanking  us  in  the  name  of  the  church  for  the  honour  of  our  presence, 
and  then  he  briefly  repeated  the  substance  of  his  preaching,  and  we 
remained  and  lodged  at  Leith  that  day,  as  the  lodgings  at  Edemburgh 
could  not  yet  be  got  in  order  :  we  sent  accordingly  the  steward  Baten- 
burgh  to  Edemburgh  to  make  provision  for  the  kitchen,  but  he  reported 


156  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

that  he  had  been  told  by  the  counsellor  of  the  King  that  this  was  not 
necessary,  that  provision  was  made  on  the  part  of  the  King,  and  that  he 
was  commissioned  not  to  allow  anything  other  to  be  done  or  come  to  pass. 

On  the  fifteenth  about  midday,  after  dinner,  there  came  to  salute  us, 
besides  the  foresaid  gentlemen,  the  Lord  Steuardt  Prior  of  Planterre 
[Blantyre]  and  Counsellor  of  the  King,  the  Provost  of  the  town  of  Edem- 
burgh,  William  Hume,  with  the  Baron  of  Carmicle  and  others,  and  they 
convoyed  us  with  the  King's  horses  and  brought  us  into  Edemburgh  to 
our  lodgings  and  bedchambers  with  manifold  and  often  reiterated  proffers 
of  every  good  thing ;  and  declaring  our  coming  to  be  so  welcome,  yea  ! 
more  welcome  than  that  of  any  other  ambassadors,  both  to  His  Majesty, 
and  also  to  the  nobility,  the  church,  and  the  commons,  hoping  from  it 
some  special  virtue  and  service  to  the  religion  and  the  common  cause  : 
and  further  as  to  defrayment  it  has  been  provided  for  most  excellently, 
along  with  all  means  for  compliments  and  courtesies. 

On  the  sixteenth  of  August  we  found  good  to  proffer  our  greetings  to  the 
Lords  Ambassadors  of  England  and  Denmark  respectively,  and  to  declare 
that  we  should  willingly  come  and  greet  their  excellencies,  but  considering 
that  this  might  be  other  than  welcome  before  we  should  have  had  an 
audience  of  His  Majesty,  beg  that  the  delay  be  looked  upon  in  the  best 
light  by  their  excellencies,  and  so  also  that  apology  was  accepted. 

The  same  day  came  to  greet  us  the  ministers  and  church  council  of  the 
town,  very  heartily  testifying  their  gladness  and  pleasure  in  our  coming 
and  therethrough  hoping  and  expecting  much  good,  etc. 

The  same  day  we  received  a  letter  from  the  King  through  Captain  de 
Lachy  [Dallachy],  and  which  is  submitted  among  the  documents  belong- 
ing to  this  legation.  It  is  written  with  his  own  hand  and  the  contents 
bear  how  pleasant  our  coming  was  to  His  Majesty,  and  excuses  himself 
for  not  more  quickly  coming  to  see  us. 

On  the  seventeenth  some  of  the  forementioned  gentlemen  along  with 
the  Bailies  and  others  of  the  magistracy  came  and  fetched  us  and  con- 
ducted us  to  the  preaching  escorted  by  twelve  hallebardiers,  etc. 

On  the  eighteenth  as  it  was  announced  to  us  that  the  Ambassador  of 
England,  Sir  Boows  [Mr.  Bowes]  by  name,  along  with  those  of  Denmark, 
respectively  desired  to  greet  us,  we  sent  to  the  said  Lords  respectively 
excusing  ourselves  on  the  ground  that  we  following  our  devoir  did  not 
come  and  greet  their  excellencies  before  having  had  an  Audience  of  the 
King,  which  their  excellencies  respectively  took  in  good  part,  and  did 
thank  us  with  proffers  of  all  good,  and  expressing  great  desire  to  enter 
into  conversation  with  us.  Similarly  also  it  happened  with  regard  to  the 
Ambassador  of  Mecklenburgh  and  Brunswick,  and  he  of  Mecklenburgh 
sent  his  compliments  to  us  desiring  that  he  might  go  and  see  the  ships  of 
my  Lords  the  States  (that  we  came  over  in),  which  could  not  yet  con- 
veniently be  done,  as  said  ships  were  under  repair  in  the  harbour  of  Leith. 

On  the  twentieth  the  Lord  Chancellor  of  the  kingdom,  Metallamus 
[Maitland]  (having  come  in  late  the  evening  before  from  his  house  to 
Edemburgh),  gave  us  to  understand  that  he  would  come  and  greet  us,  and 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        157 

although  we  had  desired  ourselves  to  have  done  that  devoir  towards  his 
lordship,  he  was  pleased  not  to  suffer  it,  and  came  to  us  at  our  lodging,  and 
after  reciprocal  greetings  and  welcomes  he  entered  upon  discourse  about 
the  condition  of  the  United  Provinces  and  their  prospects  ;  how  highly  the 
friendship  of  my  Lords  the  States  was  esteemed  by  the  King  his  master, 
and  how  greatly  also  by  his  council,  that  therefore  they  had  caused  us  to 
be  invited  to  stand  as  witnesses  at  the  baptism  of  the  young  Prince,  and 
that  he  was  at  one  with  us  in  wishing  to  see,  in  opposition  to  the  unrigh- 
teous pretensions  and  usurpations  of  the  King  of  Spain,  some  good  treaty 
made ;  about  which  there  was  too  much  delay ;  that  likewise  they  had 
laboured  in  Denmark,  Mecklenburgh,  Brunswick,  and  with  other  Princes, 
by  commission  of  the  King  his  master,  especially  with  respect  of  the 
right  to  the  crown  of  England,  His  Majesty  standing  in  the  expectation 
that  thereanent  he  should  find  intentions  differ,  indeed  most  tending  to 
this,  that  any  one  of  the  said  King  and  princes  would  prefer  to  see  the 
others  go  before  them,  and  then  they  would  certainly  be  willing  to 
follow :  that  he  had  found  the  Council  of  Denmark  cool  in  the  matter 
because  of  the  minority  of  the  King,  and  likewise  the  said  other  princes, 
and  particularly  he  of  Brunswick,  who  intimated  his  house  was  in  alliance 
with  the  House  of  Austria,  which  alliance  he  on  his  part  would  not  will- 
ingly be  the  first  to  break ;  he  told  us  also  that  those  of  Venice  had 
given  hints  to  His  Majesty  about  a  treaty  against  the  King  of  Spain 
fearing  the  overgreat  power  of  the  same,  concerning  which  negotiations 
were  still  being  carried  on  at  the  present  time  by  certain  on  the  part  of 
His  Majesty,  sent  thither  with  answers  for  that  sole  purpose,  as  we  other- 
wise also  had  come  to  know.  Further,  he  said,  that  the  Duke  of  Florence, 
Mantua,  and  they,  were  thereto  agreeable :  to  all  which  was  said  by  us 
in  general  terms,  that  it  was  to  be  wished  that  the  Princes  and  Republics 
who  were  of  the  religion  might  in  such  a  manner  be  united  that  the 
King  of  Spain  with  his  partisans  might  be  worsted  in  his  projects.  That 
also  my  Lords  the  States  in  order  to  effect  this  will  neglect  no  means  in 
their  power  to  second  His  Majesty  and  other  princes,  etc.  His  lordship 
prolonged  his  discourse  on  the  same  subject  to  great  length,  and  related 
to  us  how  some  time  ago  when  the  Spanish  fleet  was  in  their  waters  that 
having  surprised  a  common  lyre  player  they  had  been  at  him  to  win  him 
over  to  the  allegiance  of  the  King  of  Spain,  and  to  corrupt  him,  saying 
that  the  purpose  of  the  said  King  of  Spain  was  nothing  more  than  to  take 
vengeance  on  the  Queen  of  England  for  the  ill  turns  she  had  done  him, 
that  he  would  not  interfere  with  Scotland  whether  in  religion  or  other- 
wise, desiring  to  give  to  the  King  thereof  good  reliable  promises  and 
assurances,  and  that  thereto  it  was  replied  by  his  Lordship  that  such 
moderation  in  the  proposals  was  most  unexpected,  and  that  the  Kingdom 
of  Scotland  too  much  dreaded  having  for  a  neighbour  so  mighty  a  prince 
as  the  King  of  Spain,  not  to  mention  the  diversity  of  religion,  and  more 
reasons  besides ;  and  discourses  pertinent  to  the  subject,  touching  some- 
times upon  the  intentions  and  policy  of  the  Queen  of  England,  etc. 
Thereafter  his  lordship,  with  great  demonstrations  of  affection  for  my 


158  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

Lords  the  States  and  their  affairs,  took  respectful  leave  of  us,  not  wishing 
in  any  wise  to  be  escorted  by  us,  we  caused  his  lordship  to  be  convoyed 
by  some  noblemen  to  his  lodging,  and  he  departed  the  same  day  to 
Strevelingen. 

The  twenty-first,  being  Sunday,  the  magistracy  of  the  city  in  solemn 
procession  with  other  gentlemen  of  his  Majesty's  council  conducted  us  to 
the  preaching  and  thence  homewards  again. 

The  twenty-second  August,  the  said  gentlemen  and  magistrates  con- 
ducted us  in  solemni  formi  to  the  place  of  studies,  where  some  students 
in  philosophy  orated  and  disputed.  With  them  was  (and  among  others 
the  young  Count  of  Gowre  disputed)  my  Lord  Setton  who  accompanied 
us  and  the  other  said  gentlemen  homewards. 

The  same  day  very  late  in  the  evening  some  gentlemen  of  the  council, 
namely  the  abovenamed  Prince  of  Planterre  and  Sir  Robbert  Melvin,1 
Treasurer-Depute,  being  come  from  Strevelingen,  came  to  announce  and 
excuse  that  the  day  of  the  baptism  was  again  postponed  to  Sunday  the 
five  and  twentieth  August  old  style,  as  His  Majesty  had  received  tidings 
of  the  coming  of  the  Ambassador  of  France ;  desired  that  they  would 
take  the  delay  in  good  part  and  declared  that  if  said  Ambassador 
should  not  by  that  time  have  arrived  they  would  not  put  off  longer. 

The  twenty-third  of  August  nothing  special  happened  or  was  done 
worth  remembering,  except  that  we  caused  the  blanks  in  the  letter  of 
De  Reuter  to  the  young  prince  for  a  godchild's  gift  to  be  filled  up  with 
the  name  of  the  Queen,  in  these  words,  Anna  Fille  de  Denmarcque,  in 
gold  letters,  which  the  open  space  demanded,  and  so  well  is  it  done  that 
there  is  not  the  smallest  difference  between  these  and  the  other  letters  or 
observable  in  the  combination.  We  acted  as  may  easily  be  understood  as 
best  might  uphold  the  honour  of  our  country  in  regard  to  the  nurse  and 
others  placed  around  the  young  prince. 

On  the  twenty-fourth  we  were  conducted  by  the  Baron  of  Carmickle, 
Equerry  of  His  Majesty,  with  the  King's  and  other  horses,  outside  to  the 
fields,  to  take  a  turn,  fully  about  thirty  horses,  accompanied  by  the 
Councillor  Melvin,  the  Conservator,  the  brother  of  the  Earl  of  Orkney 
and  the  son  of  the  Count  of  ...  Abbot  of  ...  In  this 
excursion  we  saw  a  beautiful  country  domain,  well  cultivated,  and  so 
towards  evening  we  came  again  to  our  lodging. 

The  twenty-fifth,  the  Lord  Ambassador  of  England  came  to  greet  us 
with  presentation  of  all  good  things  and  services  that  were  in  his  power, 
wishing  that  we  might  have  had  an  audience  of  the  King,  and  that  he 
would  be  free  to  have  some  conference  with  us,  letting  us  know  that 
he  was  given  to  understand  that  the  King  would  be  in  the  town  the  next 
day  and  that  we  should  then  obtain  an  audience.  Next  day,  the  twenty- 
sixth  August,  we  conveyed  our  thanks  to  the  said  Lord  Ambassador,  for, 
in  especial,  his  good  affection,  and  the  trouble  he  had  taken  which  he 


Afterwards  first  Lord  Melville. 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS         159 

had  done  (so  he  had  declared  to  the  Agent  Dammen)  on  the  said  twenty- 
fourth,  when  we  did  ride  out  for  a  tour  (notwithstanding  his  previous 
indisposition  and  that  he  is  very  old),  he  had  sat  on  horseback  having 
sought  to  meet  us  in  the  field,  having  even  gone  as  far  as  the  Aby 
Fountain  without  meeting  us,  which  we  were  sorry  for,  besides  that 
we  also  desired  very  much  to  confer  with  his  excellency,  and  touching 
the  arrival  of  the  King  that  it  was  very  agreeable  to  us  to  understand 
the  same  and  to  get  an  audience  to  shorten  our  stay,  and  to  allow 
occasion  to  confer  with  his  excellency.  We  also  took  steps  to  ascer- 
tain what  opportunity  there  might  be  to  return  through  England  if  it 
should  be  agreeable,  time  and  business  permitting.  Having  learned  the 
same  day  and  ascertained  that  the  rumour  of  the  King's  arrival  had 
proved  vain,  nothing  came  of  it,  and  vexing  ourselves  that  time  was 
slipping  away  and  nothing  being  done,  we  deliberated  among  our- 
selves whether,  to  save  time,  it  would  not  be  well  to  communicate  to 
the  Lord  Chancellor,  who  that  evening  had  arrived  in  the  town,  the  pre- 
liminaries on  the  point  of  the  confirmation  of  the  aforesaid  Treaty,  and 
also  to  get  to  know  what  further  intentions  might  be  entertained,  and  so 
we  had  planned  to  send  to  his  Lordship,  when  the  Lord  Conservator  of  the 
Scotch  nation  at  Veere  (who  otherwise  was  always  much  with  us  com- 
plimenting and  making  addresses)  came  to  say  that  the  said  Lord 
Chancellor  had  begged  to  come  to  us,  and  after  usual  greetings  to  say  to 
us  that  seeing  His  Majesty  was  well  aware  the  loss  of  time  would  vex  us, 
his  lordship  had  come  into  the  town  and  desired  along  with  some 
gentlemen  of  the  Council  to  come  and  confer  with  us,  so  as  to  gain  time 
and  put  through  preliminaries  while  His  Majesty  was  otherwise  occupied 
at  Streveling,  the  which  we  declared  would  be  very  agreeable  to  us, 
besides  that  we  in  pursuance  of  our  devoir  would  wait  on  his  lordship. 
To  this  it  was  answered,  that  this  was  for  important  reasons  not  desired 
by  his  lordship,  and  that  he  would  come  to  us.  We  acted  upon  the 
hint  of  his  lordship  so  as  not  to  disturb  him  in  his  good  consideration 
and  expected  him  accordingly.  At  our  instance  the  hour  was  fixed  by 
his  lordship  at  full  afternoon,  then  on  account  of  other  occupations  of 
the  Council  it  was  remitted  to  the  following  day  at  ten  o'clock  forenoon. 
Here  and  at  intervals  there  was  brought  to  our  notice,  as  did  also 
formerly  happen  to  us,  on  the  part  or  indeed  in  the  name  of  the  Earl 
of  Bobwel,  that  by  some  nobleman  we  were  besought  to  intercede  with 
His  Majesty  in  behalf  of  the  proscribed  lords,  namely  the  Earl  of  Huntly, 
the  Earl  of  Angous,  and  the  Earl  of  Arol,  to  the  end  that  they  should 
enter  the  service  and  otherwise  strictly  bind  themselves  to  the  United 
Netherlands,  should  respect  the  King  and  obey  as  good  vassals,  and 
break  off  all  alliances  and  communication  with  the  King  of  Spain  and  his 
followers,  adding  that  on  the  part  of  Her  Majesty  of  England  they  were 
cordially  invited  to  that  course,  but  on  conditions  unacceptable  to  them, 
and  lastly,  desiring  to  be  reconciled  to  their  King,  and  would  prefer  to 
have  that  brought  about  by  other  means,  as  has  been  said :  that  they 
had  already  taken  some  steps  to  plead  with  His  Majesty,  that  such  a 


160  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

work  would  be  honourable.  Whereto  we,  after  mutual  discourse,  re- 
solved to  do  nothing  for  reasons  sufficiently  notour  and  should  we  be 
further  importuned  to  excuse  ourselves  in  the  same,  with  good  motives. 

On  the  twenty-seventh,  about  ten  o'clock  forenoon,  the  Lord  Chancellor 
with  the  Councillors  Melvin,  Treasurer,  and  Mr.  Steuard  aforesaid  came 
to  us,  and  after  customary  greetings  and  demonstrations  of  benevolence, 
the  Lord  Chancellor  commenced  by  declaring  that  His  Majesty  being 
aware  that  the  time  of  waiting  must  be  very  vexatious  to  us,  had 
charged  his  lordship  to  make  his  excuses  and  forthwith  to  enter  into 
conference  concerning  the  affairs  of  our  Land. 

We  answered  that  excuses  were  uncalled  for,  that  the  entertainment, 
recueil,  and  the  honour  done  us  were  indeed  such  that  the  delay  had  not 
caused  us  annoyance,  although  we  were  extremely  anxious  that  our 
business  should  be  pushed  on  so  that  we  might  return  home  as  soon 
as  possible,  but  that  we  also  were  well  able  to  take  into  consideration 
that  His  Majesty  (like  other  princes)  had  important  affairs  in  hand  and 
other  reasons,  wherethrough  everything  could  not  take  place  on  the 
appointed  time  and  day.  In  this  we  willingly  expressed  our  content- 
ment, thanking  His  Majesty,  and  no  less  their  lordships  for  their  good 
care  in  advancing  the  business  and  in  order  to  accomplish  that  which  we 
were  authorised  to  confer  anent.  And  first  of  all  we  related  that 
although  the  Agent  Dammen  was  not  included  by  name  in  our  com- 
mission, etc.,  yet,  nevertheless,  as,  after  our  departure,  the  continuation 
and  prosecution  of  the  business  would  be  confided  to  him  (as  Agent 
General)  request  was  made  that  it  might  please  their  lordships  that 
the  said  Dammen  might  be  present  at  the  conference.  Whereupon  the 
Lord  Chancellor  highly  commended  the  good  conduct  of  the  said  Agent, 
and  declared  that  he  found  it  good  and  necessary  that  he  should  be 
present,  and  so  it  was  decided.  Having  accordingly  therefore  entered 
into  conference  (the  affair  of  the  baptism  of  the  young  prince  having 
been  remitted  reckoning  there  was  time  for  that  after)  the  renewal 
of  the  old  treaties  between  Scotland  and  the  Netherlands  tendered  by 
His  Majesty  was  first  spoken  of,  for  which,  while  we  expressed  our 
thanks,  we  have,  following  our  Instruction  brought  down  the  application 
of  the  same  to  the  year  fifteen  hundred  and  fifty,  whereupon  the  Lord 
Chancellor  pointed  out  that  the  foresaid  treaty  had  been  mutually  kept 
unbroken,  having  none  the  less  had  a  sole  existence  of  a  hundred  years  : 
that  also  the  questions  out  of  which  the  foresaid  treaty  and  others 
originated  were  not  caused  by  either  of  the  contracting  parties,  but  by 
others,  their  respective  allies,  that  being  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the 
contents  of  this  one  there  should  therefore  be  no  difficulty  in  confirming 
said  treaty ;  and  having  in  reference  to  it  exhibited  the  Instrument  de- 
spatched by  my  Lords  the  States  including  the  Insertion,  the  which  were 
carried  to  his  lordship's  house  by  the  Agent  Dammen,  but  it  came  to 
pass  that  it  was  not  then  sealed  as  his  lordship  departed  to  Strevelingh. 
The  said  Chancellor  did  in  the  said  conference  principally  discourse  at 
length  on  the  expediency  and  necessity  of  a  common  league  of  the 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        161 

princes,  devoted  to  the  religion  against  the  superstitions  of  the  King  of 
Spain  and  his  adherents ;  of  the  manifold  devoirs  by  his  King  through 
him  and  others  to  various  Kings  and  Princes  in  Germany,  favourable 
thereto  without  hitherto  much  fruit :  also  of  the  minority  of  the  elect 
King  of  Denmark  as  well  as  that  some  other  princes  said  they  were 
in  alliance  with  the  House  of  Austria,  and  about  not  wishing  to  be  the 
first  to  break  off,  etc.  Whereupon  we  answered  that  all  the  world  knows 
how  my  Lords  the  States  have  continuously  during  many  years  carried 
on  war  against  the  Spanish  tyranny,  that  they  did  not  doubt  in  ought  of 
the  good  intention  and  inclination  of  their  lordships  to  so  good  a  cause, 
provided  that  it  was  carried  out  along  with  others,  with  the  goodwill  of 
the  Queen  of  England,  with  whom  for  her  sake  they  were  ready  to 
come  into  closer  communication  under  the  oversight  of  the  other  Kings 
and  princes ;  that  that  was  their  commission,  and  after  that  had  been 
promised  and  confirmed  as  good  and  adviseable  by  the  said  Lord 
Chancellor,  the  conference  thereupon  took  end,  and  we  thereafter  went 
together  to  dinner  and  the  Chancellor  departed  in  the  afternoon  to 
Strevelingh  as  aforesaid.  On  the  days  immediately  following  nothing 
specially  worthy  of  note  occurred,  only  that  on  the  twenty-ninth  we 
wrote  to  my  Lords  the  States,  and  besides  that  the  day  of  the  baptism 
was  put  oif  because  of  the  diverse  and  uncertain  tidings  about  the  Am- 
bassador of  England,  and  that  it  was  hinted  we  were  to  go  to  Strevelingh 
on  Wednesday  the  last  of  August,  and  that  the  King  begged  us  not  to 
take  it  ill  that  the  baptism  was  put  off  till  the  Sunday  thereafter. 
On  the  said  last  of  August  we  did  greet  the  Lord  Ambassador  of  England 
with  due  compliments,  and  hinted  at  our  departure  for  Strevelingh, 
hoping  that  after  our  audience  we  should  see  his  excellency  there 
and  speak  with  him.  In  answer,  thanking  us  with  reciprocal  compliments, 
he  let  us  know  that  he  likewise  would  willing  confer  with  us  on  matters 
touching  the  welfare  of  Christendom.  The  said  journey,  after  some 
hindrance,  was  begun  on  September  first,  and  we  came  in  the  evening  to 
Lisco  [Linlithgow],  and  next  day,  the  second  September,  we  arrived  at 
Strevelingh,  where  the  King  was.  Our  arrival  was  honoured  with  three 
shots  of  artillery  from  the  castle  and  the  King's  trumpeters  came  to  meet 
us :  we  were  escorted  on  the  road  from  Edemburgh  to  Strevelingh  by  various 
gentlemen  and  noblemen  thereto  appointed  by  the  King,  and  everywhere 
besides  we  met  with  many  civilities  and  kind  attentions,  specially  from 
the  Baron  of  Carmicle,  who  kept  us  provided  with  good  horses  as  far  as 
Strevelingh,  where  we  were  brought  to  our  lodging,  being  the  house  of 
the  Earl  of  Argeil,  where  we  were  well  accommodated  with  everything. 
The  Baron  of  Hetten,  Grand  Steward  of  the  King,  and  my  Lord  Laitdois 
[Lindores],  son  of  the  Earl  of  Rothes,  were  commissioned  by  the  King  to 
come  and  bid  us  welcome  and  they  announced  that  we  should  next  day 
have  an  audience  of  the  King  at  ten  o'clock  forenoon. 

On  Saturday,  the  third  September,  near  about  ten  o'clock,  the 
gentlemen,  my  Lord  Hetton  and  my  Lord  Landois  aforesaid  came  and 
fetched  us  and  conducted  us  to  the  audience  with  the  King,  which  took 

L 


162  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

place  in  the  court  of  the  Earl  of  May,  where  we  found  His  Majesty, 
assisted  by  the  Lords,  Duke  of  Lemice,  the  Earl  of  Marn,  the  Earl  of 
Montros  and  his  eldest  son,  the  Earl  of  Lencarne,  my  Lord  Hui,  My 
Lord  Sincler,  my  Lord  de  Levingston,  my  Lord  Hethone,  my  Lord 
Flammurgh,  my  Lord  Helvistone,  my  Lord  Semple  and  others.  We 
made  our  reverence  and  kissed  hands  and  with  suitable  compliments, 
from  my  Lords  the  States-General  delivered  our  credentials  to  His 
Majesty  having  made  known  the  reasons  of  our  coming  thither  in 
accordance  with  the  contents  of  our  instruction.  His  Majesty  answered 
thereto  in  substance,  saying  that  he  himself  had  been  moved  by  two 
special  reasons  to  call  and  invite  my  Lords  the  States  to  be  witnesses 
and  godfathers  in  the  baptism  of  his  first  son  the  Prince  of  Scotland, 
the  first,  because  of  the  fellowship  and  unanimity  of  the  religion  like- 
wise sought  by  other  Kings  and  Princes,  for  in  that  cause  the  States  of 
the  United  Netherlands  had  suffered  much,  arid  in  order  to  witness 
before  all  the  world  his  right  disposition  to  the  religion,  to  the 
confusion  of  those  who  had  asserted  otherwise  of  him  :  and  the  other 
reason,  owing  to  the  friendship  and  alliance  which  the  ancestors  of 
His  Majesty  had  maintained  during  a  long  period  with  the  Netherlands  ; 
that  our  persons  were  therefore  welcome  and  agreeable  to  him,  especially 
the  Lord  of  Brederode  as  being  a  descendant  of  the  family  of  the  Counts 
of  Holland,  to  which  His  Majesty  also  belonged,  or  was  also  descended 
from,  and  Valcke  as  an  honour  to  the  ambassage,  he  in  that  way  getting 
a  compliment :  further,  he  testified  very  lovingly  to  the  affection  borne 
by  His  Majesty  to  my  Lords  the  States,  and  afterwards  falling  into 
familiar  talk,  the  King  told  how  the  Queen  of  England  had  taken  the 
matter  peevishly,  and  that  she  was  complaining  to  all  Ambassadors  that 
His  Majesty  had  invited  my  Lords  the  States  to  be  witnesses  and 
godfathers,  thus  putting  those  who,  she  said,  were  her  subjects,  on  the 
same  footing  as  Kings  and  Princes;  and  that  thereanent  His  Majesty 
had  told  her  he  was  of  opinion  that  this  should  be  more  agreeable  to 
Her  Majesty  than  if  he  had  invited  the  King  of  Spain  for  that  purpose. 
Then  we  said,  that  Her  Majesty  had  no  ground  for  esteeming  so  little 
my  Lords  the  States  representatives  of  the  Sovereignty  of  Dukes,  Counts 
and  Lords,  much  less  to  name  them  her  subjects  ;  that  besides,  by  the 
treaty  entered  into  with  Her  Majesty  and  by  other  things  the  contrary 
was  sufficiently  evident.  His  Majesty  said  enough  about  that,  and  that 
it  was  a  woman  and  we  must  forgive  her  sex.1  Then  after  having  spoken 
a  little  about  the  affair  of  Groningen  and  the  war  in  the  Netherlands,  we 
took  our  leave  with  due  reverences  to  His  Majesty  and  other  principal 
princes  and  lords  there  present. 

In  the  afternoon  we  caused  it  to  be  made  known  to  the  Queen  that 
whenever  Her  Majesty  pleased  she  might  give  us  audience,  which  was 
remitted  to  the  next  day,  the  fourth  September,  between  two  and  three 
o'clock  after  mid-day,  in  order  that,  after  the  audience,  we  might  go  to 
dinner  with  Her  Majesty  and  the  King. 

1  King  Jamie  thus  had  his  revenge  for  the  Queen's  letter  of  1588  (p.  129). 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        163 

The  fourth  September,  after  mid-day  as  aforesaid,  the  gentlemen,  my 
Lord  Simple  and  Mr.  Alexander  Hesvistone,  came  and  fetched  us  and 
conducted  us  with  the  King's  horses  to  the  Castle  or  Palace  of  the  King, 
where  being  brought  into  the  presence  of  Her  Majesty,  and  having  offered 
her  fitting  reverences  and  kissed  hands,  we  presented  to  Her  Majesty  the 
compliments  and  recommendations  of  my  Lords  the  States  in  pursuance 
of  our  commission,  which  were  very  amicably  and  gratefully  received  by 
Her  Majesty.  Thereafter  Her  Majesty  proceeded  to  ask  after  the  welfare 
of  his  excellence,  Count  Mauritz  of  Nassau,  as  a  blood  relation  of  Her 
Majesty,  and  how  his  affairs  prospered.  To  which  we  answered  that  we 
knew  nothing  but  what  was  good,  that  we  did  not  doubt  but  that 
his  excellence  would  have  written  to  Her  Majesty  through  us 
had  he  not  been  engaged  at  a  distance  in  warlike  affairs  and  greatly 
occupied  with  the  siege  of  Groningen,  which  now  (by  God's  grace)  was 
taken.  Then,  after  some  more  informal  conversation,  we  took  leave  of 
Her  Majesty  and  were  conducted  to  the  quarters  of  the  young  prince, 
whom  we  saw  there  and  kissed  hands,  and  he  appears  to  be  a  very  fine 
thriving  child  as  can  be  seen  from  the  picture  of  him  we  brought  over 
with  us.  Thence  again  we  were  conducted  to  the  quarters  of  the  King, 
whom  we  found  in  company  with  the  Lords  Ambassadors  of  Denmark,  of 
Brunswick,  and  of  Meckelenburgh,  and  after  some  familiar  and  general 
conversation  on  diverse  subjects  we  went  in  to  dinner.  At  table  were 
their  Majesties,  the  Ambassadors  of  Denmark,  by  name  Christian  Barin- 
couw  and  Steijn  Bilde,  the  Ambassador  of  Brunswick,  named  Adam 
Crause,  the  Ambassador  of  Meckelenburgh,  named  Joachim  Bassewits, 
and  we  two  without  saying  more,  there  being  besides  there  present  many 
Lords-in-waiting,  namely,  the  Duke  of  Lennox,  the  Earl  of  Mar,  my 
Lord  Hum,  etc.  The  dinner  passed  off  with  many  good  and  joyous 
dances  of  His  Majesty  and  all  the  Lords  and  Nobles.  When  the  meal 
was  finished  His  Majesty,  not  without  great  pressing  as  we  were  present, 
set  himself  to  dance,  and  that  being  ended,  about  midnight  we  were 
brought  back  from  the  Castle  on  horseback  to  our  lodging. 

On  Monday  the  fifth  September  we  sought  out  and  saluted  with  befitting 
compliments  my  Lords  the  Ambassadors  of  Denmark  who  reciprocally  on 
their  part  met  us  therein  with  every  civility  and  compliments.  In  the 
interval  His  Majesty  did  invite  us  to  accompany  him  in  hunting  as  those 
on  journey  had  not  come,  for  reasons  before  mentioned.  About  mid-day 
we  went  again,  accompanied  by  various  gentlemen,  to  the  palace,  and 
after  some  familiar  conversation  with  His  Majesty  and  the  Lords  Ambas- 
sadors aforesaid,  His  Majesty  called  the  Ambassadors  and  us  apart,  saying 
that  he  wished  to  hold  a  consultation  with  us.  It  was  to  deliberate, 
according  to  custom,  with  the  godfathers  about  the  name  to  be  given  to 
the  young  prince.  Whereupon,  after  various  considerations  and  discourse, 
we  all  in  common  resolved,  after  having  respect  to  the  kinship  and  other 
things  besides,  on  Frederick  Hendrick,  Frederick  in  respect  of  the  grand- 
father 011  the  mother's  side  the  late  King  of  Denmark,  and  Hendrick  in 
respect  of  the  Duke  of  Brunswick  as  of  Meckelenburgh,  grandfather  of 


164  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

the  Queen  on  the  mother's  side ;  item,  that  the  King  of  France  is  also- 
named  Hendrick,  so  also  is  the  father  of  the  Queen  of  England,  although 
her  Ambassadors  were  not  yet  present.  His  Majesty  said  to  baptize  him 
with  the  name  of  Charles  Jacques,  but  without  wishing  any  heed  to  be 
paid  to  his  words,  he  being  of  opinion  and  so  many  others  that  the  name 
Jacques  was  unlucky,  and  he  had  for  good  reasons  given  up  Charles. 
A  festo  Bartholemes  1572.  Thereafter  a  dinner  was  given  by  their 
Majesties,  and  it  was  held  with  the  same  personages  and  in  the  same 
style  as  the  former  one  :  as  also  that  if  His  Majesty  in  hunting  should 
kill  a  stag  he  wished  that  we  should  eat  of  it  next  day,  following  up 
which  the  Ambassadors  of  Denmark  with  all  honours  and  joyousness  at 
the  pleasure  of  His  Majesty  invited  us  against  next  day  at  noon. 

On  Tuesday  the  sixth  September  we  went  as  abovewritten  to  dinner 
as  the  guests  of  the  Ambassadors  of  Denmark,  and  at  table  we  were 
invited  all  together  to  supper  at  the  Palace  in  the  evening  on  the  part  of 
the  Earl  of  Mar.  There  in  the  evening  we  all  compeared  and  were 
entertained,  and  during  supper  the  company  was  very  heartily  together 
and  well  served.  His  Majesty  came  there  as  prince  and  bore  himself 
very  happily  and  joyfully,  showing,  indeed,  towards  us  even  more  than 
to  the  others  his  good  inclination.  In  course  of  all  this  it  continued  to* 
be  the  resolution  of  the  King  to  have  the  baptism  done  next  day,  then 
one  other  day  it  was  put  off  because  of  the  Ambassador  of  England,  the 
Earl  of  Sussex,  who  was  only  to  arrive  this  day,  the  seventh,  in  the 
evening,  at  Strevelingh.  The  seventh  September,  being  Wednesday, 
we  were  the  guests  of  the  Lords  Ambassadors  of  Brunswick  and 
Meckelenburgh. 

The  eighth  September  we  went  out  to  hunt  in  the  Park  with  the  King, 
and  returning  thence  His  Majesty  gave  audience  to  the  Ambassador  of 
England,  and  thereafter  we  sent  to  the  Ambassador  Ordinary,  Mr.  Boos, 
in  order  (as  we  had  now  had  an  audience)  to  make  our  salutations  to  His 
Excellency  besides  to  the  Lord  Ambassador  the  Duke  of  Sussex.  This 
we  did  on  Friday  the  ninth  September,  and  offered  and  received  recipro- 
cally the  compliments  due  and  suitable  to  the  occasion,  remitting  further 
conference  to  a  better  opportunity. 

On  the  ninth,  as  aforesaid,  the  baptism  of  the  said  young  prince  was 
solemnised  with  all  ceremonies  and  solemnities  fitting  in  the  baptism  of  so 
high  a  prince,  as  preachings,  first  in  Scotch  and  afterwards  by  the  Bishop  of 
Iverdin  [Aberdeen]  in  Latin,  with  orations  in  Latin,  first  verses  and  there- 
after prose,  among  other  things  exhorting  the  Princes  and  States  whereof 
the  Ambassadors  were  present,  tanquam  actions  sponsoria  obligatos,  to  be- 
mindful  of  their  vows  in  regard  to  the  said  Prince  to  help  to  bring  him 
up  and  instruct  and  exercise  him  in  the  Reformed  Christian  Religion, 
and  the  name  was  given  Fredrick  Hendrick,  Hendrick  Fredrick.  Here 
we  may  note  that  the  King  had  caused  to  be  hung  over  the  heads  of  the 
Ambassadors  respectively  the  coats  of  arms  of  their  princes,  and  above 
us  (without  our  knowing  beforehand)  the  coats  of  Holland  and  Zeeland, 
and  thus  wrongly  done,  we  caused  the  same  to  be  taken  down,  and  had 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        165 

the  coats  of  arms  of  the  six  United  Provinces  that  belong  to  the  honour 
of  the  same  portrayed  in  forma. 

The  solemnities  being  accomplished,  and  the  name  of  the  prince  being 
repeatedly  announced  to  the  people  by  the  Herald  with  flourishes  of 
trumpets,  Largess  was  called  out ;  the  King  dubbed  sixteen  noblemen 
knights,  whereof  the  first  was  William  Stewart.  After  all  which  the 
Lords  Ambassadors  each  in  order  made  presentation  to  Her  Majesty  of 
the  godchild  gifts,  we  too,  in  accordance  with  our  commission,  and  Her 
Majesty  for  this  heartily  thanked  my  Lords  the  States.  Then  after  each 
had  gone  away  a  little  on  account  of  refreshments,  we  all  went  in  to  the 
Royal  dinner  and  banquet.  At  table  were  His  Majesty,  the  Queen,  the 
old  and  new  Ambassadors  of  England,  and  all  the  others  aforesaid,  in- 
cluding us,  without  saying  more,  and  everything  passed  off  to  the  evening 
with  cheerfulness. 

The  tenth  September  we  sent  the  Agent  Dammen  to  the  King  to  say  to 
His  Majesty  that  since  now  the  solemnity  of  the  baptism  of  the  young 
Prince  was  past,  and  we  should  very  much  like  to  return  home  at  the 
first  opportunity,  we  begged  His  Majesty,  if  it  should  please  him,  to  give 
us  his  further  commands  in  anything  or  to  deign  to  come  into  conference 
with  us  on  the  subject  lately  entertained  with  the  Lord  Chancellor,  or 
otherwise  we  held  ourselves  ready  to  proceed  in  accordance  with  His 
Majesty's  good  pleasure,  and  the  said  Dammen  reported  that  the  King 
said  that  the  matter  of  two  or  three  days  was  of  no  consequence,  and 
that  he  had  still  something  to  speak  to  us  about  and  that  the  Chancellor 
would  need  to  be  present  at  the  interview,  and  that  it  should  be  at 
Edemburgh,  and  that  he  had  given  the  Chancellor  orders  to  arrange 
for  that. 

The  eleventh,  being  Sunday,  the  King  let  us  know  that  we  were  to 
come  to  supper  in  the  evening  with  His  Majesty  and,  towards  evening, 
being  conducted  by  certain  gentlemen  of  the  Court  to  His  Majesty's  the 
same  said  to  us  before  supper  that  His  Majesty  had  been  much  hindered 
by  leavetakings  given  to  the  other  Ambassadors  who  had  been  there  a 
very  long  time.  Hence  we  were  detained  and  he  would  give  orders  that 
we  should  leave  next  day  in  the  afternoon  for  Edemburgh,  where  within 
five  or  six  days  His  Majesty  would  meet  us,  and  meantime  he  had  given 
orders  to  the  Chancellor  to  enter  into  conference  with  us  on  the  subject 
of  what  still  remained  to  be  done  as  regards  the  proposals  of  His  Majesty 
to  my  Lords  the  States;  His  Majesty  further  declaring  that  he  had 
spoken  with  the  Ambassador  of  England  about  the  League,  and  it 
appeared  the  Earl  of  Sussex  had  no  special  commission  on  that  point, 
but  the  Ambassador  Ordinary  certainly  had,  and  he  had  said  that  he 
had  still  something  to  speak  of  to  His  Majesty,  he  supposing  that  it 
would  be  about  that.  His  Majesty  indicated  the  right  to  the  crown 
of  England  that  was  due  to  him,  and  therefore  the  more  desired  to 
strengthen  himself  against  the  King  of  Spain  through  whose  tyranny 
his  kingdom  was  agitated  by  the  sedition  of  certain,  and  that  in 
especial  in  respect  of  the  religion,  which  His  Majesty  protested  he 


166  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

always  heartily  resolved  to  maintain,  as  he  (if  we  waited  ten  days 
longer)  would  cause  us  to  see  in  his  actions,  noticing  his  intended 
campaign  against  the  prescribed  lords  living  in  the  north  quarter. 
Further,  he  said  that  he  had  caused  representations  to  be  made  to  the 
Queen  of  England  about  the  League ;  that  she  did  request  His  Majesty 
to  send  the  Ambassador  to  the  Archduke  Ernestus  to  the  end  that  he 
should  not  raise  trouble  in  His  Majesty's  lands,  but  that  he  had  answered 
he  did  not  approve  this  course  for  divers  reasons,  the  said  Archduke 
being  no  more  than  the  lieutenant  of  the  King  of  Spain,  and  that 
it  would  be  a  long  time  indeed  before  he  would  get  any  despatches  on 
the  subject  from  Spain ;  thinking,  also,  that  if  such  request  were  made 
or  if  he  sent  on  that  account  that  the  Queen  of  England  would  therein 
find  cause  to  blame  him  as  if  he  had  something  else  going  on  under 
cover  of  it.  Further,  he  said  that  he  had  made  representations  about 
the  league  to  the  Ambassadors  of  Denmark,  Brunswick,  and  Meckelen- 
burgh,  and  that  during  the  winter  season  they  could  not  expect  any 
answer,  but  only  get  their  answer  as  time  went  on.  Thereafter  we  went 
to  supper,  namely,  the  King  and  Queen,  the  Ambassadors  of  Denmark, 
Brunswick,  Meckelenburgh,  and  we,  not  saying  more,  also  the  Ambas- 
sador of  England  had  been  to  dinner  unexpectedly  with  His  Majesty. 
The  supper  passed  off  with  good  discourse  and  services,  and  since  nothing 
worth  noting  has  happened  save  that  the  King  came  and  spoke  about  the 
Agent  Dammen,  testifying  extremely  well  of  him. 

.  On  Monday  the  twelfth  we  made  ready  for  our  departure  to  Lidlsho,  and 
there  came  to  us  my  Lords  the  Lord  Earl  of  Mar,  the  Baron  of  Tillieverme 
[TullibardineJ,  Steward  to  His  Majesty,  brother  of  Alexander  Murray, 
with  other  gentlemen,  Keith,  etc.,  recommending  to  us  very  specially  and 
particularly  the  said  Lord  Earl,  as  they  had  already  several  times  before 
done,  as  also  along  with  them  the  Baron  of  Hun,  the  person  of  the  fore- 
said  Alexander  Murray  their  cousin,  praying  that  the  same  might  be 
continued  in  the  good  grace  of  my  Lords  the  States,  and  thanking  them 
for  the  favour  already  shown  to  him  ;  and  we  again  repeated  the  offer  of 
all  possible  services  and  favours  to  His  Majesty  and  in  other  respects 
where  the  same  might  be  for  the  advantage  of  these  Lands ;  and  the 
gentlemen  aforesaid  honoured  us  with  their  presence  to  dinner,  the  said 
Lord  Earl  of  Mar  strongly  recommending  to  us  the  case  of  one  Peter 
Douwglas  that  justice  might  be  done  him  with  despatch,  according  to 
the  law  of  our  land. 

The  day  previous  the  Earl  of  Orkenay  did  state  to  us  that  some  of  the 
herring  fishers,  above  a  hundred  in  number,  had  been  guilty  of  much 
damage  and  insolence  in  one  of  his  islands,  requesting  remedy  therein, 
and  we  desired  that  the  complaint  be  pertinently  in  writing  given  to  us. 
in  order  that  my  Lords  the  States  might  be  provided  with  information  on 
the  matter ;  item,  we  had  also  a  visit  from  the  Lord  Schineus  by  com- 
mission of  the  King,  recommending  us  (but  with  great  protestation  of 
having  unwillingly  undertaken  to  do  so)  the  case  of  Alexander  Wichart, 
as  to  which  we  said  nothing  but  what  could  be  known  out  of  the  last 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        167 

Request  (whereof  a  copy  was  given  us  to  take  with  us)  with  the  Appostille 
of  the  Sovereign  States-General  in  reference  to  it,  wherewith  the  said 
Wichart  coming  in  was  no  way  contented,  we  remitting  everything  to 
the  good  discretion  of  my  Lords.  We  sent  the  same  day  to  the  Ambas- 
sadors of  England,  excusing  ourselves  for  not  coming  to  greet  or  say  adieu 
to  them  before  our  departure  from  Strevelingh  to  Edenburgh  hoping  to  do 
so  better  at  Edenburgh,  the  which,  the  said  Lords  received  with  thanks, 
etc.  And  so  we  left,  being  honoured  with  three  shots  of  artillery  from  the 
Castle,  and  so  to  Lidlsco  on  horseback,  where  we  arrived  in  the  evening. 

The  thirteenth  we  left  Ledtsko  and  arrived  in  the  evening  at  Eden- 
burgh,  where  on  our  arrival  we  were  greeted  with  three  shots  of  artillery 
from  the  Castle,  and  were  in  that  fashion  accompanied  by  the  lords,  the 
Baron  of  Carmicle,  Master  of  Horse  to  the  King,  the  conservator  as 
mostly  always  everywhere  the  said  Melvin,  the  said  Morray,  Captain 
Dellachy. 

On  the  sixteenth  nothing  happened  worth  telling  about.  The  Queen 
arrived  in  Edenburgh  on  the  fifteenth.  Nihil  actum. 

On  the  sixteenth  the  King  came  to  Edenburgh,  and  the  Chancellor 
gave  us  to  understand  that  on  account  of  various  considerations  he  had 
not  spoken  with  us  until  the  King  should  be  present,  but  that  now,  if  we 
wished  it,  he  would  proceed  with  our  business. 

On  the  eighteenth  the  Chancellor  gave  us  to  understand  through  the 
conservator  that  he  had  begun  to  review  the  treaty  of  the  year  fifteen 
hundred  and  fifty,  and  had  remarked  some  difficulties  which  on  the 
following  day  in  conference  should  be  laid  before  us. 

On  the  nineteenth  as  we  had  consented  and  asked  leave  to  go  and 
compear  at  any  place  the  Lord  Chancellor  would  be  pleased  to  designate, 
his  excellency  was  again  pleased  to  come  to  us  at  our  lodging  accompanied 
with  the  Lord  Melvin,  Treasurer,  and  the  said  Stewart  called  the  Planteyre. 
After  reverences  and  greetings  done,  he  narrated  in  somma  the  good  inclina- 
tion of  the  King  His  Majesty  to  my  Lords  the  States,  etc.,  and  that  he  had 
looked  over  the  Instrument  of  the  Ratification  of  the  Treaties,  and  in  par- 
ticular that  of  the  year  fifteen  hundred  and  fifty  inserted  finding  the  same 
to  be  relative  to  some  foregoing  and  in  particular  to  that  of  the  year 
fourteen  hundred  eight  and  forty  and  .  .  .  which  he  declared  that  it 
was  not  and  that  he  did  not  properly  know  its  contents,  desired  to  have 
a  look  at  it  if  we  had  it  by  us,  and  further  if  we  had  anything  more  to 
lay  before  him  we  might  do  so.  That  His  Majesty  and  the  Lords  of  the 
Council  were  well  inclined  to  please  us.  We  said,  as  we  explained 
formerly,  that  our  commission  consisted  in  three  principal  points,  the 
first  touching  the  baptism  of  the  young  prince,  which  now  by  God's 
grace  was  accomplished,  the  second  touching  the  renewal  of  the  old 
treaties  which  were  proffered  on  the  part  of  His  Majesty  and  thankfully 
accepted  by  my  Lords  the  States  in  the  form  shown  to  His  Highness, 
that  we  had  no  commission  to  do  anything  else  or  any  request  to  make, 
that  as  concerning  relative  matters,  we  exhibited  copies  we  had  in  our 
possession  that  they  might  be  inspected  by  His  Highness.  And  the  third 


168  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

touching  the  Centra-League  as  to  which  we  as  before  declared  were  com- 
missioned to  enter  into  conference  with  his  Majesty  or  his  Council  along 
with  the  Ambassadors  of  the  Kings  of  France,  England,  and  Denmark, 
provided  they  were  thereto  commissioned,  and  that  not  being  the  case  that 
we  could  not  enter  into  the  matter  singularly,  but  only  as  a  conference. 
And  that  if  it  pleased  their  excellencies  to  make  representation  concern- 
ing certain  points  in  the  manner  of  proposals  that  generally  their 
Highnesses  my  Lords  the  States-General  could  well  confide  in  their  good 
inclination  to  promote  the  common  best  of  Christendom,  the  which  their 
Highnesses  now  during  so  many  years)  continuously  had  opposed  in 
deadly  war  against  the  King  of  Spain  and  his  adherents.  Their  excel- 
lencies testified  that  in  this  they  had  been  well  pleased,  explaining  that 
the  business  might  be  carried  through  in  conjunction  with  the  other  kings 
and  princes,  especially  with  the  consent  of  the  Queen  of  England  and 
also  of  France,  whose  ambassador,  according  to  the  writing  which  he  said 
His  Majesty  had  thereanent,  was  expected  the  15th  October  next. 
Further  we  discoursed  on  the  necessity  for  the  said  League  as  we  did 
formerly,  and  before  the  breaking  up  of  the  said  conference,  after  other 
familiar  talk  we  discoursed  of  the  successful  carrying  through  of  their 
affairs  by  my  Lords  the  States,  namely,  concerning  the  taking  of  the  town 
Groningen,  their  equity  in  dealing  with  the  vanquished,  aiming  at  liberty 
and  exemption  from  the  tyranny  of  the  Spaniards,  etc.  We  prayed  the 
said  lords  that  a  final  resolution  might  at  the  first  be  come  to  as  we 
were  very  anxious  to  depart,  etc.,  having  promised  ourselves  to  do  so. 

That  evening  we  were  invited  to  supper  at  the  Earl  of  Orkenays  and 
were  very  royally  received  and  entertained  with  demonstration  of  good- 
will towards  my  Lords  the  States. 

On  the  twentieth  we  sent  the  Agent  Dammen  to  the  Chancellor  in  order 
that  he  might  by  all  possible  means  seek  a  good  and  short  leave-taking,  since 
now  the  Ambassadors  of  Brunswick,  Meckelenburgh,  and  Denmark  had 
gone,  having  sailed  this  day  in  the  morning,  and  the  English  one  was  also 
preparing  everything  for  his  departure.  That  our  waiting  on  was  very 
hindersome  to  us,  and  might  possibly  cause  suspicions  with  the  Queen  of 
England,  etc.  Whereupon  the  said  Dammen  reported  as  his  answer 
from  the  said  Lord  Chancellor  that  His  Majesty  had  promised  that  we 
should  receive  an  answer  at  latest  on  Thursday  the  twenty-second  of 
September. 

The  twenty-first  September  we  entertained  us  with  the  said  Earl  of 
Orkenay,  etc.,  Captain  Jan  Balfoer,  and  took  leave  of  the  Ambassadors 
of  England,  who  this  afternoon  took  formal  leave — I  mean  the  Earl  of 
Sussex  to  Her  Majesty — and  the  next  day,  the  twenty-second  September, 
the  Lord  Ambassador  the  Earl  of  Sussex  took  his  departure. 

During  this  interval  we  were  advised  by  the  Conservator  that  in  regard 
to  the  expediting  of  the  confirmation  of  the  old  alliances  and  friendships, 
certain  difficulties  had  come  to  the  surface,  which  we,  Colonel  Stewart 
being  commissioned  thereanent  to  explain,  understood  to  be  that  the 
Instrument  with  the  Insertion  held  that  the  King  through  his  Ambassador 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        169 

Sir  William  Keith,  etc.,  had  made  the  request  to  the  States  thereanent, 
which  the  Lord  Chancellor  afterwards  likewise  himself  said  was  the  case, 
and  though  it  was  so  (although  these  were  affairs  of  long  ago  and  charters) 
regard  must  be  had  to  the  reputation  of  the  King,  and  thereanent  it  was 
found  good  in  expedition  of  the  despatches  so  to  arrange  (that  the  busi- 
ness might  not  be  left  undone)  that  there  should  from  neither  side  be 
any  request,  and  on  that  matter  we  were  obliged  to  employ  our  commis- 
sion and  authorisation  in  order  to  renew,  etc.,  without  insertion  and  on 
this  followed  the  agreement  (our  original  commission  thereto  serving  us) 
in  accordance  with  the  copy  of  it  also  herewith  attached,  and  it  is  to  be 
noted  in  this  that  the  Lord  Chancellor  had  asked  us  in  what  name  the 
prescribed  agreement  had  to  be  drawn  up,  whether  of  the  whole  Nether- 
lands or  of  the  United  Provinces  only.  Whereto  we,  after  deliberation 
and  conference,  answered  on  the  part  of  the  United  Provinces  along  with 
others  that  in  future  might  be  willing  to  unite  with  them,  which  clause 
we  added  for  good  reasons  which  my  Lords  the  States  can  consider  for 
themselves.  Also  the  Lord  Chancellor  would  have  liked  much  that  in 
the  Instrument  given  by  us  on  the  part  of  my  Lords  the  States  there 
should  have  on  both  sides  been  inserted  mention  of  the  Provinces  that 
might  in  future  unite  with  them.  We  excused  ourselves  from  the  same 
as  having  no  special  instruction  for  that,  and  his  excellency  expressed 
himself  satisfied  with  that  answer. 

During  and  between  the  foregoing  conferences  the  King  did  through 
the  gentlemen  Knight  Stewart  and  Knight  Keith  appoint  us  an  audience 
on  the  twenty-third,  then  owing  to  other  important  occupations  of  His 
Majesty  the  same  was  put  off  till  the  next  day. 

The  twenty-fourth  September  we  sent  word  to  the  Lord  Chancellor  that 
we  begged  leave  to  come  and  say  adieu  to  his  excellency,  and  his  excellency 
let  us  know  that  he  was  coming  to  our  house  within  a  half  hour,  so  we 
went  to  him  and  he  accompanied  us  back  to  our  lodgings  and  there  took 
leave  with  very  good  assurances  and  demonstrations  of  his  affection  to 
my  Lords  the  States  and  understanding  of  their  affairs.  In  the  after- 
noon the  gentlemen,  Baron  of  Levinston,  Stewart,  and  Keith  came  on 
the  part  of  the  King  to  fetch  us  and  conduct  us  to  the  audience  with  His 
Majesty  in  the  palace,  where  after  fitting  reverence  done,  His  Majesty  in 
the  first  place  apologised  for  having  been  obliged  to  keep  us  so  long  detained 
because  of  the  despatches  of  the  other  ambassadors,  and  also  other  im- 
portant businesses  and  occupations.  He  earnestly  desired  my  Lords  the 
States  to  be  assured  of  his  good  inclination  towards  them,  highly  appre- 
ciating as  he  did  their  Highnesses  wise  and  prudent  conduct  of  affairs, 
together  with  their  upright  intention  of  furthering,  even  with  the  sword, 
the  freedoms  of  their  neighbours  without  other  pretension  in  regard  to 
the  same,  he  therefore  wished  them  all  good  prosperity,  and  so  as  His 
Majesty  had  brought  that  subject  before  us  he  earnestly  desired  that  my 
Lords  the  States  would  keep  up  a  closer  intelligence  and  correspondence 
with  him  than  had  hitherto  been  the  case,  he  having  sometimes  in  the 
•course  of  one  or  two  years  had  no  news  from  the  Netherlands,  and  if 


170  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

there  happened  to  be  anything  secret  or  of  importance  to  advise  him  of 
they  were  to  communicate  with  the  said  Sir  William  Keith.  Further  he 
said  in  reference  to  the  Centra-League  that  his  Ambassador  was  now  at 
the  Court  of  the  Queen  of  England  on  account  of  it,  to  endeavour  to 
dispose  her  thereto,  but  that  as  yet  he  had  been  unable  to  get  any  answer 
on  the  subject.  That  the  Ambassador  of  France  was  expected,  where 
from  the  intention  of  the  King  might  be  understood  and  that  His  Majesty 
at  that  point  could  not  act  in  the  matter  except  by  making  solicitations 
to  the  said  parties.  Thereafter  His  Majesty  said  he  had  good  reasons  to 
be  opposed  to  the  King  of  Spain  (though  he  was  not  like  my  Lords  the 
States  at  war  with  him),  that  verily  troubles  were  stirred  up  in  his 
state  by  his  money  and  intriguers,  and  indirectly  because  of  the  religion, 
on  account  of  which,  and  for  diverse  other  reasons  His  Majesty,  said  that 
it  was  his  interest  and  he  was  bound  to  keep  good  friendship  with  my 
Lords  the  States.  And  speaking  on  the  subject  of  the  Queen  of  England 
His  Majesty  said  it  might  not  be  amiss  if  we  (passing  through  England) 
should  take  an  opportunity  of  telling  Her  Majesty  about  our  negotiations 
and  all  that  happened  to  us  in  Scotland,  in  order  to  avoid  suspicions 
being  certain  that  Her  Majesty  was  informed  of  everything.  After  this 
His  Majesty  desired  his  greeting  to  be  made  to  my  Lord,  Count  Maurice 
of  Nassau,  in  the  hope  of  becoming  more  closely  acquainted  with  each 
other,  recommended  to  us  the  affair  of  the  late  Colonel  Henry  Balfour 
one  of  whose  sons  being  there  present,  and  thereafter  the  person  of 
Adrian  Dammen,  declaring  the  contentment  of  His  Majesty  with  the 
good  offices  rendered  by  him  in  informing  His  Majesty  and  instructing 
him  of  occurrences  of  affairs  in  the  Netherlands  in  which  every  one  was 
deficient.  Therefore  we  thanked  His  Majesty  for  the  audience  and  con- 
fidence, humbly  recommending  also  his  person,  and  after  some  more 
familiar  talk  we  took  leave,  with  reverences  to  His  Majesty  and  kissing 
hands,  and  His  Majesty  having  still  spoken  a  little  apart  and  turning 
to  Valcke  desired  that  he  on  the  part  of  His  Majesty  should  thank  the 
Sovereign  States  that  they  had  sent  such  a  gentleman  as  the  Lord  of 
Brederode  to  him.  Therewith  parting,  we  were  conducted  into  the  apart- 
ments of  the  Queen,  and  there  we  humbly  sought  permission  to  take 
leave  of  Her  Majesty  and  having  kissed  hands  and  recommended  the 
affairs  of  the  land,  Her  Majesty  graciously  thanked  us  recommending  to- 
us  the  person  of  Alexander  Morray  uncle  of  one  of  her  ladies-in-waiting 
there  present ;  item,  greetings  to  his  excellence  Count  Maurice,  and 
then  we  left  and  were  again  conducted  home  by  the  foresaid  gentlemen. 

The  twenty-fifth  of  September  we  had  all  our  affairs  disposed  for  the 
journey  so  as  to  set  out  (with  the  help  of  God)  the  next  day,  item,  Valcke 
paid  a  visit  to  the  Ambassador  Ordinary  of  England,  Boos,  and  took  leave 
with  the  due  compliments.  Afternoon  the  Lord  Keith  came  with  the 
Secretary  David  Foulis  and  brought  us  the  letter  of  His  Majesty  to  my 
Lords  the  States,  which  we  deliver  over,  along  with  this,  and  the 
despatches  aforesaid,  and  further,  His  Majesty  presented  to  each  a  gold 
chain  with  the  medal  of  His  and  Her  Majesties,  and  commended  us  with 
all  possible  courtesies  and  reverences  to  my  Lords  the  States. 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        171 

The  twenty-sixth  of  September,  the  wind  being  still  easterly,  we  set 
out  on  our  journey,  leaving  Edinburgh  on  horseback,  accompanied  by 
the  Earl  of  Orkney,  the  Knight  Keith,  the  Conservator  Melvin,  and 
specially,  the  before  mentioned  Baron  of  Carmicle,  who,  with  his  sons, 
kept  with  us  as  far  as  Berwick,  with  a  portion  of  our  suite,  the  greater 
portion  being  left  to  come  by  sea,  in  order  that  they  might  meet  us  in 
London,  sailing  with  the  first  favourable  wind.  We  having,  for  diverse 
important  reasons,  resolved  to  travel  through  England  by  land,  we  were 
honoured,  at  our  departure,  with  three  shots  of  artillery  out  of  the 
Castle  of  Edinburgh,  and  as  the  affairs  with  the  Earl  of  Bodwel  looked 
badly,  and  as  in  regard  to  his  plots  concerning  the  same,  conjectures 
were  disclosed,  His  Majesty  appointed  and  ordained  for  our  security, 
that  we  should  that  evening  be  conducted  to,  and  treated  as  guests,  in 
the  house  of  my  Lord  Sethori,  who  received  us  most  heartily,  and  further 
escorted  us  with  his  people,  likewise,  by  order  of  the  King,  to  the  house 
of  the  Baron  of  Bas,  who,  accompanied  by  noblemen  and  others,  met  us 
on  the  road,  and  conducted  us  to  his  house,  where  we  arrived  next  day, 
the  twenty-seventh  September,  and  were,  by  him,  well  received  and 
entertained.  Next  day,  the  twenty-eighth  September,  he  escorted  us 
with  the  same  convoy,  to  Barwyck,  where  the  Lieutenant-Governor,  Sir 
Cary,  came  to  meet  us  with  his  cavalry,  and  brought  us  into  the  town 
with  honours  of  artillery,  and  entertained  us  that  evening. 

The  twenty-ninth,  we  left  Berwick,  and  arrived  that  evening  at  Aen- 
wych  [Alnwick],  where  our  persons  were  lodged  and  entertained  by  the 
Governor.  Leaving  Aenwych  on  the  thirtieth,  we  arrived  in  the  evening 
at  New-Castle,  where  we  were  very  royally  received  by  the  Mayor,  with 
all  the  Magistrates  in  forma,  and  the  burghers  under  arms.  We  were 
entertained  and  lodged  in  the  Mayor's  house  with  great  demonstration, 
that  our  arrival  was  most  agreeable  to  them,  and  they  escorted  us  on  the 
first  October  to  Lamberen,  and  we  came  that  evening  to  Durham,  the 
second  October  to  Noorthalerton,  the  third  to  Yorck,  where  we  spent  the 
fourth  resting,  then  on  the  fifth  to  Donckaster,  the  sixth  to  Nieuwarck, 
the  seventh  to  Stanenfort,  the  eighth  to  Hontingtone,  the  ninth  to 
Waert,  the  tenth  to  Bednagin,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London,  to  the 
house  of  the  Lord  of  Schonewal.  On  the  eleventh  we  sent  word  to  the 
Grand  Chamberlain,  requesting  that  we  might  see  Her  Majesty,  and  that 
an  appointment  for  that  purpose  might  be  made  for  us. 

The  fourteenth  to  Nonsuch,  where  we  did  find  Her  Majesty,  who,  after 
fitting  reverences  made  with  explanations  of  the  reasons  of  our  coming 
thither,  and  thanks  for  her  favour,  declared  that  she,  on  her  part, 
thanked  us  very  much  for  having  undertaken  so  heavy  a  journey  in 
order  to  see  her,  and  in  the  same  way  it  was  very  agreeable  to  her  to  see 
us,  thereafter  having  entered  into  the  subject  of  the  affection  which  Her 
Majesty  bore  to  our  Lands,  and  always  would  bear,  and  therefore  she  was 
also  confident  that  they  would  seek  no  new  friendship,  so  as  to  forsake 
the  old ;  that  she  had,  with  great  joy,  heard  of  the  good  success 
of  the  States'  affairs,  in  especial  of  the  taking  of  Groningen,  and 


172  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

the  honourable  articles  and  conditions  granted  to  them  there ;  that  she 
was  half-jealous  of  the  honour  and  reputation  ;  that  the  States  conducted 
their  affairs  wisely,  more  so,  and  better  than  other  princes,  etc.  We 
replied  that  we  were  glad  to  understand  the  good  contentment  and 
pleasure  Her  Majesty  had  in  the  actions  of  the  States,  and  their  good 
success,  confessing  that  (after  God)  the  assistance  of  Her  Majesty  had 
helped  greatly  to  bring  matters  to  good  issues,  and  praying  that  Her 
Majesty  would  therein  continue,  and  that  from  this  she  might  mark  the 
upright  intentions  of  the  Sovereign  States,  and  that  we  considered  the 
jealousy  of  Her  Majesty  as  a  mark  of  her  greater  favour  and  affection 
that  is  the  best  possible.  Thereon.  Her  Majesty  began  to  speak  about 
what  was  said  of  her  by  certain,  that  she  wanted  to  be  at  peace  with 
Spain,  and  that  she  had  no  thoughts  of  the  kind,  nor  ever  should  have, 
and  that  she  was  too  great-hearted  to  pay  court  to  any  one,  Illaque  virgo 
virum  ;  that  old  though  she  was,  she  desired  court  to  be  paid  to  herself, 
and  earnestly  wished  us  so  to  say,  and  to  assure  the  States  that  she  would 
do  nothing  except  with  the  consideration  and  to  the  pleasure  of  the 
States,  as  was  fitting,  and  dwelt  forcibly  and  long  on  that  article  :  from 
that  going  back  upon  the  good  conduct  of  affairs  and  success  of  the 
States,  about  which  she  laughingly  said  that  we  Royalties  might  well 
take  occasion  to  be  jealous  of  such  good  and  wise  conduct,  that  the 
doings  of  their  Kings  were  a  mere  chronicle  of  follies ;  that  said  States 
were  now  rich  and  mighty,  and  able  to  second  other  people ;  that  now 
they  no  longer  needed  assistance  from  others,  sending  as  they  had  done 
to  Henry,  King  of  France,  three  thousand  infantry,  and  five  hundred 
horse  :  saying  that  she  was  not  aware  he  had  any  enemies  now,  and  in 
the  event  of  a  peace,  that  people  ought  not  to  have  suspicions  of  Her 
Majesty,  speaking  for  herself,  but  not  wishing  to  be  responsible  for 
others,  for  whom  she  would  not  speak.  We  said  that  we  did  not  know 
what  was  going  on  in  our  country  (as  Her  Majesty  said  she  could  well 
believe  that,  and  that  she  knew  better  than  we  what  was  passing  there), 
and  in  any  case  it  was  to  be  hoped  that  assistance,  such  as  had  been 
referred  to,  would  not  be  displeasing  to  Her  Majesty,  as  being  rather 
intended  to  bring  the  Walloons,  our  original  enemies,  to  reason,  which 
might  be  called  assisting  the  King  of  France.  Upon  which  Her  Majesty 
said  that  a  propos  of  this,  she  had  made  a  bargain  with  the  people  for 
no  longer  than  two  months,  and  they  wished  to  keep  them  so  much 
longer,  which  was  not  agreeable  to  her. 

That,  as  was  fitting,  she  took  care  of  her  subjects ;  that,  as  to  that, 
the  Jesuits  preached  that  she  delivered  over  her  subjects  to  the 
shambles,  and  spared  them  not  in  other  ways :  admonishing  about 
Madame,  the  Princess  of  Orange  being  now  at  Paris,  visiting  the  King, 
she  repeated  once  or  twice,  that  she  would  not  return  thence  this  winter, 
that  she  ought  not  to  leave  her  own  country  in  that  way ;  that  she  had 
left  her  little  son  in  the  Netherlands  as  a  pledge,  that  he  was  a  fine 
courageous  young  gentleman,  etc. ,  at  school,  or  studying  there ;  said 
that  she  understood  the  brother  of  his  excellency,  Count  Mauritz,  the 


1594]       REPORT  OF  DUTCH  AMBASSADORS        173 

Count  van  Buren,  had  arrived  out  of  Spain  in  the  Netherlands  :  besides 
this,  she  spoke  magnanimously  in  honour  of  his  excellency,  of  his  piety, 
wisdom,  and  other  good  qualities,  besides  also  praising  at  length  that  my 
Lords  the  States,  Madame,  the  Princess  of  Orange,  and  in  general,  the 
house  of  Nassau  did  themselves  much  credit  for  virtue,  that  thereby  they 
were  winning  for  themselves  a  great  reputation,  all  which,  as  before  said, 
it  would  be  ingratitude  not  to  appreciate.  Her  Majesty  said  ingratitude 
was  the  peccatum  in  spiritum  sanctum,  etc.  She  referred  also  to  the 
subject  of  our  journey  to  Scotland,  saying  that  her  Ambassador  had 
been  there,  and  he  recollected  that  a  chair  had  been  placed  for  the 
absent  King  of  France,  that  this  King  had  tried  to  keep  her  back  from 
sending  her  Ambassador  until  his  should  have  arrived  ;  that  she  would 
not  consent  to  do  so,  being  of  opinion  that  he  would  not  be  willing  to 
send  one  out  of  respect  to  his  Holy  Father.  Touching  the  King  of 
Scotland,  she  asked  whether  we  had  not  been  to  the  hunt  with  him  ; 
that  he  loved  hunting  exceedingly,  overmuch  indeed,  that  he  shunned 
no  labour  or  peril,  that  she  had  sent  him  many  horses,  as  many  as 
twenty,  that  she  truly  wished  he  would  spare  himself  in  that  somewhat, 
vowing  that  she  would  send  him  no  more,  although  he  bridled  them, 
fearing  that  some  accident  might  happen  to  him.  Further,  she  inquired 
about  the  situation  of  matters  in  Scotland,  and  thereafter  asked  us 
secretly,  whether  the  Ambassadors  of  Brunswick  and  of  Meckelenberg  had 
not  besought  us  for  assistance  in  behalf  of,  or  for  the  King  of  Scotland. 
To  which  we  declared  they  had  not,  and  in  order  to  tell  Her  Majesty 
sincerely  all  that  had  happened  in  Scotland,  we  said  that  our  commission 
referred  solely  to  three  points,  the  first  to  assist  at  the  baptism  of  the 
young  prince,  the  second  to  renew  the  foresaid  old  treaties  of  alliance 
and  friendship,  relating  particularly  to  commerce,  and  thirdly,  to 
negotiate  about  a  league  against  the  presumption  of  the  Spaniards,  but 
nothing  else,  and  only  provided  that  the  Ambassadors  of  Her  Majesty 
were  specially  commissioned  thereto,  and  that  concerning  these  matters 
likewise,  nothing  further  was  treated  of,  the  King  also  desiring  nothing 
more,  but  remitting  the  same  to  another  opportunity.  To  which  Her 
Majesty  answered  nothing  special,  and  said  that  she  was  then  to  under- 
stand it  was  nothing  more  than  a  general  league  that  had  been  meant  : 
and  from  this  she  passed  to  admonishing  us  that  some  princes  of  the 
Empire  and  others  commissioned  thereto  were  already  on  their  way  to 
visit  my  Lords  the  States,  with  the  object  of  furthering  a  peace  :  she 
asked  us  what  we  thought  the  same  might  be  likely  to  bring  about.  We 
said  that  my  Lords  the  States,  by  their  stedfastness  in  the  war  against 
the  Spaniards  during  so  many  years,  and  their  resolutions  in  diverse 
treaties  that  were  found  alone,  and  notably  not  long  since,  in  the  answer 
to  the  letter  of  the  Duke  Ernestus,  given  to  Hartiz  and  Coeman,  they 
had  given  it  to  be  well  understood  what  was  to  be  expected  of  the  peace, 
etc.  On  which  Her  Majesty  began  to  praise  very  highly  the  said  answer 
and  the  wisdom  of  my  Lords  the  States,  and  so  ended  her  talk.  We 
then  took  leave  reverently,  and  with  proffers  of  service,  in  doing  which 


174  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1594 

Her  Majesty  strongly  recommended  the  case  of  Colonel  Morgan,  and  so 
we  departed  to  Kingstone  for  the  night's  rest,  and  the  next  day,  the 
fifteenth  of  October,  returned  again  to  Budnal  Grin  foresaid,  where  we 
continued  living,  expecting  a  favourable  wind  for  crossing,  until  the 
twenty-fifth  October,  when  it  changed  to  a  good  quarter,  and  we  set  out 
for  Gravesend,  and  set  sail  the  same  evening,  and  after  some  wanderings 
at  sea,  we  arrived  at  Veere  the  twenty-eighth  October,  and  thence  we 
went  on  to  Middleburgh,  and  we  set  forward  again  from  there,  on  the 
second  of  November,  and  on  the  third  (with  God's  help)  we  arrived  here 
in  the  Hague  again. 

During  the  above  written  legation  in  Scotland,  we  were  solicited  on 
account  of  diverse  requests  and  grievances,  and  in  particular,  the  King 
begged  that  we  should  recommend  to  the  notice  of  my  Lords  the  States, 
the  case  and  pretensions  of  the  widow  and  sorrowing  children  of  the  late 
Colonel  Henry  Balfour,  to  his  arrears,  which  the  Bishop  of  Dunkeld, 
having  married  the  widow  of  the  foresaid  Balfour,  is  coming  in  person  to 
prosecute  the  claim,  notwithstanding  that  we  dissuaded  him. 

His  Majesty  did  similarly,  through  Mr.  Schenan,  recommend  the  case 
of  Captain  Alexander  Wichart,  to  the  end  that  justice  or  contentment 
might  be  done  him.  Item,  the  case  of  Captain  Mathias  Ralingh,  whose 
Request,  with  apostille  of  His  Majesty,  is  herewith  delivered.  His 
Majesty,  by  word  of  mouth,  further  recommended  to  us  all  his  subjects 
in  general  in  our  country,  being  in  arrears,  such  as  a  Captain  Jan  Balfour 
and  others. 

Herewith  are  submitted  the  complaints  of  Unfred  Grey  and  Francois 
Temont,  alleging  that  they  have  been  injured  by  certain  sentences  of  the 
Admiralty  of  Zeeland.  Item,  the  Remonstrance  of  Mr.  Jan  Tronand 
and  partners,  merchants  of  Edemburgh,  complaining  of  some  quantity  of 
hides  taken  from  them  at  sea,  and  seeking  restitution.  Lastly,  the 
Agent  Dammen  has  strongly  recommended  two  of  his  requests,  herewith 
submitted,  to  my  Lords  the  States,  the  one  touching  the  restitution  of 
the  debt  incurred  by  him  in  his  prison  at  Dunkirk,  and  the  other,  the 
increase  of  his  pay,  as  to  all  which  my  Lords  shall  be  pleased  to  do  what 
they  shall  find  to  be  fitting. 

Thus  reported  and  exhibited  at  a  meeting  of  my  Lords  the  States  at 
the  Hague,  November  1594. 

(Signed.)  W.  DE  BBEDERODE. 

JACOB  VALCKE. 

Diplomatic  [In  1595,  Denniston,  the  resident  Scottish  representative  at 

the  Ha£ue>  presented  certain  articles  to  the  States  the  last  of 
which  was  in  these  terms  :] 

'  Priant  tres  instamment  V.  S.  de  prendre  quelque  bon  ordre 
avec  Fhoir  et  veuve  du  feu  Capitaine  Trayll,  touchant  les 
arrierages  deus  au  diet  feu  Capitaine/ 


1595]       CLAIMS  OF  STEWART  AND  OTHERS       175 

[On  14th  February  1595  Sir  William  Stewart  of  Houston, 
having  again  arrived  at  the  Hague  as  Ambassador  from  the 
King  of  Scotland,1  had  an  audience  of  the  States-General  along 
with  Mr.  Denniston  the  resident  envoy.  Their  instructions 
and  the  reply  of  the  States  contain  no  references  to  the 
Scottish  troops,  but  the  Ambassador  seems  to  have  availed 
himself  of  the  opportunity  to  make  certain  arrangements  with 
regard  to  his  own  affairs.] 

May  8,  1595. — The  secretary  was  ordered  to  deliver  to  the 
Ambassador  Stuart  the  reply  of  the  States  to  his  proposal  made 
on  behalf  of  the  King  of  Scotland  with  the  Act  of  Approval 
of  the  former  Treaties  made  between  Scotland  and  this 
country,  referred  to  in  the  foregoing  reply,  and  asked  for  by 
His  Majesty.  In  consideration  of  certain  things  it  was  resolved 
to  defray  at  the  expense  of  the  country,  at  the  hotel  of  the 
Briel,  the  charges  and  expenses  there  incurred  by  the  two 
Ambassadors  of  the  King  of  Scotland,  who  were  lodged  there, 
to  the  amount  of  1500  guilders. 

At  the  request  of  the  said  Mr.  Stuart,  asking  the  Lords 
States  to  be  pleased  to  accept  such  assignations  as  he  has  made 
to  some  of  his  creditors  on  the  grant  of  the  14,000  guilders, 
which  will  fall  due  on  July  20th  next,  in  accordance  with  the 
agreement  made  by  him,  also  to  authorise  and  order  the 
Receiver-General  to  raise  on  his  (the  petitioners)  account,  on 
interest,  the  last  payment  in  full  a  like  sum  of  14,000  guilders, 
to  fall  due  on  July  20th,  1596,  in  order  that  therewith  he 
might  pay  such  arms  as  he  had  bought  in  this  country  for  the 
King  of  Scotland.  And,  thirdly,  to  grant  him  a  passport  to 
permit  him  to  transport  from  here  to  Scotland  500  muskets, 
300  corselets  and  fencing-pads,  and  500  pikes.  It  is  resolved 
and  granted  that  the  Receiver-General  shall  be  permitted  to 
undertake  to  pay  the  creditors  of  the  petitioner  to  whom  he 
shall  grant  assignation  on  the  payment  of  14,000  guilders, 
which  shall  fall  due  on  July  20th  next,  two  months  after  due. 


1  On  24th  December  1594,  Sir  William  Stewart  of  Houston,  Commendator  of 
Pittenweem,  was  sent  as  Ambassador  to  Flanders  on  *  sum  wechtie  affearis,'  and 
on  loth  July  1595,  he  reported,  and  was  thanked  for  his  'meritorious  proceed- 
ings.'— P.O.  Reg. 


176  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1595 

And  that  accordingly,  the  said  petitioner  may  negotiate  on  it. 
Regarding  the  second  prayer,  that  the  request  made  in  it  shall 
be  refused  and  declined  in  view  of  the  present  condition  of  the 
government  of  the  Lands.  And  regarding  the  required 
passport  for  the  transport  of  the  arms,  that  it  be  granted 
him. 

Note  with  reference  to  the  Mission  of  1594.  On  20th  May  1619,  at  a 
sitting  of  the  Privy  Council,  the  Earl  of  Melrose  produced  '  ane  blak 
round  buist,'  containing  the  commission  of  1594  to  the  Lord  of  Brederode 
and  Mr.  James  Walck,  and  the  confirmation  and  ratification  made  by  the 
said  commissioners  of  the  ancient  friendship  treaties  and  alliance,  and 
especially  of  the  peace  and  league  made  in  the  town  of  'Buiche'  in 
Hainault,  on  5th  December  1550,  dated  at  Edinburgh,  14th  September 
1594,  e  quhilk  buist'  had  been  sent  from  England  to  be  put  in  sure  keep- 
ing in  His  Majesty's  Register  within  the  Castle  of  Edinburgh.— P.  C.  Reg., 
vol.  xii. 


1594]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  177 


VI 

EXTRACTS  FROM  RESOLUTIONS  OF  THE  STATES- 
GENERAL,  LETTERS  OF  RECOMMENDATION, 
AND  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  SENT  TO 
THE  COUNCIL  OF  STATE. 

1594-1609 
1594 

Various  Appointments. 

March  29.— It  is  found  expedient  by  the  States-General,  Council  of 
on  the  recommendation  of  his  excellency,  that  some  one 
be  commissioned  and  authorised  as  Commandant  or  Chief 
over  the  Scottish  soldiers  in  the  field.  His  excellency  nomi- 
nated thereto  Captain  Murray;  and  that  therefore  a  pro- 
visional commission  be  granted  to  the  said  captain,  at  a  salary 
of  o^SOO  a  month  when  afield. 

November  21. — To  advise  the  States-General,  that  it  would 
be  expedient  that  a  Provost  be  secured  for  the  Scottish 
regiment,  which  was  done  under  Balfour  at  50  guilders  a 
month. 

January  17. — On  a  request  of  Captain  Hamilton,  pre- 
sented from  the  States- General,  advise  that  the  council  refuse 
it.  That  since  the  captain  has  done  all  in  his  power  to  send 
the  people  over,  but  transport  was  hindered  by  a  contrary 
wind,  that  there  be  given  him  in  addition  for  every  soldier 
three  Caroli  guilders,  without  the  same  being  made  a 
precedent. 

1599,  June  4. — At  the  request  of  the  captains  of  the 
Scottish  regiment,  the  transport  of  550  men  is  agreed  to  for 
the  twelve  Scottish  companies,  in  pursuance  of  the  decree  of 
his  excellency.  The  payment,  however,  of  the  same  is  not  to 


M 


178  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1599 

be  reckoned  higher  than  their  respective  fixed  strength,  viz. 
the  chief  flag  or  company  at  200,  and  the  rest  at  150  men  each 
company. 

On  a  letter  of  recommendation  from  Holland,1  a  commission 
was  obtained  for  the  cavalry  Captain  Edward,  as  colonel  over 
the  Scottish  regiment,  in  the  place  of  the  late  Colonel  Murray, 
at  the  same  salary  as  the  former  colonel  enjoyed. 

Letters  of  Recommendation  of  James  VI. 

Captain  Dallachy. 

states-General  MESSIEURS, — Jacoit  que  nous  sachions  la  gratuite  dont  vous 
usez  *  l'endroit  de  ceux,  qui  vous  ont  fidellement  servi,  esperon- 
nant  par  honnorables  recompenses,  ceux  qui  portent  les  armes 
pour  vous  a  exposer  d^autant  plus  hazardeusement  leurs 
personnes  a  tous  perils.  Si  est  ce  que  nous  n'avons  pour  cela 
laisse  d^assister  le  nubite  du  cappne  D^allachy,  homme  qui 
vous  a  en  tant  d^experience  d'annees  tesmoigne  sa  valeur,  et 
maintenant  reduict  en  sa  vieillesse.  Vous  priant  tant  pour  les 
raisons  mentionnees,  que  pour  Pamour  de  moy,  luy  user 
quelque  favorable  recognoissance  en  luy  monstrant  par  les 
effects,  que  ma  recommandation  ne  luy  a  este  infructueuse,  ce 
que  niesmouvera  dautant  plus,  a  regarder  de  meilleur  ceil  tous 
les  vostres,  que  par  semblables  services,  ou  en  vostre  contem- 
plation se  rendront  envers  nous  recommandables.  Priant 
Dieu  sincere,  Messieurs  et  comperes,  vous  donner  sa  ste  garde. 

JAQUES  R. 
De  Ste  Croix,  le  premier  d'April  1599. 

Colonel  Alexander  Murray. 

MESSIEURS, — Le  Collonnel  Alexandre  Mourray  s'en  retournant 
en  vos  pays,  apres  avoir  entierement  obtenu  de  nous  ce  que 
vous  nous  demandiez  par  les  vostres  n'avons  voulu  permettre 
qu'il  reprit  sa  brisee  sans  estre  charge  de  quelque  importante 
commission  de  notre  part,  comme  vous  entendrez  plus  au 
long  de  luy  mesme,  En  quoy  vous  prions  le  croyre  adioitant 
indubitable  croyance  et  foy  a  Taffaire  que  nous  luy  avons 
enioinct  vous  communiquer  en  nostre  nom,  comme  a  personne, 

1  The  Prince  of  Orange  had  recommended  Edmond  to  the  States  of  Holland, 
'  he  being  the  ablest  of  the  Scottish  captains. ' 


1599]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  179 

qui  ne  cede  a  aucun  vivant,  tant  pour  le  regard  du  naturel 
debvoir  envers  son  prince  quen  desir  de  vous  servir.  Et  nous 
remettant  a  son  recit  prions  Dieu,  Messieurs  et  comperes,  vous 
comble  de  ses  felicitez.  JAQUES  R. 

De  Ste  Croix,  le  premier  d' April  1599. 

Captain  IBrog. 

MESSEIURS, — La  fidelite,  et  nubite  du  Cappne  Guillaume  Brog 
un  de  noz  subiectz  nous  esment  a  vous  le  recommander 
affectueusement,  a  fin  q'aux  occasions,  qui  s\>ffriront  pour  son 
avancement  et  honneur,  vous  assistiez  favorablement  le  zele, 
qu'il  a  monstre  de  porter  a  vostre  service,  le  gratiffiant,  p 
occasionnant  de  suivre  a  bonnes  enseignes  les  traces  de  ceux 
qui  ont  participe  de  vos  courtoisies  si  bien  veuillances,  par 
une  continuation  d'ardeur  d'exposer  sa  vie  en  tout  ce  qui  vous 
concernera,  si  nTasseurant,  qu^il  ne  sera  deceu  de  Tespoir  qu'il  a 
en  vous  tant  pour  les  causes  susdictes,  que  pour  Tamour  de  moy 
je  prieray  Dieu,  Messieurs  et  comperes,  vous  donne  heureuse 
vie.  Vostre  bon  amy  et  compere,  JAQUES  R. 

D'Edimbourg,  le  20  April  1599. 

Colonel  Edmond. 

MESSIEURS, — Ayant  entendu  qu'apres  la  mort  du  feu  Sieur 
Alexandre  Murray,  Colonel  de  Pinfanterie  Escossoise  qui  est  a 
vostre  service,  vous  ayez  faict  election  du  Capitaine  Edmond 
pour  commander  au  regiment,  du  quel  encore  que  la  valeur  et 
fidel  deportement  soit  assez  cogneu  par  la  preuve  des  services 
par  luy  faicts.  Neantmoins  estant  nostre  subiect  et  pour  sa 
fidelite  en  vostre  service  d'autant  plus  ayme  de  nous,  le  recom- 
mandons  qu'il  soit  d'autant  plus  respecte  et  honore  de  toutes 
faveurs,  privileges  et  honneurs  qu'autres  Colonnels  ont  jouy 
en  vostre  service  par  cy  devant.  A  quoy  nous  attendant 
prions  Dieu,  Messieurs  et  comperes,  vous  maintenir  en  sa 
grace.  Vostre  bon  amy  et  compere,  JAQUES  R. 

De  nostre  palais  de  Saincte  Croix,  le  dernier  de  Septembre 
1599. 

Sir  William  Murray. 
MESSIEURS, — Ayantz  occasion  d'employer  en  quelque  nostre 


180  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1599 

service  le  Sieur  Capne  Guillaume  Murray,  qui  vous  a  autrefois 
servi  au  faict  de  la  guerre,  il  nous  a  semble  expedient  de  le 
rappeler.  Mais  estant  avertiz  qu'il  est  embrouille  en  quelque 
procez  en  ces  pais  la,  touchant  les  affaires  de  son  frere,  n'avons 
pas  voulu  omettre  de  le  recommander  et  vous  prier  par  le 
porteur  (qui  est  le  frere  de  Deniston,  notre  ambassadeur  ordi- 
naire pres  de  vous)  de  le  favoriser  en  ses  affaires  et  le  depescher 
vers  nous  le  plustost  qu'il  sera  possible.  Nous  les  recom- 
mandons  doncq  d'aultant  plus  affectueusement  en  regard  de  sa 
fidelite  envers  nous  et  des  bons  services  faictz  a  vous,  tant  par 
luy-mesme  que  par  feu  son  frere.  Nous  avons  donne  charge 
au  Sieur  de  Deniston  de  vous  informer  plus  au  long  tant  en 
ceste  matiere  comme  en  des  autres  auquel  il  vous  plaira  adiouter 
pleine  creance  en  tout  ce  qu'il  vous  dira  de  notre  part,  qui 
sommes  et  demeurerons  tousiours,  Vostre  bien  bon  amy  et 
confrere,  JAQUES  R. 

De  Saincte  Croix,  le  xx.  Octobre  1599. 

After  the  Battle  of  Nieuport. 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — Ayantz  este  advertiz  tant  par 
voz  lettres  que  les  rapport  asseure  du  porteur  comme 
Dieu  par  sa  grace  vous  avoit  faict  victorieux  sur  voz 
ennemis  d'une  si  furieuse  et  sanglante  bataille,  avons  este  fort 
resiouyz,  comme  au  bon  succes  de  toutes  vos  affaires,  nous 
nous  estimons  tousiours  y  avoir  nostre  part  a  Tadvancement 
desquelles  il  ne  vous  manquera  rien  qui  depend  de  nostre 
pouvoir,  comme  nous  avons  donne  charge  au  porteur  de  vous 
informer  plus  amplement,  au  quel  il  vous  plaira  adiouster  pleine 
creance  en  ce  qu'il  dira  sur  le  desir  que  nous  avons  a  vous 
faire  paroistre  qu'elle  est  nostre  disposition  envers  vous  et 
vostre  estat,  et  quel  bien  et  honneur  nous  esperons  tirer  de 
vous  quand  nous  en  aurons  besoing.  Vous  priantz  tousiours 
faire  estat  de  nous  comme  Pun  de  voz  plus  affectionnez.  Et 
d'autant  qu'en  vostre  derniere  victoire  plusieurs  de  noz  gens 
sont  mortz  et  en  reviennent  tous  les  iours  de  la  tant  des  blessez 
et  estropiez,  ruinez  quasi  en  votre  service.  Nous  desirons 
qu'ayez  esgard  au  traittement  de  ce  peu  de  reste,  qu'estantz  a 
Favenir  pour  Tamour  de  nous  plus  respectez,  les  plus  gallants 
espritz  et  plus  valencieux  puissent  estre  induictz  librement 


i6oo]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  181 

se  rendre  en  votre  service,  dont  nous  avons  (Dieu  mercy) 
assez  bon  nombre,1  desquelz  quand  vous  aurez  affaires,  vous  en 
disposerez.  Et  comme  toutes  voz  bonnes  fortunes  sont  reputees 
et  nostree  (?),  nous  ne  doubtons  pas  que  de  pareille  affection 
vous  aurez  a  congratuler  quand  vous  entendrez  le  vray  et 
simple  discours  (lequel  vous  envoyons  avecque  ces  presentes)  de 
la  plus  cruelle  trahison  qu'a  ose  machinee  centre  nostre  per- 
sonne  et  de  laquelle  Dieu  par  sa  grace,  non  sans  miracle,  nous 
a  delivre.  Quant  au  porteur,2  lequel  nous  avons  este  bien 
resjouy  de  veoir  aupres  de  nous,  ay  ant  par  Tespace  de  vingt  et 
six  ans  este  esloigne  de  sa  patrie,  nous  n^estimons  pas  estre 
necessaire  de  vous  le  recommander,  car  quoy  que  nous  le 
respectons  pour  estre  notre  subiect,  si  est  ce  que  nous  tenons 
plus  de  compte  de  sa  valence  et  fidelle  affection  qu'il  a  porte  a 
votre  service,  que  de  sa  naissance  et  pour  Tencourager  advan- 
tage, il  n'y  a  ny  bien  nlionneur  qu*il  peut  esperer  de  nouz  qui 
luy  manqueront  pourveu  qull  continue.  Nous  ne  doubtons 
que  vous  ne  faciez  le  pareil  et  a  luy  et  a  tous  autres  de 
notre  nation  qui  de  pareille  volonte  s'addresseront  a  votre 
service,  et  seront  tres  aises  qu'a  toutes  occasions  il  soit 
familiairement  par  vous  employe  devers  nous  en  affaires  de 
consequence.  Etc.  JAQUES  R. 

De  Falcland,  le  xx.  d'Aoust  1600. 

David  Barclay  (of  Towie  or  Urie). 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — Ce  gentilhomme  porteur,  nomine 
David  Barclay,  sieur  de  Struy,  frere  germain  du  feu  Capne 
Robert  Barclay,  qui  ayant  ces  ans  passes  seruy  fidellement  au 
faite  de  vos  guerres,  et  ayant  perdu  la  vie  en  ce  dernier  conflict. 
Sur  ce  a  prins  resolution  d'aller  par  dela  pour  prendre  ordre  de 
quelquonques  biens  et  moyens  appartenants  au  susdit  defunct, 
son  frere,  ensemble  les  decomptes  que  vous  luy  serez  trouve 


1  The  difficulty  of  Scotland  rested  rather  in  the  surplus  than  the  deficiency  of 
these  'gallant  spirits'  for  which  King  James  thanks   Providence  for  having 
provided  him  with  a  'sufficient  number.'     The  legislation  of  his  parliament  and 
the  policy  of  his  privy  council  in  regard  to  the  Highlands  and  Island,  indicate 
the  problem  presented  by  the  '  assez  bon  nombre,'  which  previous  Jameses  had 
taken  summary  methods  of  reducing. 

2  Probably  Colonel  Edmond,  who  went  to  Scotland  '  to  remake  his  regiment.' 


182  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1600 

redevable  pour  son  service  en  vos  dites  guerres.  Vous  priant 
affectueusement  que  tons  les  biens  qui  luy  appartenoit,  aussi 
bien  devant  son  decez,  que  les  dites  decomptes  soit  delivrez  au 
dit  gentilhomme,  avec  son  nepveu  le  fils  du  dit  feu  Capne 
son  frere,  a  qui  tout  appartient  tres  justement  comme  a  son 
propre  fils  et  et  heritier,  a  scavoir  aussi  que  le  dit  gentilhomme 
est  son  vray  tuteur  de  loy.  Car  la  mere  du  dit  gar£on  ne  peut 
estre  nullement  ouye  s'opposer  au  contraire  du  dit  tuteur,  veu 
que  pieca  [?]  elle  a  este  divorsee  d'avec  son  feu  mary,  comme  il 
est  tres  notoire.  Outre  plus  le  dit  tuteur  est  honnorable 
gentilhomme  de  biens  et  d'heritage,  et  bien  respect e  pour  son 
honneste  comportement  en  toutes  ses  actions,  estant  digne  de 
faire  valoir  tout  ce  qu'il  recevra  au  profit  du  dit  pupille  son 
nepveu,  jusques  a  ce  qu'il  soit  venu  en  parfait  age.  Et  la 
dessus  vous  reprions  de  rechef,  que  pour  Pamour  de  nous  vous 
expediez  le  plustot  que  pourrez  le  dit  gentilhomme,  en  luy 
delivrant  son  dit  nepveu  et  tout  ce  qui  luy  appartient  de  droit, 
ce  qui  incitera  davantage  tous  nos  autres  subjects  hazarder  plus 
volontiers  leurs  biens  et  leur  vie  mesme  en  votre  service.  De 
quoy  faisant  nous  ferez  un  singulier  plaisir  ce  que  nous  sommes 
et  demeurerons  preste  recognoistre  mutuellement  en  ce  qu'il 
vous  plaira  nous  requerir.  Priant,  etc.  Vre  tres  affectionne 
ami,  JACQUES  R. 

De  notre  palais  a  Dundie,  ce  xxvi.  de  Septembre  1 600. 

Captain  John  Ker. 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES. — Le  Sieur  Capne  Jehan  Ker,1  qui 
pour  une  requeste  a  impetre  conge  pour  quelque  espace  de 
venir  par  de£a  pour  certaine  siene  affaire.  Et  estant  prest  a 
s'en  retourner  vers  vous,  nous  a  sollicite  de  vous  le  recommander, 
ce  que  nous  faisons  de  meilleure  volonte,  pour  autant  que  nous 
scavons  que  au  service  passe  il  n'a  manque  rien  en  luy  de  son 
devoir  et  durant  qu'il  a  este  la  n'a  fait  chose  indigne  de  son 
honneur  ny  de  notre  faveur.  II  vous  plaira  donguce  le  laisser 
retourner  librement  en  ce  pai'e,  afin  d'estre  icy  pres  les  sienes 
dites  affaires.  Aussi  nous  vous  prions  de  prendre  en  sa  place 


1  See  pp.  59  and  60  (in  note),  also  p.  31. 


1600]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  183 

de  commandement  un  gentilhomme  lequel  le  d*  Capne  y  mettra 
assez  suffisant  pour  descharger  ce  rang  de  preeminence  et  qui 
sans  aucune  doubte  vous  contentera.  Et  pour  ce  que  le  d* 
Capne  n'a  point  Tintention  de  retourner  ci  apres  en  vos 
quartiers,  estant  tellement  empesche  en  ses  dites  affaires  nous 
vous  requetons  affect ueusement  que  le  peu  de  deniers  qu'il  luy 
sont  deues,  tel  ordre  y  soit  donne  qu'il  puisse  recevoir  ses 
decomptes  pour  s'acquitter  de  tous  ses  despenses  et  charges,  pour 
retourner  avec  toute  diligence,  de  telle  facon  qu'il  n'aye  point 
occasion  de  se  plaindre  de  vous.  Ce  qui  nous  sera  fort 
agreable,  comme  nous  prions  le  Createur,  Messieurs  et  Com- 
peres, vous  tenir  en  sa  digne  garde.  Votre  bon  Amy  et  Com- 
pere, JAQUES  R. 

De  notre  palaisjde  Ste  Croix,  ce  xxvii.  jour  de  Decembre 
1600. 


1600,  October  5.— Huygens,  Secretary  of  the  Council  of  State  Council  of 
reported,  that  having  spoken  with  the  States- General  about 
the  transport  money  of  Colonel  Edmond  and  800  Scots,  brought 
over  from  Scotland,  by  commission  of  the  States- General ;  said 
States  had  declared,  that  the  payment  for  each  soldier  should 
be  payment  usually  given,  8  guilders,  and  that  the  opinion  of 
the  States  was,  and  still  is,  that  out  of  the  800  Scots  should 
be  formed  the  three  companies  mentioned  in  the  Act  of  the 
States-General.  Further,  that  the  Scottish  Regiment  should 
be  held  from  that  date  at  from  13  to  11  companies,  that  the 
colonel's  company  should  number  200,  and  the  others  113, 
which  companies  may  be  filled  up  from  the  said  number  of 
800  men. 

November  13. — Report  made  concerning  the  division  and 
reduction  of  the  new  Scottish  soldiers,  in  order  to  bring  up 
the  companies  to  135  men. 

1600,  June  3. — Inasmuch  as  Captain  Brog  desires  to  under-  Resolutions 
take  the  duties  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Scottish  regiment, 
solely  for  the  honour,  without  other  pay,  and  that  neither 
their  excellencies  nor  Captain  Edmond  know  of  any  reasons 


184 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1600 


why  the  same  lieutenantship  should  not  be  granted  to  the 
above  mentioned  Brog,  it  is  agreed  to. 

1600,  December  29. — Captain  Brog  was  allowed  in  one 
payment  600  guilders  for  his  previous  services  in  his  quality 
of  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Scottish  Regiment,  and  it  was 
agreed  that  in  future  he  shall  enjoy  a  salary  of  100  guilders 
per  month,  commencing  from  the  first  of  January  next, 
and  that  a  commission  to  that  effect  be  despatched  to 
him. 

Requeste  pour  le  Capne  Hamilton. 

(Requests).  A  MESSEIGNEURS,  MESSEIGRS  [sic]  DU  CONSEIL  o'EsTAT.1 — Re- 

monstre  en  toute  humilite  et  reverence  Capitaine  Hamilton, 
en  garnison  a  Nimeghe,  come  il  a  pleu  a  V.  S.  depescher  ordon- 
nance  le  xxviii  de  Apureil  pour  ung  moys  de  gages,  sur  Monsr 
Doublet,  Recepveur  gnal ;  et  le  dit  recepveur  a  done  ung 
decharge  sur  Messeigrs  les  estats  de  Zelande.  Mais  ayant 
envoye  ung  home  expres  pour  son  payement,  mes  ds  SeigrS  du 
Zeelandt  ont  refuse  le  dit  payement,  au  grande  prejudice  du 
remonstrant.  Car  il  a  este  contraint  de  lever  Targent  a 
Interrest  pour  Tintretenement  de  sadit  compaignie.  Partant 
il  prie  qu'il  plaise  a  mes  Seigrs  doner  ordre  pour  sondit  paye- 
ment au  regarde  du  temps  que  est  desia  passe. 


Quoy  faissant.     Le  xi  Maye  1601. 


JAQUES  CRACK. 


Resolutions          1601,  December  17.— In  reference  to  the  petition  of  Captain 
General.  Brog,  requesting  payment  of  the  balance  of  his  account,  made 

up  13th  June  '88,  for  his  pay  as  Sergeant-Major  of  the 
Scottish  regiment,  under  Colonel  Balfour,  from  the  1st  Sep- 
tember 1583  to  the  5th  March  1585,  and  again  till  the  last  of 
April  '88,  amounting  to  2224  pounds,  eight  shillings,  it  was 
agreed  that  search  be  made  in  the  Rolls  here,  the  Treasury 


1  From  the  packet  of  requests  presented  to  the  States-General  and  to  the 
Council  of  State  in  1601. 

This  collection  is  very  defective;  from  1600-1620  only  1601,  1611,  and 
1617  exist. 


1603]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  185 

of  the  States- General,  as  well  as  in  the  Finance  Chamber 
of  Holland,  as  to  how  much  of  said  sum  the  petitioner 
has  received;  and  that  of  the  balance  he  shall  be  paid 
one-third  in  ready  money,  and  the  other  two-thirds  within 
the  next  two  half-years,  and  that  an  order  to  that  effect  on 
the  Receiver- General  be  despatched. 

1602,  September  20.— Whereas  Robert  Stuart,  Scotsman,  a 
sailor  on  board  a  man-of-war,  in  the  service  of  the  Land,  has 
voluntarily  confessed,  without  being  put  to  the  torture,  that 
on  the  third  of  August  last  he  had  taken  on  himself  to  pass  in 
review  among  the  company  of  Captain  Balfour  as  a  soldier  of 
said  company,  under  the  name  of  Thomas  Fowler,  and  that  he 
seduced  thereto  other  six  sailors,  who  also  were  passed  in 
review  as  soldiers  of  the  said  company  ;  whereby  the  prisoner 
aforesaid,  contrary  to  his  oath,  and  the  placards  on  the  sub- 
ject of  the  mustering,  has  defrauded  and  robbed  the  Land ; 
said  decree  forbidding  such  fraud  on  pain  of  death.  Therefore 
the  States-General  and  the  Council  of  State  of  the  United 
Netherlands  taking,  as  is  fit,  all  things  into  consideration,  and 
doing  justice,  at  the  instance  and  demand  of  the  Advocate 
Fiscal,  brought  against  the  prisoner,  condemn  the  said  Robert 
Stuart  to  be  hung  by  ropes  till  he  be  dead,  as  an  example  to 
others. 

Given  the  xx.  September  1602. 


LETTERS  OF  KING  JAMES  i.      1603. 
Recommendation  of  Livingstone. 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — Ce  jeune  home  Leviston,  ay  ant  Diplomatic 
quelques  annees  passees  faict  son  apprentissage  en  la  guerre  en  S01™1^! 
vostre  pai's  et  s'estant  resolu  d'y  poursuy  vre  la  fortune,  Nous  folio  1603-1608. 
vous  Favons  bien  voulu  recomender,  tant  pour  le  bon  et  agre- 
able  service  qu^il  nous  a  faict  que  pour  Topinion  que  nous 
avons  qu*il  se  rendra  digne,  tant  de  nostre  recomendation  que 
de  la  faveur  que  vous  luy  en  ferez.     Et  pour  ce  vous  prions 
luy  vouloir  ottroyer  une  compagnie  de  cavallerie  a  la  premiere 
occasion  quy  se  presentera.     Ce  quy  nous  sera  fort  agreable  et 
nous  donnera  occasion  de  vous  complaire  en  semblable  ou  plus 


186  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1603 

grand  cas  come  nous  somes  et  serons.     Vostre  tresaffectionne 
amy  et  compere.  JAQUES  R. 

De  nostre  palais  royal  cTHampton,  le  xxiii6  de  Juillet 
1603. 

Captain  Selby. 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — Nous  ne  doubtons  point,  que  vous 
n'ayez  desia  entendue  la  trahison  machinee  centre  nostre  per- 
sonne,  femme  et  enfantz,  iusques  a  vouloir  avoir  entierement 
exterminee  nostre  race  par  quelques  noz  desloyaux  subiectz, 
ausquels  tant  s'en  faulte  que  nous  ayons  donnees  cause,  de 
mescontentement,  que  nous  les  avions  par  nostre  liberalite 
obliger  de  nous  estre  tres-fidelz.  Entre  lesquelles  le  baron  de 
Gray  a  este  des  premiers.  Et  craignantz  que  la  compagnie  de 
cavallerie,  qu'il  tenoit  a  vostre  service,  ne  se  dissipast  a  faulte 
de  capitaine,  Nous  avons  resolu  de  vous  envoyer  ce  gentilhome, 
le  capitaine  Selby,  du  quel  la  fidelite  et  valeur  nous  estantz 
assez  esprouvees,  nous  asseurent  qu'il  sera  bien  receu  pour  ceste 
nostre  recomendation,  pour  suppleer  la  place  d'un  trahistre  si 
deloyal.  Nous  avons  faict  choix  expres  de  luy  come  gentil- 
home digne  d'une  telle  charge,  vous  priantz  estimer  que  ce 
n'est  pas  la  recomendation  ou  credit  d'home  vivant,  mais  seule- 
ment  ses  qualitez  dignes  de  comander  [sic]  quy  nous  ont  esmeuz 
de  vous  Tenvoyer.  II  vous  plaira  donque  Faccepter  gratueuse- 
ment  pour  Tamour  de  nous  au  lieu  de  celuy  quy  n'est  plus 
home  de  bien  et  dans  peu  de  jours  ne  sera  plus,  et  vous  confier 
en  ceste  nostre  election  de  laquelle  nous  esperons  que  vous 
n'aurez  jamais  occasion  de  vous  repentir  de  son  service,  ne  nous 
de  Tavoir  recomende.  Ainsi  nous  asseurantz  de  vostre  bon 
affection  en  cest  endroict,  prions  Dieu,  Messieurs  et  comperes,, 
vous  maintenir  en  sa  Saincte  et  digne  gard.  Vostre  tres  affec- 
tionne  amy  et  compere,  JAQUES  R. 

De  nostre  palais  royal  d'Hampton,  le  premier  d'Aoust 
1603. 

Recommendation  of  the  heirs  of  Colonel  H.  Balfour. 
(1603.    Exhib.  May  x.,  1603,  by  Mr.  Deniston.) 

Sa  MaJeste/  demande  qu'il  plaise  a  Messeigneurs  les  Estatz 
generaulx  de  doner  contentement  aulx  heretiers  de  feu  le 


1 604]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  187 

Collonnel  Henri  Balfour,  de  son  service  fait  en  Brabant ;  suivant 
les  obligations  et  decomptes  signees  par  leurs  Seigies  et  lenrs 
deputes.  Et  en  cas  quails  ne  vouldroyent  recognostre  ne  satis- 
faire  a  toute  la  dit  debt,  pour  le  moyns.  Us  sont  obligez  de 
satisfaire  pro  rata;  estanz  alors  unies  avec  les  aultres  estatz 
de  brabant.  Ce  que  sa  Mat6  demande  tant  seulement.  *  Sa 
Mat6  desire  que  Monsieur  Daman,  agent  de  messeig8  les  Estatz, 
soit  continue  en  sa  charge  aupres  sa  Mat6  en  Angleterre  come 
il  estoit  en  Escosse. 

1603,  October  23. — In  reference  to  the  reports  received  from  states- 
Zeeland,   Dordrecht,  and  Rotterdam,  that   between  five  and Genera1' 
six  companies  of  Scotsmen  had  arrived  belonging  to  the  new 
regiment  of  the  Baron  of  Buccleuch,  and  that  the  remaining 
companies  are  on  the  way,  or  may  even  already  have  arrived, 

it  is  proposed  .  .  . 

November  24. — It  is  resolved  that  the  newly  arrived  Scotsmen, 
belonging  to  the  companies  of  Captains  Scalby,  Murray,  Spence, 
and  Brochtown,1  be  supported,  and  that  the  weapons  and 
travelling  expenses  of  the  same  be  paid,  in  the  same  manner 
as  in  the  case  of  the  earlier  arrived  companies  of  the  regiment 
of  Baron  Buccleuch,  who  are  supported  and  paid  out  of  the 
moneys  from  France,  destined  for  that  purpose. 

1604,  January  9. — 100  guilders  in  one  payment  assigned  to 
Andrew  Hunter,  minister  of  the   Scottish  regiment,  for  his 
extra  services,  and  the  States-General  wish  it  understood  that 
he  is  to  allow  himself  to  be  employed  in  the  service  of  both 
Scottish  regiments. 

January  10. — Peter  Stuart,2  Scottish  nobleman,  on  account 
of  certain  considerations,  is  allowed  thirty  guilders  ;  with  the 
understanding  that  he  do  not  apply  again,  but  in  future  address 
himself  to  the  regiments  of  his  nation,  in  order  to  be  advanced 
among  them. 

January  21. — At  the  request  of  Captain  Walter  Bruce,  it 
was  found  good  to  recommend  to  the  Council  of  State  that 


1  Mentioned  at  siege  of  Ostend.     Does  not  appear  in  any  list.     Probably 
killed  there. 

2  He  appears  later  as  officer  of  artillery.     See  p.  211. 


188  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1604 

their  excellencies  cause  the  33  soldiers  therein  mentioned,  of  the 
supplemental  [?]  company,  stationed  in  Amersfort,  to  be  paid 
(being  at  present  within  the  bounds  of  Ostend),  and  issue  an 
order  that  said  men,  being  there,  are  to  stay  till  the  departure 
of  their  said  company  from  that  place. 

1604,  February  3. — It  was  resolved  that  the  Commissioner 
Jan  de  Mist  betake  himself  to  Dordrecht,  and  there  review 
the  Scotsmen  recently  arrived  there,  to  register  the  same,  and 
examine  whether  there  be  any  fraud  or  criminality  among 
them,  approving  of  none  except  those  qualified  for  the  imme- 
diate service  of  the  Land.  And  the  revision  being  accom- 
plished, to  bring  them  forthwith  to  the  companies  to  which 
they  belong,  and  the  places  where  these  are  in  garrison ;  and 
thereafter  to  muster  with  great  care  the  same  companies,  with 
all  the  other  companies  stationed  in  the  neighbourhood, 
with  the  understanding  that  the  States  shall  reserve  to  them- 
selves the  number  in  excess  of  the  strength  assigned  to  the 
captains,  in  order  to  distribute  them  among  the  other  com- 
panies. 

March  15. — Peter  Stuart  is  once  more  granted  the  sum  of 
36  guilders — a  third  to  be  paid  at  once,  a  third  in  May,  and 
a  third  in  July — to  be  paid  by  the  Receiver-General. 

March  16. — Jan  de  Mist  is  commissioned  to  go  to  Rotterdam 
and  review  the  Scottish  recruits  arrived  there,  and  examine 
thoroughly  whether  they  are  really  fresh  arrivals,  and  to  dis- 
charge incompetent  soldiers. 


Representation  in  favour  of  Lord  Buccleuch  by  the  British 
Ambassador. 

(Dated  March  2  (12)  1604.     Exhib.  Jan.  xvi.  1604) x 

MESSIEURS, — J'eusse  desire,  ce  que  Teusse  pris  pour  tresgrand 
heur,  de  pouvoir  apporter  a  V.  Sies  les  nouvelles  agreables  du 
retour  du  General  Vere.  Car  ie  scay  le  contentement  que  est 
Estat  eust  receu  de  retenir  tousiours  aupres  de  son  service  un 
Seigr  de  sa  qualite  et  merite.  Mais  ie  ne  suis  nullement  si 


1  This  letter  initiates  a  controversy  of  long  standing. 


1604]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  189 

heureux,  tant  s'en  fault  que  Taye  charge  de  vous  dire  que 
comme  personne  ne  vous  a  servy  plus  fidellement  que  luy,  ny 
avec  plus  de  soin  et  d'ind  ustrie,  ainsi  personne  n'eust  plus 
volon tiers  que  luy  acheve  le  reste  de  ses  iours  en  service  de  cest 
Estat.  Mais  puis  la  police  de  vos  affaires  ne  permette  pas  de 
luy  octroyer  ses  demandes  et  sans  cet  octroy  de  vouloir 
reprendre  sa  charge,  seroit  d"*  abandonner  la  soin  de  sa  reputa- 
tion, qui  vous  recognoissiez  qu  il  a  gaignee  par  tant  de  travaux 
et  perte  de  son  sang.  II  se  deportera  de  vous  importuner 
d'avantage  et  se  contentera  du  tesmoinage  duquel  il  vous  a 
pleu  de  couronner  son  conge,  que  ce  refus  ne  luy  ait  este  fait 
a  faute  de  son  merite,  mais  par  des  considerations  importantes 
qui  concernent  le  repos  et  tranquillite  du  gouvernement  de 
cest  Estat.  Et  comme  ainsi  soit  que  des  son  advenement  au 
service  du  pai's,  il  a  servy  non  moins  heureusement,  dont  il 
rend  graces  a  Dieu,  que  avec  une  tresaffectueuse  volonte,  il  prie 
Messrs  a  croire  qu'avec  sa  charge  il  ne  se  despouillera  pas  de 
tout  soin  de  vos  affaires ;  ains  comme  son  corps  charnaille  et 
cicatrice  au  service  de  cet  Estat,  luy  ramentovira  iour  et  nuict 
la  vie  passee,  ainsi  Fhonneur  qu'il  a  receu  des  Provinces  Unies 
demeurera  tousiours  engrave  en  son  ame,  la  souvenance  duquel 
il  menera  et  quant  et  luy,  vive  et  fresche,  iusques  au  tombeau, 
avec  ses  meilleurs  souhaitz  pour  la  prosperite  dlcelles. 

Je  m^assure,  il  n'y  a  pas  un  d'entre  vous,  Messieurs,  qui  ne 
regrette  le  depart  de  Monsieur  Vere  !  Mais  i'ay  de  quoy  vous 
consoler : 

primo  avulso  non  deficit  alter 

aureus,  et  simili  frondescit  verga  metallo. 

Voicy  arrive,  en  ceste  ville,  le  Seigr  de  Bouclough,  mande  de 
par  sa  Mate  au  service  de  cest  Estat,  duquel,  parmy  mille 
Seig8  Escossois  elle  a  fait  choix  pour  les  belles  parties  requises 
en  un  grand  Commandeur,  pour  tesmoigner  plus  amplement 
tant  son  soin  pour  la  conservation  de  ces  Provinces  que  son 
desir  que  la  prosperite  d'icelles  de  iour  a  autre  puisse  estre 
augmentee. 

Ce  seigr  cy  ne  vient  pas  pour  busquer  fortune ;  il  a  chez  luy 
de  quoy  manger  sans  prendre  cette  peine,  et  des  estatz  ausquelz 
vacquer  sans  aller  a  la  guerre  ;  et  s'il  y  avait  faute,  ou  de  Tun  ou 


190  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1604 

de  Tautre,  il  n*y  a  nulle  faute  des  bonnes  graces  du  Roy  son 
Maistre ;  qui  ne  manqueront  iamais  de  recognoistre  les  merites 
de  ses  dignes  serviteurs.  Mais  apres  avoir  voyage  et  veu  le 
monde,  et  par  tous  beaux  exercises,  tant  au  fait  des  armes  que 
des  autres  estudes,  s^est  rendu  habile  pour  le  service  de  sa 
patrie,  scachant  avec  quelle  affection  sa  Mat6  embrasse 
Taccroissem*  de  vos  affaires,  il  s'est  laisse  persuader  d'entre- 
prendre  ce  service,  pour  y  emploier  son  temps  et  despendre  ses 
moyens,  voire  son  sang  et  sa  vie.  C'est  pourquoy  sa  Mat6  nVa 
commande  de  le  presenter  a  V.  Sies  et  les  prier  quand  et  quand 
de  sa  part,  qu'il  soit  receu  en  qualite  de  General  de  sa  Nation, 
en  quelle  qualite  elle  le  mande  et  le  recommande  entre  vos 
mains.  Les  troupes  auxquelles  il  aura  a  commander  sont  les 
subiects  de  sa  Mat6,  ausquelz,  affin  qu'ilz  scachent  quails  ne  sont 
le  plus  esloignes  de  sa  grace  et  souvenance,  pour  estre  employes 
au  service  de  ses  bons  amys  et  alliez,  elle  envoye  ce  Commandeur 
avec  charge  de  les  aguerrir  en  la  discipline  militaire.  Charge 
grande  et  pleine  d^honneur  mais  fascheuse  et  chatilleuse,  dont 
mal  aisement  on  s^acquittera,  s'elle  soit  communiquee  avec  un 
autre.  En  toutes  charges,  esquelles  la  vigilance  et  Findustrie 
sont  requises,  quand  on  vient  a  cela,  "  nee  mihi,  nee  tibi,  sed 
dividatur,"  tout  va  a  Tabandon,  on  ny  prend  point  de  soin,  ou 
s^il  y  en  a  quelque  peu,  ce  n'est  que  par  maniere  d'acquit ,  en  un 
mot,  tout  n'est  que  nonchaloir  et  negligence.  Ce  qu'a  induit 
V.  Sries  depuis  quelques  annees  en  ca  de  faire  un  General  des 
troupes  anglaises.  Maintenant  que  rAnglerre  et  PEscosse  sont 
consolidees  ensembles  et  que  les  troupes  Escossoises  sont  accreues 
au  mesme  nombre  qu'alors  se  trouvoyent  les  angloises,  s'il  vous 
plaira  de  faire  cest  honneur  a  la  Nation  Escossoise  vous  suivrez 
Texemple  de  Sa  Mat6  laquelle  traicte  avec  pareille  affection  les 
deux  Royaumes,  et  monstrerez  le  contentement  que  vous 
prennez  de  nostre  heureuse  union.  Les  demandes  de  ce  Seigr 
ne  sont  nullement  inciviles,  lesquelles  n'esbranslent  pas  les 
loix  fondementales  de  vostre  police,  ny  s'eniambent  sur  la 
soverainete  de  Messrs  les  Estats,  ny  derogent  Tauthorite  du 
General  en  chef.  II  ne  demande  qu'avec  le  traitement  du  general 
tant  de  pouvoir,  pour  s'acquitter  le  mieux  de  son  devoir  envers 
le  service  de  ces  Provinces  et  de  Sa  Mat6.  II  vous  supplie  d\ 
vouloir  penser  et  resoudreau  plus  tost,  ce  que  ie  fais  de  la  part 


1604]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  191 

de  sa  Mat6  qui  m'a  commande  de  recevoir  et  luy  comuniquer  la 
resolution.  RODOLPHE  WINWOD. 

faict  le  deuxieme  de  Mars,  Stilo  veteri. 


March  23. — The  Recorder  is  charged  to  intimate  to  the  states- 
Council  of  State,  that  they  find  it  good  that  their  excellencies 
shall  give  commissions  to  the  captains  of  the  regiment  of  the 
Lord  of  Buccleuch,  and  administer  to  them  the  Lands'  oath  ; 
also  that  their  excellencies  shall  likewise  issue  a  commission 
and  administer  the  oath  to  the  foresaid  Lord  of  Buccleuch. 
And  as  he  will  probably  object  to  this,  because  he  pretends 
to  the  generalship  of  the  Scots,  in  the  service  of  the  Land, 
that  the  States  will,  in  that  case,  make  known  and  advise  how 
to  act. 

Also  it  is  found  good,  that  the  Council  of  State  shall  inves- 
tigate whether  or  not  there  is  one  of  the  companies  of  the 
regiment  of  the  Lord  of  Buccleuch  which  desires  to  be  incor- 
porated in  the  regiment  of  Colonel  Edmond.  Because  if  that 
is  the  case  the  company  of  Henderson  on  the  other  hand  must 
be  put  under  the  foresaid  Buccleuch. 

March  24. — Messrs.  Santen  and  Hardebrouck,  councillors 
of  State,  compeared  and  reported  the  advice  of  the  Council  of 
State  (after  previous  conference  with  their  excellencies). 

On  the  motion  of  Councillor  Winwoidt,  in  reference  to  the 
Generalship  of  the  Scots  in  the  Lands1  service ; — that  since  His 
Majesty  of  England  recommends  Lord  Buccleuch  ;  and  taking 
into  account  the  letters  of  the  Count  of  Embden  :  after  con- 
sultation an  understanding  was  come  to,  his  excellency  and 
the  Council,  having  well  weighed  and  considered  the  motion 
aforesaid,  the  States  being  on  this  point  in  agreement  with 
them,  and  it  was  resolved  that  the  Councellor  Winwoidt 
aforesaid  be  instructed  and  shown  here  in  the  Assembly,  that 
the  request  embodied  in  the  foresaid  proposal  is  prejudicial  to 
the  Government  of  the  country ;  and  that  therefore  it  could 
not  be  agreed  to  without  the  previous  notice,  advice,  and 
resolution  of  the  Provinces  united  together.  Yet  that  in  any 
case  there  is  reason  to  fear  that  it  would  lead  to  nothing 
because  of  the  precedent  it  would  give  to  other  nationalities 


192  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1604 

who  in  like  manner  would  claim  to  have  a  general.  And  that 
same  claim  was  disputed  in  the  case  of  the  Lord  General  Vere 
notwithstanding  his  true  and  long  continued  service  to  the 
country,  and  besides  it  would  be  a  source  of  many  misunder- 
standings arising  in  regard  to  the  person  of  Colonel  Edmond, 
who  has  served  the  country  faithfully  for  so  many  years.  And 
his  excellency  has  been  asked  to  make  no  further  urgent 
request  for  the  said  generalship,  and  try  to  persuade  the  Lord 
Buccleuch  to  content  himself  with  the  regiment,  like  other 
generals  in  the  service  of  the  country. 

April  1. — Compeared  Lieutenant-Colonel  Henderson  and 
was  questioned  as  to  the  present  constitution  of  the  Scotch 
regiment  under  Baron  Buccleuch.  To  which  he  replied,  that 
said  regiment  was  very  brisk,  well  armed,  and  in  order  for 
active  service. 

He  was  then  commissioned,  so  far  as  he  could  advance  the 
matter,  to  bring  his  own  company  into  the  regiment  of  the 
foresaid  Baron  of  Buccleuch ;  and  to  bring  another  company 
of  that  regiment  into  the  regiment  of  Edmond.  And  there- 
after with  his  brother,  or  some  one  else,  to  take  measures  to 
promote  friendship  and  ward  off  jealousy  in  the  nation. 

1604,  April  5. — As  regards  the  generalship  over  the  soldiers 
of  the  Scottish  nation  in  the  Lands1  service,  His  Majesty 
recommends  thereto  the  Baron  of  Buccleuch.  Thereupon  the 
States,  having  consulted  with  the  Council  of  State,  and  others 
with  whom  it  is  usual  to  advise  in  such  like  matters  of  im- 
portance, find  that  the  said  request  of  generalship  is  a  novelty, 
never  previously  put  in  practice,  and  that  they  could  not  consent 
to  it  without  making  an  opening  for  all  the  other  nations 
in  the  Lands'  service  to  ask  in  like  manner  for  a  general.  A 
step  which  the  deputies  of  the  provinces  being  convened 
would  consequently  not  dare  to  take  on  their  own  responsi- 
bility, but  would  have  to  lay  the  matter  before  their  principals 
in  order  to  obtain  their  opinion  and  understand  their  good 
pleasure,  as  is  cust'omary.  To  this  the  same  deputies  are 
inclined  to  agree  in  so  far  as  the  Lord  Appearer  also  approves, 
and  is  expressly  authorised  to  insist  on  the  said  request.  But 
that  their  Highnesses  may  well  declare  to  his  Honour,  that  they 
see  no  probability  of  the  introduction  of  the  foresaid  novelty, 


1604]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  193 

and  therefore  his  Honour  may  beg  the  Baron  of  Buccleuch 
to  regulate  himself  so  as  in  future  to  desist  from  seeking 
said  generalship,  and  accept  his  commission  as  colonel.  The 
Lord  Appearer  requested  a  written  copy  of  the  declaration, 
for  the  purpose  of  informing  His  Majesty,  who  doubtless  in 
the  matter  will  make  a  new  urgent  application,  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  it  touches  the  honour  of  the  Lord  Baron. 

April.  16 — In  the  matter  of  the  remonstrance  of  the  Baron 
of  Buccleuch.  In  reference  to  the  first  point  of  the  same,  it 
was  agreed  that  the  captains  of  the  remonstrants  regiment 
are  to  keep  the  soldiers  raised  and  brought  over  by  each  of 
said  captains,  as  they  were  then  found  and  passed  in  muster, 
except  in  case  they  are  supernumeraries,  beyond  the  strength 
appointed  to  the  captains.  Moreover  they  must  be  kept  in 
good  order,  armed,  brought  to,  and  used  in  the  service. 

But  as  regards  the  second  point,  touching  the  pay  of  the 
superior  officers  of  the  regiments  aforesaid,  the  States  give  it 
to  be  understood  that  they  will  place  on  a  similar  footing  the 
pay  of  the  superior  officers  of  all  the  nations  in  the  service  of 
these  Lands.  Therefore  desiring  that  the  remonstrant  mean- 
while will  content  himself  with  the  knowledge,  that  the 
superior  officers  of  his  regiment  will  be  paid  like  the  officers  of 
the  old  Scottish  regiment. 

July  1. — At  the  request  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Crichton,  widow 
of  the  late  Captain  Dallachy,  it  is  agreed,  that  the  Receiver- 
General  shall  pay  her  her  various  pensions,  on  the  understand- 
ing that  before  the  end  of  the  current  year  she  shall  show 
proper  evidence  of  her  children  being  in  life,  otherwise  this 
payment  shall  be  postponed  to  be  included  in  the  pension  of 
the  coming  year. 

Recommendation  of  Robert  Gray. 
(Receptum  Aug.  2.) 

1604,  July  10  (O.  S.). — MES  BONS  AMIS  ET  TRES-CHERS 
COMPERES. — En  vous  saluant:  sachez  que  ce  gentilhomme  le 
porteur  de  ceste  Robert  Gray,  Escossois,  ayant  passe  son 
temps  par  le  monde  en  nostre  service,  Tespace  de  six  ou 
sept  ans,  pour  a  ceste  fin  de  se  rendre  plus  prompt  et  capable, 
est  maintenant  desireux  de  suivre  la  guerre  a  ce  qu'il  ne  luy 

N 


194  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1604 

puise  rien  manquer  propre  pour  un  Gentilhomme  de  sa 
qualite,  et  estant  ainsi  que  nous,  ne  luy,  ne  trouvons  autres 
(aux  services  desquel  il  pourra  mieux  employer  son  temps 
qu'aux  nostres).  A  ce  regard  nous  avons  trouve  bon  de 
Penvoyer  devers  vous,  avec  noz  lettres  de  faveur  et  credit, 
touchant  ce  point:  Vous  priant  bien  fort  de  Tavoir  en  tel 
esgard  pour  Tamour  de  nous,  comme  a  tel  Gentilhomme  de 
son  rang  appartient,  et  de  luy  faire  avoir  le  commandement 
d'une  de  noz  compagnies  de  gens  de  pied.  Dont  nous  esperons 
qu'il  vous  fera  bien  bon  service  et  aggreable,  et  qu'il  ne  faudra 
de  meriter  par  ses  vertuz  et  diligences  bien  mieux  que  ne  voulons 
signifier.  Et  comme  ne  doubtant  que  voulez  accomplir  nostre 
demande,  vous  commandant  au  bon  succes  de  Timportance  de 
noz  grandes  affaires,  Demeurons  tousiours  Vostre  bien  bon  amy 
et  compere,  JAQUES  R. 

De  nostre  court  de  Greinwich,  ce  10  Juillet. 

Recommendation  of  Laurence  Sinclair. 
To  the  Council  of  State.     (Receptum  Aug.  2.) 

1604,  July  17. — MY  LORDS, — I  had  lately  occasion  to  speak 
with  His  Majesty,  and  he  desired  me  to  recommend  to  your 
lordships  the  bearer  of  this,  Laurence  Sinclair,  at  one  time 
lieutenant  under  Captain  John  More,  in  the  regiment  of 
Colonel  Buccleuch.  The  said  captain  died  lately  at  Ostend, 
where  also  the  lieutenant  then  was,  and  had  been  there  for 
thirty  weeks.  He  was  wounded  several  times,  and  therefore  all 
the  more  deserves  to  succeed  his  captain ;  in  whose  place  His 
Majesty  desires  that  he  may  be  appointed,  he  being  in  other 
respects,  as  I  understand,  a  nobleman  of  ability,  and  belonging 
to  a  very  good  house.  Moreover  his  ancestors,  in  other  days, 
rendered  valuable  services  to  the  country,  therefore  I  hope 
your  lordships  will  accept  this  recommendation  in  considera- 
tion of  the  fact  that  His  Majesty  made  it  by  word  of  mouth, 
and  that  it  is  the  sole  object  of  this  letter.  Ever  praying  God 
to  grant  that  your  lordships  may  continue  in  long  and  pro- 
sperous government, 

NOEL  DE  CARON. 

From  St.  Lambeth,  the  17  July  1604.     Old  Style. 


1604]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  195 

August  11. — On  the  request  of  the  widow  and  orphans  of  Resolutions 

of  States 
General. 


the  late  Captain  Robert  Barclay,  Scotsman,  it  was  resolved of  states 


to  place  the  matter  in  the  hands  of  the  clerks,  for  the  purpose 
of  going  over  her  accounts,  and  examining  whether  any  mis- 
take has  been  made. 

October  20. — At  the  request  of  John  Boyd,  ensign  of  the 
company  of  Captain  John  Spence,  their  High  Mightinesses 
the  States  have,  on  account  of  certain  important  considera- 
tions, and  his  long  continued  services  (he  having  been  maimed 
in  both  arms  in  the  country's  service  before  Zutphen  and 
in  Ostend),  agreed  that  at  his  departure  from  the  country,  he 
shall  be  granted  in  all  two  hundred  guilders,  in  full  satisfac- 
tion of  all  his  services,  on  the  understanding  that  the  Council 
of  State,  in  order  not  to  cause  any  difficulty  thereby  to  the 
country,  is  to  write  to  the  foresaid  Captain  Spence  to  keep  the 
place  of  ensign  open  till  the  middle  of  March  next,  or  until 
the  matter  shall  be  properly  disposed  of. 

October  21. — To  write  to  their  lordships  of  the  states  of 
Utrecht,  and  make  request  to  the  same,  that  they  pay  Cap- 
tain Caddel  the  sum  of  nine  hundred  and  ninety-nine  guilders 
two  shillings  vd.,  the  balance  due  to  him  at  the  liquidation 
made  of  his  current  pay  at  the  time  he  was  on  duty  on  the 
repartition  of  the  states  of  Utrecht. 

October  29. — To  furnish  to  the  seven  Scottish  companies  of 
Colonel  Buccleuch,  arrived  from  Ostend,  one  month's  pay, 
according  to  their  strength  at  the  last  muster  since  their 
arrival  from  Ostend,  with  deduction  of  one-sixth  part. 

November  29. — Received  from  the  deputies  of  the  states  of 
Utrecht  a  letter,  of  23rd  October,  wherein  they  excuse  them- 
selves as  yet  from  paying  the  ^?996  llsh,  being  the  balance 
due  to  Captain  Caddel  for  the  current  service  of  his  company 
during  the  time  it  is  alleged  he  was  on  duty  on  the  repartition 
of  the  states  of  Utrecht,  which  they  deny. 

It  is  resolved,  that  notwithstanding  said  excuse,  the  deputies 
of  Utrecht  be  again  requested  to  pay  the  sum  aforesaid,  as 
during  that  time  it  appeared  that  the  Council  of  State  placed 
the  company  aforesaid  at  the  charge  of  the  States  of  Utrecht, 
as  against  other  burdens  which  their  Highnesses  laid  on  the 
other  provinces. 


196  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1604 

Captain  Archibald  Erskinis  Cavalry  Company. 

Resolutions  December  20. — Captain  Archibald  Ariskey  [Erskine]  being 
General.8  present,  accompanied  by  Captain  Aresky  [Erskine]  and  Esaias 
Chastelain,  the  States  represented  to  the  said  Captain  Archi- 
bald, the  difficulties  he  would  have  to  encounter  in  the  formation 
of  a  company  of  cavalry  cuirassiers,  which  he  begged  to  be 
allowed  to  form ;  not  only  in  regard  to  the  great  expenses 
which  he  would  necessarily  incur  (amounting  to  about  30,000 
guilders),  but  particularly  from  the  scarcity  of  well-trained 
horses,  which  he  would  hardly  be  able  to  get  in  this  country 
of  such  weight  and  height  as  they  ought  to  be,  according  to 
the  Land's  order,  likewise  owing  to  the  scarcity  of  cavalry 
soldiers  of  his  nation  qualified  and  well-armed  according  to 
the  government  order.  He  should  therefore  reflect  on  the  pro- 
ject lest  he  be  thereby  brought  to  ruin,  and  come  out  of  it  with 
diminished  reputation,  which  the  States  would  be  sorry  for. 

But  since  the  said  captain  (notwithstanding  all  the  Toresaid 
difficulties  brought  under  his  notice,  and  several  other  friendly 
exhortations,  to  divert  him  from  his  purpose,  he  being  at  last 
told,  that  should  he  not  have  said  company  of  cavalry  fully 
equipped,  they  being  qualified  horse  soldiers  of  his  nation, 
well  armed  and  provided  with  trained  horses,  according  to  the 
Land's  order,  between  this  and  the  first  of  March  next,  new 
style,  that  the  company  would  not  be  received  into  the  service) 
persisted  in  his  intention,  and  requested  to  be  allowed  to  form 
the  company.  The  said  States  (in  consideration  and  out  of 
regard  to  the  name  and  friendship  of  the  said  Ariskey,  and 
not  looking  to  the  fact  that  having  undertaken  to  bring  the 
foresaid  Company  into  the  service  of  the  Land,  on  the  tenth 
of  August  last,  he  brought  over  during  the  first  half  of  Decem- 
ber, between  seventy  and  eighty  men,  with  only  one  horse  fit  for 
service)  consented,  and  granted  to  the  said  Captain  Archibald 
Ariskey  to  proceed  with  the  formation  of  said  company  of  one 
hundred  cuirassiers,  under  which  there  shall  be  thirty  cuiras- 
siers with  ponies ;  provided  he  be  bound  to  have  said  company 
fully  equipped  precisely  between  this  and  the  first  of  March 
next,  of  qualified,  experienced,  and  well-armed  cavalry  of  the 
Scottish  nation,  provided  with  well-trained  horses,  of  such 
height  and  weight  as  the  order  of  the  Land  implies,  otherwise 


1604]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  197 

failing  this,  said  company  shall  not  be  taken  into  service ;  and 
in  the  meantime  every  horseman  without  a  horse  shall  for  his 
support  be  supplied  with  seven  stuivers  daily,  and  every  one  with 
a  qualified  horse  and  properly  armed,  fourteen  stuivers  a  day. 

1604,  December  23. — Captain  Areskey,  notwithstanding  all 
the  difficulties  in  his  way,  has  undertaken  to  form — between  this 
and  the  first  of  March  next  precisely,  new  style — the  company 
of  cavalry,  100  cuirassiers  strong,  in  accordance  with  the 
regulations  of  the  Land,  and  the  resolution  placed  in  his 
hands  by  the  States,  except  that  he  insists  on  ponies  such  as 
Cavalry  Captain  Hamilton  had.  And  after  said  Areskey  having 
been  told  that  he  ought  to  content  himself  with  the  offer 
made  to  him,  without  being  opinionative  to  such  a  point 
about  the  ponies,  since  the  States  make  no  levies  of  cavalry 
but  on  the  footing  indicated,  it  was  explained  to  him  that, 
since  he  will  have  his  way,  it  will  be  counted  sufficient  if,  on 
the  muster  day  of  said  company,  there  are  more  than  thirty 
qualified  horse  soldiers.  As  for  ponies,  no  notice  will  be 
taken  of  ten  or  twenty,  but,  in  view  of  his  exactingness,  he 
must  heed  this  well,  that  the  States  also  will  be  exact  with 
him,  and,  in  respect  of  that,  he  is  to  bear  in  mind  that  he 
shall  have  to  form  his  company,  according  to  the  Aforesaid 
resolution,  placed  in  his  hands,  between  this  and  the  first  of 
March  next,  consisting  of  one  hundred  qualified,  well-armed 
cavalry  cuirassiers,  with  well-trained  horses,  everything 
according  to  the  regulations  of  the  Land.  Or  failing  this, 
said  company  shall  not  be  accepted — to  which  the  'foresaid 
Ariskey  has  agreed.  And  in  this  matter  the  Recorder  is 
charged  to  communicate  this  transaction  to  his  Exy  [Prince 
Maurice],  and  request  that  his  Exy  will  be  pleased  to  assign  a 
post  to  the  said  Ariskey,  so  as  to  form  the  said  company,  with 
letters-patent  or  commission  for  that  purpose. 

December  29. — To  write  to  the  Province  of  the  city  and 
surrounding  country  of  Groningen,  that  they  are  to  grant  the 
companies  of  Captains  Norman  Bruce  and  Selby,  provisionally 
placed  as  a  share  to  their  charge  by  the  Council  of  State,  their 
settlement,  and  liquidation  of  their  current  pay. 

January  4. — It  was  agreed  that  Esaias  Chastelain  shall  be 
reimbursed  the  sum  of  .£1663  16s,  advanced  by  him,  with 


198  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1605 

consent  of  the  States,  to  the  Cavalry  Captain  Ariskey  for  the 
support  of  his  company  of  cavalry. 

January  15. — As  to  the  request  of  the  Cavalry  Captain  Archd 
Areskey,  praying  for  a  subsidy  for  his  company  of  cavalry, 
still  incomplete,  he  is  apprised  that  the  attention  of  the 
petitioner  was  early  directed  to  all  the  difficulties  which  would 
beset  him  therein,  and  that  more  cannot  be  done  for  him  in 
that  matter  than  has  already  been  done. 

January  19. — On  the  request  of  Baron  Buccleuch  and  Cap- 
tain Ariskin,  praying  that  they  may  be  allowed  to  increase  the 
companies  of  his  Scottish  regiment  up  to  150  men,  their 
regulation  strength,  consideration  of  the  matter  was  postponed, 
till  the  Provinces  of  the  State  shall  have  given  their  consent. 

January  24. — At  the  request  of  Archd  Ariskin,  it  was 
agreed  that  the  Commissioner  of  the  Treasury  pay  to  the 
petitioner  the  transport  money  of  one  hundred  infantry  at 
eight  guilders  a  head — and  that  on  the  bases  of  the  resolution 
— from  the  time  that  he  arrived  at  Veere,  but  deducting  what 
he  received  at  Veere,  Dordrecht,  here  and  elsewhere,  in  money, 
forage,  and  victuals. 

January  27. — To  write  to  the  States  of  Utrecht,  and  ask 
to  be  informed  by  them  whether  they  have  given  any  sup- 
plies to  the  cavalry  company  of  Archd  Areskyn,  and,  if  so, 
to  what  extent.  Item,  What  horses  had  he  ?  also,  How  is 
the  company  equipped  ? 

February  5. — It  is  agreed  that  1200  guilders  be  provided  for 
the  time  being  for  the  Cavalry  Captain  Archd  Areskin  towards 
the  maintenance  of  his  company  of  cavalry  till  the  last  of  this 
month,  according  to  the  order  made  thereanent ;  provided  he 
be  told  to  have  his  company  formed  against  the  first  of  March 
next,  according  to  the  resolution  given  him  in  writing.  Or  in 
default  the  States  shall  report  him. 

May  7. — Agreed  that  the  Cavalry  Captain  Archd  Areskin 
shall,  beyond  the  month's  payment  which  was  yesterday 
accorded  to  his  company,  be  by  anticipation  furnished  (in 
order  that  in  the  service  of  the  Land  he  may  take  his  com- 
pany out  of  Utrecht,  and  bring  them  into  the  field),  with  the 
sum  of  two  thousand  guilders,  provided  that  the  said  sum  be 
deducted  from  him  during  the  next  four  months. 


i6os]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  199 

January  25. — The  Advocate  of  Holland  reported  that  the 
Baron  of  Buccleuch  had  complained  to  him  that  justice  was 
not  done  him  against  Captain  Bruce,  who  killed  his  lieutenant 
Captain  Hamilton  in  a  duel.  In  respect  that  the  said  Bruce  is 
suffered  to  walk  about  the  streets  here  in  the  Hague,  notwith- 
standing that  he  had  been  summoned  to  the  Council  of  War. 
And  praying  for  justice,  to  remove  all  sources  of  trouble  before 
going  a-field. 

Item.  That  he  may  have  leave  to  increase  his  company, 
beyond  his  present  strength  (of  two  hundred),  to  two  hundred 
and  fifty  men,  at  which  he  is  always  to  hold  the  same  complete. 
Having  consulted  as  to  both  the  said  points,  it  was  resolved 
respecting  the  first  that  the  Council  of  War  be  earnestly 
recommended  to  adjudicate  on  the  death  of  the  said  Hamilton, 
in  order  that  all  inconveniences  and  misunderstandings 
among  the  troops  of  the  Scottish  nation  may  soon  be  re- 
moved. 

Regarding  the  second  point,  the  States  agreed  that  if,  at 
the  muster  of  the  company  of  the  said  Baron  of  Buccleuch, 
there  be  found  twenty  or  thirty  qualified  soldiers  beyond  the 
authorised  number  on  active  service  in  the  same  company, 
that  these  shall  be  passed  in  the  muster  and  paid. 

Claims  of  Sir  William  Balfour. 
(April  15, 1605.) 

MESSIEURS, — Quand  nos  subiectz  nous  prient  de  choses  justes  Diplomatic 
il  appartient  a  notre  honneur  de  tenir  la  main  a  leur  satisfaction.  CorresP°nd- 
C'est  pourquoy  a  Tinstance  de  ce  gentilhome  Sire  Guillaume  icos! 
Balfour  Chevalier,  nfe  serviteur  domestique  filz  du  feu  colonnel 
Balfour,  mort  en  vfe  service,  Nous  reiterons  la  requeste  que 
quelqu'an  passe  vous  avions  faicte  en  sa  faveur,  a  fin  que  luy 
faire  payer  quarante  et  deux  mille  florins,  desquels  vous  estez 
redevables  a  son  diet  pere,  dont  le  droict  et  tiltre  luy  appartient. 
Mais  ces  premieres  lettres  apporterent  si  peu  de    fruict  que 
force  luy  est  vous  importuner  de  rechef,  et  a  nous  le  seconder  de 
nfe  faveur,   tant  pour  le  respect   que  nous  avons  au  gentil- 
home, come  pour  la  raison  qu'a  la  chose  en  soy,  ayant  este 
lesdictes  lettres  acquises  au  colounel  defunct  par  ses  longs  et 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1605 

signales  services,  et  en  fin  par  sa  mort,  laquelle  vous  avez  raison 
de  rememorer  et  recognoistre  envers  son  heritier.  Ce  que  nous 
esperons  que  vous  ferez,  voyant  qu'avons  et  Paffaire  a  coeur  et 
le  gentilhome  en  estime,  tant  pour  nous  donner  contentement 
en  sa  satisfaction  come  pour  luy  oster  Toccasion  de  penser  a 
d'aultres  moyens.  Escript  a  nre  maison  de  Grenewich,  le 
quinsiesme  jour  d'Avril,  Tan  de  nre  regne  de  la  grande 
Bretaigne,  France  et  Irlande  le  troisiesme. 

JAQUES  R. 

MESSEIGNEURS,  MESSEIGNEURS  LES  ESTATZ  GNAULX  DES  PRO- 
VINCES UNIES, — Remonstreen  toute  reverence  et  humilite  le  Sieur 
Guillaume  de  Balfour,  Chevalier  etc.,  filz  ayne  de  feu  Collounel 
Henry  Balfour,  Qu'il  desirant  ensuivre  les  traces  de  son  feu  Seigr 
et  pere,  lequel  a  laisse  sa  vie  en  la  defence  de  vf  e  j  uste  cause  et 
guerre,  il  a  passe  quelque  huict  mois  accepte  une  compagnie  au 
regiment  du  Baron  de  Backlouch  sous  esperance  de  meilleur 
advancement  a  la  premiere  occasion,  Or,  comme  il  lui  con- 
viendra  quiter  des  tres  belles  conditions  qu'il  a  pres  de  sa 
Mt6  son  maistre,  pour  vacquer  au  present  service.  Supplie  tres 
humblement  qull  plaise  a  voz  Seigneuries  le  recompenser  par 
le  paiement  de  certaines  obligations  qu'il  a  pour  le  deu  du 
service  de  son  Seigr  et  pere  comme  app*  par  les  copies  icy 
joinctes  veu  qu'il  est  heritier  et  considere  le  quiter  de  la  debte 
et  Ires  de  faveur  de  sa  Ste  Mat6  escrite  a  cest  effect  a  voz  Sie% 
Ensemble  son  bon  zelle  et  affection  vers  Tadvancement  de  vfe 
cause,  et  signamment  qu'il  passe  soubs  silence  des  aultres 
obligations  de  ceulx  de  Bruges  et  pays  de  Francq,  d'aultant 
qu'elles  sont  a  leur  charges  en  particulier. 

COPIE  i. 

Nous  prelatz,  nobles  et  deputes  des  villes,  representants  les 
estats  gnaulx  des  pays  bas,  presentement  assembles  en  la  ville 
d'Anvers  a  tous  ceulx  qui  ces  presentes  verront,  salut.  Comme 
par  descompte  faict  et  arreste  par  le  commissaire  Charles 
Longin,  avecq  le  Sieur  Christoffer  Edmiston,  capne  d'une 
compaignie  de  gens  de  pied  soubz  le  Regiment  du  Coronel 


i6os]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  201 

Balfour,  soit  trouve  que  au  capne  soit  defalque  au  descompt  a 
nre  prouffict  la  somme  de  deux  mille  livres,  de  quarante  gros 
monnaye  de  flandres  la  livre,  a  cause  d^armes  et  munitions 
livres  au  Regiment  par  Guill.  Lindsay.  Scavoir  faisons  que 
pour  asseurer  le  Sr  Guill.  Lindsay  de  son  deu  et  Tanimer  a 
continuer  semblables  services,  Avons  promis  et  asseure,  pro- 
mectons  et  asseurons  par  ceste  de  payer  au  d1  Guill.  Lindsay  ou 
au  porteur  de  cestes  lad.  somme  de  deux  mille  livres,  dicte 
nionnoye,  endans  six  mois  prochains  de  trois  mois  en  trois  mois 
par  esgalle  portion  a  commencher  avoir  cours  doiz  (des  ?)  le 
premier  de  ce  pnt  mois  de  Mars  xvc  soixante  dix  nef  et  de  la 
enavant,  jusques  a  la  parpaie  de  lad.  somme,  et  ce  par  les 
mains  de  nre  Tresorier  des  guerres  Thierry  van  der  Beken, 
present  ou  aultre  advenir.  Obligeans  a  cest  effect  nous  et 
-chacun  de  nouz,  nos  personnes  etbiensquelzconques  meubles  et 
immeubles,  pfns  et  advenir,  les  soubmectons  a  la  coerction  de 
tous  et  quelzconques  juges,  tant  ecclesiastiques  que  seculiers, 
avecq  renunciation  de  touttes  exceptions  et  privileges,  signam- 
ment  celle  dictant  que  generalle  n'est  d^aulcune  valeur  si 
Tespecialle  ne  precede ;  le  tout  sans  aulcune  fraulde  ou 
malenziez.  Moyennant  que  la  presente  soit  enregistree  et 
verifiee  en  nre  chambre  des  aides.  En  tesmoignage  de  verite 
avons  faict  cacheter  cestes  du  cachet  accoustume  et  faict  signer 
par  un  de  noz  secretaires. 

Par  ordonnance  expresse  desd*  Srs  Estats. 

HOUFFLIN. 

Faict  a  Anvers  le  xxiii6  jour  de  mars  xvc  soixante  dix  neuf. 


COPIE  ii. 

Nous  Prelats  Nobles  et  Deputez  etc.  .  .  .  Comme  par 
.descompte  faict  et  arreste  par  le  commissaire  des  moustres 
Charles  Longin  avec  les  capitaines  du  Regiment  du  Colonnel 
Balfour  soit  trouve  que  aud.  capitaines  soit  defalcque  aud. 
descompte  a  nre  proffict  la  somme  de  onze  mil  trois  cent  trente 
quatre  livres,  de  quarante  groz  monnoye  de  flandres  la  livre,  a 
cause  d^armes  et  munitions  livres  aud.  Regiment  par  led.  Sr 
Balfour,  Scavoir  faisons,  que  pour  asseurer  led.  Sr  Colonnel 


202  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1605 

Balfour  de  son  d.  deu  et  Tanimer  a  continuer  sembles  services, 
Avons  promis  et  asseure,  promectons  et  asseurons  par  cestes  de 
payer  aud.  Sr  Balfour  ou  au  porteur  de  cestes,  lad.  somme  de 
onse  mil  trois  cens  trente  quatre  livres  dicte  monnoye,  endeans. 
an  et  demy  prochain,  et  trois  termes  par  esgalle  portion,  a 
commencher  avoir  cours  dois  le  premier  de  ce  mois  de  Mars  et 
de  la  en  avant  jusques  a  la  parpaye  de  lad.  somme,  et  ce  par  les 
mains  de  nre  Tresorier  de  guerres  Thierry  van  der  Beken 
present  ou  aultre  advenir,  etc.,  etc.  HOUFFLIN. 

Faict  en  lad.  ville  d'Anvers  le  xxiii6  de  Mars  xvc  soixante  dix 
nef,  etc. 

COPIE  in. 

Nous  Prelatz,  nobles  et  deputes  etc.  Comme  par  descompte 
faict  et  arreste  par  le  commissaire  Charles  Longin,  avec  le  Sr 
Balfour,  coronnel  d'ung  Regiment  de  gens  de  pied  Escossois  et 
pour  le  restant  du  traictement  de  sa  personne  de  sa  com- 
paignie  coronnelle,  soit  trouve  qu'aultre  les  prests,  rabas  et 
payemens  qu'aud.  Sr  Coronnel  avons  faict  depuis  lu  xviii6  de 
Novembre  xvc  Ixxvii,  jour  de  Tentree  de  son  service,  jusques  le 
dernier  du  mois  de  febvrier  dernier  passe  jour  dud.  descompte 
luy  serions  demeurez  redebuables  la  somme  de  dix  huict  mille 
deux  cens  xcl  £  xv  s,  de  quarante  gros  monnaye  de  flandres  la 
livre.  Scavoir  faisons  que  pour  donner  aud.  Sr  Coronnel  tout 
contentement  possible  endroict  le  payement  de  lad.  somme  et 
affin  de  rammer  de  tant  plus  de  continuer  vertueusement  en 
nre  service,  Avons  promis  et  asseure,  promectons  et  asseurons 
par  cestes,  payer  aud.  Sr  Coronnel  Balfour,  ou  au  porteur  de 
cestes  lad.  somme  de  xviiim  iic  iiiixxxi  £xv  s  dicte  monnaye, 
endeans  an  et  demy  prochain  venant  etc.,  etc.  HOUFFLIN. 

November  22. — On  information  received  that  in  Scotland  twa 
regiments  of  servants1  are  being  raised  for  the  enemy,  it  is 
resolved  that  this  be  made  known  to  the  Admiral  of  the  fleet 
before  Dunkirk  ;  charging  him  to  keep  a  look  out  for  them 
and  in  case  he  should  capture  any  English  or  Scots,  who  are 


1  The  word  Knechten  =  servants  may  be  short  for  Lanzknechts  =  fo«f£ry,  or  it 
may  just  mean  serving-men. 


i6o6]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  203 

being  conveyed  to  the  enemy,  to  see  that  they  are  thrown 
overboard. 

1606,  January  3. — At  the  request  of  Colonel  Edmond,  it 
was  agreed  that  a  Commissary  of  musters  [or  muster  master] 
be  sent  to  Rotterdam  to  inspect  the  new  Scots  arrived  there, 
brought  over  by  Lieutenant  William  Martin,  and  make  them 
delay  for  some  days,  to  see  if  in  the  interim  the  forty  Scots 
whom  he  still  expects  arrive ;  so  that,  thereafter,  having  heard 
the  report  of  the  said  Commissary,  it  may  after  be  resolved 
whether  one  company  shall  be  made  up  out  of  them  or  not. 

1606,  January  6. — Resolved  to  write  to  the  Commissioners 
of  the  Councils  of  Holland,  that  seeing  the  States  have  resolved 
to  keep  the  said  Scots  in  their  service,  their  lordships  shall  be 
pleased  to  arrange  with  the  Magistracy  of  Rotterdam  to 
accommodate  and  put  them  up  in  their  city  for  a  certain  short 
time.  That  the  States  have  issued  an  order  by  which  a  loan 
is  granted  them  for  fourteen  days,  and  that  further  orders  will 
immediately  be  issued  that  the  same  be  continued  ;  so  that  on 
that  account  they  need  furnish  no  more  victuals  to  the  said 
soldiers.  It  was  further  resolved  that  Lieutenant  Martin,  who 
brought  the  said  Scots  over  from  Scotland,  if  he  should  succeed 
in  forming  a  company  of  new  Scots,  fresh  from  Scotland, 
within  a  month  or  six  weeks,  capable  and  qualified  soldiers,  to 
the  number  of  150  heads,  will  have  a  commission  over  them 
granted  to  him ;  otherwise  the  foresaid  soldiers  shall  be 
reduced,  that,  in  the  interim,  order  shall  be  taken  that  the 
same  be  supported  by  a  loan,  that  is  to  say  with  a  dollar  each 
soldier  (officers  included). 

February  27. — It  was  found  desirable  to  charge  the  first 
[muster]  commissary  to  betake  himself  to  Rotterdam,  and 
review  the  company  of  Scots  arrived  there  from  Calais,  raised 
in  Scotland,  for  the  service  of  the  enemy,  and  see  whether  the 
soldiers  are  suitable  for  the  service  of  the  Land,  and  provide 
them  with  three  days'  provisions. 

April  28. — On  the  request  of  John  Balfour,  brother  of  Baron 
Balfour  of  Burley,  praying  to  be  allowed  to  form  a  company 
of  Scottish  infantry  for  the  service  of  the  Land,  it  was  resolved 
that,  a  considerable  number  of  recruits  being  still  expected 

trom  Scotland,  the  request  of  the  petitioner  in  the  meantime 
ie  over. 


204 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1606 


Captain  Erskine's  Company. 

The  Magistracy  of  Zwolle  to  the  Council  of  State. 
(May  21,  1606.) 

MY  LORDS, — We  cannot  withhold  from  you  how  having,  by 
order  of  his  Excellency,  last  autumn  received  the  cavalry  com- 
pany of  Captain  Arskin,  we  could  at  first  supply  them  only 
very  badly  with  lodgings,  they  being  people  of  a  foreign 
nation,  and  also  in  appearance  completely  impoverished  and 
sickly.  Besides  that,  we  were  already  provided  with  other  com- 
panies, both  mounted  and  on  foot,  hence  all  hesitated  to  lodge 
the  said  cavalry.  However,  by  persuasion  and  encouragement, 
we  at  length  prevailed  on  our  burgesses  to  receive  them.  Now 
it  so  happened  that  the  said  captain  left  this  place  shortly 
after  his  arrival,  and  owing  to  indisposition  or  other  hindrances 
has  not  yet  returned.  On  account  of  which  said  cavalry,  dur- 
ing the  time  they  have  been  here  in  garrison,  have  received 
very  little  money,  and  therefore  would  have  had  no  means  of 
support  for  themselves  and  their  horses,  had  not  the  burghers 
with  whom  they  lodged  commiserated  them  and  assisted  them 
with  victuals,  oats,  hay,  and  other  necessaries,  in  the  full 
expectation  that  from  time  to  time  th«  captain  would  come 
with  pay  or  send  the  money. 

While  upwards  of  ten  to  twelve  hundred  thalers  have  in 
this  way  now  been  spent  on  the  cavalry,  and  the  burghers  are 
expecting  that  these  troops  may  soon  receive  orders  to  march 
to  the  field,  we  have  had  earnest  representations  and  entreaties 
from  said  burghers  to  aid  them  in  obtaining  payment  for  their 
outlays,  otherwise  they  expressly  declare  that  when  the  orders 
arrive,  and  the  troopers  proceed  to  remove  their  horses  from 
the  stalls,  they  intend  to  retain  them  in  lieu  of  payment; 
therefore  we  cannot  refrain  from,  in  the  most  friendly  manner, 
making  request  to  your  lordships  that  the  money  for  the  pay 
of  said  company,  to  be  drawn  by  the  said  captain,  be  with- 
held for  behoof  of  our  burghers.  Otherwise  it  will  be  im- 
possible to  prevent  the  said  burghers  from  retaining  the  horses, 
as  security,  till  they  receive  payment ;  because  they  are,  for 
the  most  part,  people  with  very  limited  means,  to  whom  any 
loss  is  a  serious  matter.  And  though  in  this  matter  we  trust 


1607]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  205 

entirely  to  your  lordships,  we  desire,  nevertheless,  that  you 
may  be  pleased  to  send  in  return  to  us  by  the  bearer  of  this, 
our  express  messenger,  a  small  rescript. — Herewith,  etc.,  your 
lordships  good  friends, 

THE  BURGOMASTERS,  ALDERMEN,  AND  COUNCIL 
OF  THE  TOWN  OF  ZwOLLE. 

September  12. — Received  a  letter,  of  date  7  September,  from  Resolutions 
his  Excellency,  wherein  his  Excellency  requests  that  the  States 
would  be  graciously  pleased  to  have  Lieutenant-Colonel  William 
Brogge  in  favourable  recommendation,  before  any  other,  for 
the  colonelcy  of  the  regiment  of  the  late  Edmond.  After 
consultation,  the  reply  was  ordered  to  be  sent,  that  so  far  as 
his  Excellency  considers  it  proper  to  grant  the  regiment  to  the 
foresaid  Lieutenant-Colonel  Brogge,  in  which  the  same  has 
served  as  lieutenant,  the  States  agree  thereto,  provided  no  other 
officers  be  appointed  over  the  regiment,  so  long  as  it  is 
doubtful  whether,  after  the  month  of  September,  the  burdens 
of  war  will  be  so  heavy. 

1607.  January  27. — In  regard  to  his  long  and  faithful 
services,  Colonel  Brogh  is  granted  a  salary  of  four  hundred 
guilders  a  month,  as  Colonel  Edmond  likewise  formerly  had. 

February  23. — At  the  request  of  Captain  Henry  Bruce,  pray- 
ing for  full  payment  and  recompense  for  his  past  services,  it  was 
determined  and  declared  that  the  States-General,  considering 
their  situation  of  affairs,  have  treated  the  petitioner  as  favour- 
ably as  anybody  else,  of  whatever  nation,  in  the  service  of  the 
Land,  that  he  will  therefore,  for  a  change,  have  to  content 
himself  for  the  present. 

March  19. — Two  petitions  were  read  from  the  widow  of 
Andrew  Macrevaels,  in  life  cadet  in  the  company  of  Captain 
James  Blair,  and  from  the  widow  of  Captain  Robert  Barkly,  also 
cadet  of  the  said  company,  praying  respectively  for  payment, 
the  one  of  one  hundred,  the  other  of  eighty  guilders,  for 
services  rendered  to  the  Land  by  their  said  late  husbands,  under 
the  said  Captain  Blair,  but  an  understanding  was  come  to 
that,  on  account  of  their  being  likely  to  form  a  precedent, 
these  payments  cannot  be  entertained. 

April   11. — On   a   request   of    the   relict   and   orphans   of 


206 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1607 


Captain  Robert  Barkly,  Scotsman,  it  was  ordered  to  place  the 
same  in  the  hands  of  the  Clerk  of  the  Treasury,  to  discover 
how  long  petitioners  husband  had  served,  and  what  balance  is 
due  to  him.  Item.  What  has  been  paid  to  the  same,  or  to 
the  petitioner,  by  the  Receiver-General,  or  by  the  Receiver 
of  Holland,  and,  otherwise,  how  widows  in  like  circumstances 
have  been  treated  ? 

Prince  Maurice  to  the  Council  of  State. 

NOBLE,  HONOURABLE,  VERY  WISE  AND  DISCREET,  OUR  SPECIALLY 
GOOD  FRIENDS,  —  MY  LORDS,  —  Captain  Francis  Henderson  has 
complained  to  us,  that  you  object  to  permit  the  arrears  of  his 
pay,  to  which  he  is  entitled,  to  be  sent  after  him,  which  are 
due  to  him  as  having  served  as  sergeant-major  in  the  regi- 
ment of  Colonel  Buccleuch,  during  a  period  referred  to  in  the 
accompanying  remonstrance  ;  as  to  which  he  beseeches  us  to 
speak  a  word  in  his  favour  to  your  lordships,  in  order  that  he 
may  have  it  granted  him.  And  because  we  well  know  that  he 
has  filled  the  said  office  from  June  1604  till  now  ;  though 
Captain  Halket  filled  the  same  post  about  four  months  during 
his  absence,  and  there  is  now  Captain  Forbes,  who  replaced 
him.  Therefore  in  all  friendship  we  request  your  Honours,  by 
these  presents,  to  issue  an  order  that  he  be  paid  for  his  past 
services.  —  Your  lordships1  obedient  friend, 

(Sd)        MAURICE  DE  NASSAU. 

The  Hague,  the  last  day  of  March  1607. 

To  the  Council  of  State. 

MY  LORDS,  —  Thomas  Marchbank,  ensign  in  the  company 
of  the  late  Commander  Edmonds,  and  afterwards  of  Colonel 
Brough,  has  informed  us,  and  shown  by  petition,  in  the  name 
of  George  Ramsay,  lieutenant  of  the  same  company,  and  in 
his  own  name,  that  although  they  had  served  long  years  in  the 
said  company,  and  had  been  garrisoned  with  them  on  several 
occasions  in  our  City,  and  had  held  their  soldiers  in  such  good 
order,  discipline,  and  quietness,  that  they  had  not  only  been 
thanked  by  their  late  commander  and  the  soldiers  themselves, 
but  even  by  the  whole  community  here.  That  in  spite  of  all 


i6o;]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  207 

this,  it  pleased  their  present  colonel  and  captain,  Brough,  to 
shift  them  from  their  respective  posts  without,  be  it  noted, 
having  any  reason  for  doing  so,  and  in  revenge  at  the  soldiers 
having  demanded  their  arrears  from  the  widow  Edmonds, 
deeming  that  they  were  the  instigators,  though  that  had  not 
been  shown,  and  the  charge  had  been  withdrawn.  And  since, 
as  they  said,  we  were  acquainted  with  their  good  conduct 
while  garrisoned  in  Utrecht;  and  further  with  their  faithful 
services,  which  should  be  taken  into  consideration,  in  the  battle 
of  Flanders,  the  sieges  of  Ostend,  Rynberck,  and  elsewhere, 
they  therefore  besought  us  most  humbly  to  grant  them  a 
declaration  or  prescript  to  lay  before  your  lordships,  regarding 
their  conduct  and  behaviour  in  Utrecht,  in  order  that  they 
may  thereby  promote  their  interests  with  you,  in  complaining 
of  the  matter  aforesaid.  That  we  could  not  refuse  them  ;  and 
we  hereby  declare,  that  the  said  company  remained  several 
years  consecutively  in  garrison  within  our  town ;  that  the 
foresaid  officers  kept  the  company  in  such  good  discipline, 
and  the  soldiers  conducted  themselves  so  modestly  and  politely 
in  their  intercourse  with  the  burgers,  that  we  and  the  general 
community  derived  much  pleasure  from  their  conduct,  which  is 
the  reason  why  we  address  your  lordships.  Praying  Almighty 
God  to  have  you  in  His  holy  keeping,  Your  honours1  obedient 
friends, 

SHERIFF,  BURGOMASTER,  AND  ALDERMEN 

OF  THE  TOWN  OF  UTRECHT. 
Written  at  Utrecht,  the  25  April  1607. 

Anne  oca 

JAMES  R. 

TRUSTY  AND  WELBELOVED,  WEE  GREET  you  WELL.  A  subiect 
of  owers,  called  George  Ramsey,  Lieutenaunt  to  Collonell 
Edmonds,  is  now  a  suiteur  to  the  States  Gen1  to  be  releived 
wth  some  pension  or  other  advancement  in  regard  of  his  long 
services  and  infirmities  contracted  in  their  service.  And  hath 
had  reason  to  alleage  unto  them  for  his  suite  having  spent 
many  yeares  in  their  service ;  had  two  brothers  slayne  there, 
and  lastly  weakness  happened  to  himself,  wherewth  though  we 
doubt  not  but  they  wil  be  moved  to  have  consideracon  of  him, 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1607 

yet  because  he  is  one  of  whome  we  have  heard  well  and  doe 
desire  to  have  him  releived,  we  are  pleased  that  you  shall  use 
ouer  recomendacon  of  him  to  them,  and  move  them  to  it,  as  a 
matter  much  desired  by  us,  and  wch  we  will  take  in  kind  part 
at  their  handes,  and  require  you  to  urge  them  to  it,  wth  as 
much  earnestnes  as  reasonably  you  may. 

Given  under  ouer  Signet  at  our  Mannour  of  Hatfeild,  the 
five  and  Twentith  day  of  July,  in  the  third  yere  of  ouer  raigne 
of  great  Brytaine,  ffraunce,  and  Irelande. 

[Addressed] 

To  our  trusty  and  welbeloved  Raphe  Wynwood,  esquire, 
our  Agent  resydent  with  the  States  of  the  unyted  provinces 
of  the  Lowe  Countries. 

Of  the  xiiith  of  August. 

To  the  Council  of  State. 

MY  LORDS,  —  Your  missive  of  the  24  April  last  was 
handed  to  me  on  the  last  day  of  the  following  month,  and 
from  it  I  am  led  to  understand  that  your  Honours'  opinion 
and  intention,  in  conformity  with  the  note  of  his  Excellency, 
appended  to  the  request  of  William  Stuart,  Ensign,  is  to  the 
effect,  that  I  should  receive  him  again  into  my  company,  and 
permit  him  to  enjoy  the  full  effect  of  said  note,  unless  I 
could  allege  some  strong  reasons  to  the  contrary.  Will  it 
please  your  Honours,  therefore,  to  accept  these  as  reasons  to 
be  taken  into  consideration  that  the  deceased,  killed  by  the 
said  remonstrant,  is  my  cousin-german,  and  a  near  blood 
relative ;  obviously  therefore  it  would  be  impossible  for  me  to 
endure  to  have  the  remonstrant  going  about  before  my  eyes, 
and  more  difficult  still  to  have  him  serving  in  my  company 
without  loss  of  respect,  and  his  being  in  it  would  give  rise  to 
divers  serious  inconveniences,  which,  owing  to  natural  affection 
for  a  blood  relative,  might  supply  material  for  more  and 
greater  grievance  to  the  other  than  what  has  been  referred  to. 
Therefore,  I  hope  your  lordships,  duly  weighing  what  has 
been  said,  will  be  pleased  to  take  such  action  as  may  be  most 
advisable  for  securing  quiet,  peace,  and  tranquillity  to  both 


i6o/]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  209 

parties.    Moreover,  may  it  please  you  to  order  the  said  ensign 
to  keep  himself  anywhere  else  out  of  my  sight. 

Herewith  I  pray  the  Almighty  to  have  your  lordships 
under  the  shield  and  protection  of  His  grace,  to  whom  also  I 
very  humbly  commend  myself.  Your  honours1  most  obedient 
servant, 

(Signed)         DAVID  RAMSAY. 

From  Bergen  on  the  Zoom,  the  first  May  a°  1607. 

Complaint  from  the  Town  of  Heusden. 

Heusden,  20  May  1607. — Your  lordships  must  already  be  Letters  and 
well  acquainted,  from  the  correspondence  of  our  Lord  Governor, 
my  noble  Lord  of  Hierez,  with  the  miserable  condition  of  this  of  state, 
town,  occasioned  mostly  by  the  six  English  and  Scottish  Com- 
panies, who  have  several  times  been  in  garrison  within  the 
town,  and  are  still  here  at  present,  besides  two  other  Nether- 
land  companies,  and  chiefly  by  the  English  company  of  Cap- 
tain Konnock,  wherein  the  greatest  disorder  is  found.  The 
common  soldiers  complaining  bitterly,  because  of  their  miser- 
able rations  and  bad  payment,  and  that  to  such  a  degree, 
that  had  not  the  soldiers  at  our  earnest  entreaty  been 
provided  with  a  weekly  loan,  by  treasurer  Bruynincx,  we 
should  to-day  be  in  fear  of  a  new  species  of  mutiny.  There- 
fore, along  with  our  Lord  Governor  aforesaid,  we  pray  that 
your  lordships  may  so  arrange  matters,  that  in  future  all  such 
disorders  be  provided  against  and  prevented ;  and  that  you 
may  be  pleased  to  intercede  with  his  Excellency,  in  order  that 
some  companies  of  the  said  foreign  nations,  and  in  particular 
that  of  Konnock,  which  has  been  the  longest  in  garrison  here, 
may  be  changed,  a  measure  which  will  not  only  contribute  to 
the  security  of  this  frontier  place,  but  confirm  our  town  and 
its  inhabitants  in  greater  loyalty.  Therefore  we  conclude  this 
with  humble  respects  to  your  lordships,  praying  the  Amighty 
to  spare  the  same,  etc. 

At  Heusden,  this  30th  May  1607.  At  order  of  the  bailiff, 
the  burgomasters,  and  rulers  of  the  town  of  Heusden, 

VAN  HAERSVELT. 


210  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1607 

Annexa  to  the  preceding  letter. 

MY  LORDS, — To-day  certain  soldiers  of  the  company  of 
Captain  Konnock  proceeded  to  plunder  several  houses  of 
certain  bakers  and  provision  merchants  of  the  bread  and 
victuals  exposed  in  their  shops,  doing  this,  as  I  am  informed, 
through  want  of  money  ;  and  the  citizens,  because  of  this,  are 
in  perplexity  and  highly  dissatisfied,  and  truly  not  without 
cause,  since  it  might  easily  happen,  particularly  with  the 
foreigners,  that,  although  those  in  the  other  companies  are  not 
in  such  a  state  of  destitution,  they  might  be  seduced  into 
taking  part  in  a  factious  rising  of  the  sort,  through  hope  of 
disorder  and  pillage.  I  pray  that  it  may  please  your  lord- 
ships to  restore  matters  to  due  order  with  all  diligence.  I 
have  written  to  his  Exy  about  changing  the  garrison.  Eight 
Companies  are  here,  six  of  which  are  English  and  Scottish.  I 
hope  his  Exy  will  send  two  or  three  Netherland  companies 
here,  and  remove  again  out  to  the  country  some  of  the  strangers, 
particularly  the  company  of  Captain  Konnock,  which  from 
the  first  has  continually  been  in  bad  order — more  so  than 
proper  officers  ought  to  tolerate,  as  the  whole  city  can  testify. 

Meantime  I  shall  continue  to  do  my  duty  in  everything,  as 
God  knows ;  to  whom  I  pray  that  He  may  maintain  your 
lordships  in  a  long,  prosperous,  and  blessed  government. 

At  Heusden  this  30th  May  1607,  Y.  H.  M.  humble  and 
faithful  servant,  MAXIMILIAN  DE  HORMES. 

Resolutions          Juty  21. — Alexander  Stuart,  cuirassier  in  the   company  of 

of  states-         cavalry  of  the  late  Colonel  Edmond,  was  continued  in  his  pay- 
r*  PTIPT3 1  L    •/ 

ment  of  fifty  guilders  a  month,  being  what  he  had  under  the 

said  colonel,  and  the  company  of  the  Count  of  de  Broucke. 

September  4. — On  the  request  of  Colonel  Brogh,  he  having 
received  into  his  company  37  soldiers  from  the  disbanded 
company  of  Captain  Cranston,  and  18  soldiers  of  Captain 
Robbert,  also  out  of  said  disbanded  company,  an  under- 
standing was  come  to  that  the  said  soldiers  shall  be  accounted 
as  the  petitioner's  from  the  date  when  it  shall  be  proved  he 
received  them. 

December  13. — On  the  request  of  Alexander  Stuart,  it  was 
agreed  that,  inasmuch  as  the  petitioner  actually  went  into  ser- 


i6o8]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS 

vice  under  Cavalry  Captain  Areskeyn,  the  pay  of  fifty  guilders 
a  month  of  forty-two  days,  allowed  him  by  the  Council  of 
State,  shall  be  paid  him. 

December  15. — To  the  surviving  son  of  the  late  Captain 
Barkly,  who  fell  in  the  battle  of  Flanders,  was  granted  a  place 
in  any  similar  company,  such  as  the  said  captain^s  surviving 
widow,  married  to  Bartholomew  de  Bonder,  may  choose  ;  and 
to  the  said  widow,  out  of  commiseration,  a  grant  of  fifty 
guilders  in  all. 

1608,  January  19. — Jaques  Douglas,  sometime  Ensign  in 
the  company  of  Captain  Cathcart,  in  consideration  of  certain 
things,  was  granted  eighteen  guilders,  provided  that  he  do  not 
pester  the  States  further. 

March  18. — The  request  of  Colonel  Stuart  was  read,  and  it 
was  resolved,  and  on  the  said  request  decided,  that  since  the 
petitioner  by  particular  favour,  on  the  recommendation  of  the 
Earl  of  Orkney,  got  a  commission  to  bring  from  Scotland,  for 
the  service  of  the  Land,  a  company  of  infantry,  of  one  hundred 
and  forty  men,  the  States-General,  in  order  to  show  still 
greater  favour  to  the  petitioner,  permit  the  same,  and  consent 
by  these  presents,  to  the  said  company  being  again  transported 
out  of  these  Lands  to  Sweden,  in  the  king^s  service  and  by  his 
request. 

June  30. — On  the  request  of  Jacques  Bruce,  Scotsman,  late 
ensign  of  Captain  Sinclair,  praying  for  the  post  of  officer  of 
artillery,  in  the  place  of  Peter  Stuart,  also  a  Scotsman,  said 
request  is  refused. 

July  1. — It  was  agreed  that  the  Receiver  pay  the  monthly 
payments  due  to  the  late  Peter  Stuart,  Scotsman,  officer  of 
artillery,  in  which  Stuart  died,  in  order  to  cover  therewith 
the  expenses  of  his  funeral.1 

Proposals  of' Captain  Bruce. 

July  24. — The  Advocate  of  Holland  has  forwarded  certain 
information,  received  by  him  from  Calais,  from  the  agent 
Digart,  touching  a  certain  plan,  which  one  of  the  Scots 
captains  named  Bruce  offers  to  carry  out,  and  which  would  in 
the  highest  degree  be  of  advantage  to  the  Land,  on  condition 

1  See  pp.  187  and  188. 


212  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1608 

that  he  be  recompensed,  namely,  either  as  he  may  engage,  or 
on  a  pay  of  three  hundred  guilders  a  month,  or  that  he  should 
be  given  command  of  one-half  of  the  Scottish  regiment  of  the 
Baron  of  Buccleuch.  Otherwise  he  shall  withhold  the  said 
information  and  depart  with  it  to  Italy. 

After  consultation,  an  understanding  was  come  to  that  it 
be  ascertained  from  his  Exy  whether  he  has  any  particular 
advice  or  explanation  regarding  the  above  mentioned  com- 
munication, and  if  not,  no  attention  is  to  be  paid  to  it. 

July  25. — In  a  report  of  the  Advocate  of  Holland,  heard  of 
his  Excy's  approval  of  the  plan  which  Captain  Herman  Bruce 
offers  to  carry  out,  on  terms  proposed  by  him,  as  to  certain 
matters,  touching  in  the  highest  degree  the  security  of  the 
government  of  the  Land. 

It  was  thought  good  to  write  to  the  Agents  Aerssen  and 
Digart  to  test  the  foresaid  captain,  and  try  to  draw  out  of 
him  what  the  service  really  is  that  he  offers  to  do,  and  to  that 
end  to  assure  the  same  that  in  so  far  as  the  matters  which  he 
offers  to  carry  out  are,  as  he  says,  important  to  the  government 
of  the  Land,  he  is  to  be  given  to  understand  that  in  regard  to 
them  the  States  shall  recognise  his  services  according  to  their 
usual  discretion  and  the  demands  of  the  service  which  he  may 
therein  do  to  the  Land. 

Septtr  25.  —  A  letter  was  read  from  Captain  Bruce,  of 
7  September,  enclosing  certain  advices,  regarding  which  he  has 
given  more  particular  information,  for  the  service  of  the 
Land,  to  the  Agent  Aerssen,  in  the  full  confidence  that  he 
will  obtain  from  the  States  due  recognition  for  this. 

After  deliberation,  it  was  resolved  and  agreed  to  write  to  the 
said  Agent  Aerssen  that  they  have  seen  the  explanation  which 
the  said  captain  has  made  to  him ;  for  which,  on  their  part,  he 
is  to  thank  the  same,  and  assure  him  that  their  Highnesses,  and 
his  Exy  have  been  perfectly  informed  about  the  said  design 
for  more  than  fifteen  years ;  and  with  such  certainty,  that  his 
Exy.  has  always  had  it  in  view,  as  among  other  things  was 
apparent  when  the  Admiral  of  Arragon  entered  the  territory 
of  Cleves,  and  passed  the  Rhine  with  a  powerful  army,  and 
made  an  attempt  on  the  fortifications  of  Gravenweert,  and  at 
last,  the  enemy  having  besieged  the  city  of  Groll,  at  the  time 


i6o8]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  213 

when  his  Ex^,  to  prevent  the  design  on  Graven weert  and  their 
quarters,  allowed  a  flying  column  to  stay  in  that  locality. 
Afterwards  he  led  there  a  large  fleet,  with  pontoons  and  ships, 
against  the  advance  of  the  enemy.  Nevertheless  the  States 
agree  to  satisfy  the  said  Captain  Bruce  with  two  or  three 
hundred  crowns,  or  at  the  utmost  with  a  thousand  guilders  in 
all,  and  he,  Aerssen,  is  to  furnish  him  with  said  sum  ;  or  make 
him  the  offer,  that  should  he  desire  to  come  here  to  await  his 
fortune,  he  shall  be  recommended  as  occasion  presents  itself. 

December  1. — The  Messrs,  van  Loenen,  Oldenbarneveld,  and 
van  der  Aa  are  commissioned  to  converse  more  particularly, 
and  hear  from  Captain  Bruce,  what  more  he  has  to  communcate 
in  the  service  of  the  Lands  than  what  he  has  done. 

December  10. — The  Messrs,  v.  Loenen,  Oldenbarneveld,  and 
van  der  Aa,  gave  in  a  report  of  their  conference  with  Captain 
Bruce,  arrived  from  France,  as  to  certain  communications  of 
his  made  in  the  service  of  the  Land.  And  having  deliberated 
thereon,  it  was  agreed,  that  an  order  for  five  hundred  guilders 
in  all  be  despatched  to  the  said  Captain  Bruce  for  his  main- 
tenance; that  meanwhile  it  shall  be  decided  later  about  his 
departure,  and  the  recognition  of  any  good  services  performed 
by  him  to  the  Land,  and  known  to  the  States. 

January  3,  1609. — The  request  of  Henry  Bruce  was  read, 
but  in  the  meantime  a  decision  was  postponed. 

June  10. — There  was  granted  to  Henry  Bruce,  formerly 
captain,  for  all  his  claims  of  services,  and  beyond  the  sum 
accorded  him  before,  five  hundred  guilders,  provided  there 
be  deducted  from  it  the  sum  that  the  agent  Aerssen  credited 
him  with  in  France. 

July  17. — To  Captain  Henry  Bruce,  on  account  of  certain 
good  considerations,  and  for  all  his  claims  on  the  Land,  beyond 
the  five  hundred  guilders  last  accorded  him,  is  still  added 
three  hundred  guilders.  And  it  is  agreed  to  despatch  him  an 
order  for  both,  together  amounting  to  eight  hundred  guilders, 
it  being  understood  that  the  first  five  hundred  guilders  granted 
the  petitioner,  for  some  special  services,  are  not  included 
therein. 

August  10. — To  Captain  Henry  Bruce  were  granted  letters 
of  recommendation  to  the  Margrave  of  Ansbach,  containing  in 


214 


WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE 


[1608 


substance :  Seeing  the  petitioner  has  served  very  long  and 
faithfully  in  these  Lands,  and  that  he  is  a  man  who  could  be 
of  service  to  His  Serene  Highness,  the  States  do  therefore 
recommend  His  Serene  Highness  that  he  be  pleased,  in  so  far 
as  he  may  find  it  prudent  to  have  in  his  service  people  of  the 
Scottish  nation,  to  employ  the  same. 

Recommendation  by  the  Burgomasters  and  Aldermen  of  the 
City  of  Breda. 

MY  LORDS, — We  humbly  recommend  ourselves  to  your  good 
graces.  Jacques  Lawson,  Scotsman,  burgher  of  this  town,  has 
begged  us,  in  a  written  request  here  enclosed,  to  grant  him 
letters  favourably  recommending  him  to  your  lordships  for 
the  post  of  cannoneer  of  this  city.  Which  request  we  have 
the  more  willingly  had  written  on  his  behalf  as  we  are  aware 
that  the  said  Jacques  has  served  the  Land  for  a  long  time 
well  and  faithfully,  and  that  afterwards,  as  a  burgher  of  this 
city,  he  conducted  himself  as  a  reputable  and  respectable  man, 
and  we  never  heard  any  other  report  of  him ;  and  in  addition, 
Thomas  Wymerbeeck,  commander  of  the  cannoneers,  has 
certified,  by  mark  of  hand,  that  Jacques  Lawson  would  be 
found  highly  qualified  for  said  post.  We  therefore  pray  your 
lordships  that  this  our  recommendation  be  serviceable  to  the 
said  Lawson.  Wherewith  concluding,  we  shall  ever  pray,  etc. 
— Your  lordships  obedient, 

BURGOMASTERS  AND  ALDERMEN  OF  THE  CITY  BREDA. 

This  26  July  1608. 


Letters  and 

Requests  to 

the  Council 

State. 


The  Company  oj  Captain  Mackenzie  at  Aardenburg. 

MY  LORDS, — We  have  received  your  lordships1  missive, 
together  with  the  enclosed  request  from  the  clerk  Johan 
Bogaert.  From  which  we  learn  that  the  substance  of  his 
complaint  to  you  refers  to  a  certain  building,  on  which,  he 
asserts,  he  has  expended  something  by  way  of  repairs.  Let  it 
suffice  for  an  answer,  that  at  the  capture  of  the  town  the 
said  house  was  found  to  be  an  old  building,  and  Captain 
Elderen,  then  major  here,  put  a  certain  smith  into  it,  and 
after  he  left,  the  said  clerk  affirms  that  he  made  certain  repairs 


1606]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  215 

on  it.  Then  the  company  of  Captain  Mackingi  [?]  arrived 
as  a  garrison,  and  difficulty  was  found  in  securing  accommoda- 
tion, and  the  lieutenant  of  the  said  company  and  some  of 
his  soldiers  were  quartered  in  the  building,  and  still  lodge 
there.  He  went  accordingly  on  the  understanding  that  the 
house  being  abandoned,  and  no  proprietor  living  in  it,  it  was 
quite  at  the  service  of  the  Land.  Further,  we  submit  these 
repairs  or  claims  to  the  discretion  of  your  lordships,  etc. — 
Your  mighty  Honours'  obedient  servant, 

FBANS  HASEMAN. 

At  Aerdenburch,  the  1  September  1608. 

1608,  September  19. — There  was  read  the  request  of  Captain  Resolutions 
William  Balfour,1  recommended  by  the  King  of  Great  Britain, 
both  by  His  Majesty's  letters  and  orally  by  the  ambassadors 
who  had  been  in  England.  And  it  was  agreed  that  the  States- 
General,  being  at  present  so  occupied  with  matters  of  extreme 
importance  in  regard  to  the  Land,  their  High  Mightinesses 
cannot  attend  to  the  request  of  the  petitioner  ;  but  that  this 
shall  be  done  at  a  more  convenient  opportunity,  and  be  then 
disposed  of  as  may  be  found  proper. 

The  Magistracy  of  Zwolle  re  Capt.  Erskine^s  Cavalry  Company. 

1608,  Decr  3. — MY  LORDS, — Since  the  decease  of  Captain  Letters  and 
Arch.  Arskin,  it  has  been  found  that  he  owed  to  our  burghers  ^  ^Coiuidi0 
here,  and  to  others,  a  considerable  sum  of  money.     Moreover,  of  state, 
some  members  of  the  said  captain's  family  took  upon  them  to 
remove  by  unlawful  methods  from  this  place,  and  retain  the 
horses  and  other  goods  left  by  the  captain.     We  have  ordered 
the  same  to  be  apprehended,  and  did  all  in  our  power  to  cause 
the  horses  and  other  goods  to  be  brought  back,  and  stored 
beside  the  rest,  to  be  kept  for  the  benefit  of  the  deceased's 
heir,  or  otherwise  for  the  benefit  of  the  creditors,  to  whom  he 
is  deeply  indebted.     And  seeing  that  the  pay  of  the  troopers, 
due  to  them  from  said   captain,  is   almost  two   months   in 
arrear,  and  in  supporting  themselves  they  have  naturally  run 
into  debt  with  our  burghers,  who  have  presented  a  petition, 
wherein  they  beg  us  to  use  our  influence  with  your  lordships, 

1  See  p.  69,  note  3. 


216  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1609 

in  order  that  they  may  obtain  payment;  also  particularly 
requesting  that  the  money  be  forwarded  to  us,  in  order  that 
payment  may  be  made  in  presence  of  some  of  our  number,  and 
that  a  due  liquidation  be  effected  between  them  and  our 
burghers,  according  to  the  wants  of  each  one  as  occasion  serves. 
Seeing  then  that  your  lordships  have  sent  the  Commissary 
Doubblet  here,  to  muster  the  company  in  presence  of  our 
deputies,  and  to  account  with  each  of  the  troopers  as  to  his 
arrears,  and  make  liquidation,  we  cannot  refrain  from  writing 
to  you,  and  sending  a  friendly  request,  that  an  arrangement 
be  made  by  your  lordships,  by  which  those  who  pay  this 
money  to  the  company,  may  be  particularly  charged  to  make 
such  payments  in  presence  of  our  deputies.  And  that  as 
regards  the  captain's  pay,  and  the  horses  of  his  own  he  had  in 
the  company,  an  account  be  left  and  delivered  into  our  hands, 
and  kept  beside  the  other  goods,  in  the  interest  of  the  heirs  or 
creditors. — Your  lordships'  good  friends, 

THE  BURGOMASTERS,  ALDERMEN,  AND  COUNCIL 

OF  THE  TOWN  ZwOLLE. 

Dated  at  Zwolle,  the  3rd  December  1608. 

Annexa  to  the  request  sent  by  the  Magistrates  of  Zwolle. 
(Presented  28  Nov.  1608.) 

To  THE  WORSHIPFUL  BURGOMASTERS,  ALDERMEN  AND  COUNCIL 
OF  THE  CITY  OF  ZWOLLE. — In  all  submission,  this  is  pre- 
sented by  the  common  troopers  of  the  deceased  Captain 
Arch.  Arreskyne  in  garrison  here  in  the  city;  who  on 
their  part  were  engaged  on  monthly  wage  or  pay,  and  now 
on  Thursday  next,  the  first  December  of  this  year  1608, 
they  will  be  two  months  in  arrear,  and  in  addition  all 
previous  reckonings  are  in  arrear.  Against  these  arrears,  the 
remonstrants  owe  large  sums  of  money  to  the  burghers,  who 
can  in  no  way  be  satisfied,  till  payment  be  made  to  them  of 
their  arrears.  Accordingly  the  remonstrants  most  humbly 
and  submissively  entreat  and  request  that  it  may  please  you 
graciously  to  further  the  promotion  of  their  request  to  their 
Highnesses  the  States,  that  payment  may  be  made  of  their 
arrears,  so  that  your  burghers  may  afterwards  be  paid  in  full 


i6o8]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  PETITIONS  217 


and  satisfied,  as  they  ought  to  be.  And  this  with  the  further 
request,  that  the  money  to  be  paid  be  delivered  to  none, 
except  to  your  worships  alone,  so  that  it  be  honestly  handled, 
and  nobody,  whether  burgher  or  soldier,  be  defrauded,  or  have 
deductions  made  from  his  account. 

[Here  follow  forty-two  signatures  (in  many  cases  difficult  to 
decipher).] 


Jck  Wil  Wrayt. 

Jan  Willemsen  van  Zwolle. 

Thomas  Nicholles. 

Saunder  van  Haltringe. 

Archblde  Lonide. 

Edward  Lawraince,  Trumelter. 

John  Greene,  Trumpeter. 

A.  T.  Grae. 

James  Fozzeringam.  [?] 

James  flenne. 

Gel  Mitsiel. 

Jan  Nickles. 

Thomas  Oxanfired. 

Thamas  Kilpatrick. 

Mai.  M.  R.  Kilpatrick. 

Andris  A.  H.  Call. 

James  Cox. 

[Illegible  name  here.] 

Andreis  Kinnarie. 

Bartollemeus    von    Guetelberg, 

trumpeter. 
Ro*  Glen. 


Patrick  Innes. 

Michell  Gigel,  Krieger. 

Tomas  Bigge. 

Gorge  Davidsone. 

Crystoffel  x  Citon  merck. 

George  X  Glind  merck. 

David  x  Lang  merck. 

Tomas  Patton. 

Andrew  Rouke. 

Tomas  Haldan. 

Raff  Ffensty. 

Gabriel  Colbraith. 

Henri  Bonare. 

Andrea  Stobhil. 

David  Fflint. 

Alexander  Pringill. 

Patrick  Bruce. 

Sam  x  Semmes  merck. 

All.    Bartholomew    Cykis 

Grinda. 

Hendrik  x  Stockdyck  merck, 
Raeff  x  Ensleip  merck.1 


Complaint  of  the  Governor  of  Heusden. 

MY  LORDS, — I  am  much  astonished  that  your  lordships 
charged  the  Lieutenant-Provost  of  the  State  to  deliver  your 
missive  to  the  lieutenant  of  Captain  Hamilton  here,  where- 
through he  passed  secretly  out  of  the  town  before  the  Com- 
missary Van  den  Broucke  left  this,  and  thus  said  lieutenant 


1  See  also  p.  275. 


218  WAR  OF  INDEPENDENCE  [1609 

disobeyed  my  orders  and  broke  his  parole.  For  (as  I  wrote 
you  before  from  here),  I  gave  him  his  lodgings  for  a  prison,  and 
said  lieutenant  promised  to  regard  them  as  such. — Herewith, 
etc.,  your  honours1  humble  servant, 

MAXIMILIAN  DE  HORNES. 
In  Huesden,  the  25th  January  1609. 

Resolutions  1609,  January  8. — In  reference  to  the  request  of  John  Blaire, 
General.  formerly  ensign,  and  John  Stuart,  sergeant  of  the  disbanded 
company  of  Captain  Archibald  Arskin,  it  was  decided  to  place 
the  same  in  the  hands  of  the  Council  of  State,  in  order  to  treat 
the  petitioners  according  to  the  general  resolution  passed  in 
regard  to  such  matters. 


DIVISION   II 

THE   TIME   OF   THE    TWELVE  YEARS' 
TRUCE 

1609-1621 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  221 


INTRODUCTORY 

DURING  the  period  of  the  Twelve  Years'*  Truce,  the  Scottish  troops 
in  the  service  of  the  Netherlands  consisted  of  the  two  infantry 
regiments,  commanded  respectively  by  Sir  William  Brog  and 
by  Lord  Buccleuch,  who  was  succeeded  in  1612  by  Sir  Robert 
Henderson,  and  apparently  of  two  or  three  companies  of 
cavalry.  One  was  the  company  commanded  by  the  veteran 
cavalry  captain  Alexander  Wishart,  who  seems  to  have  been 
succeeded  by  Sir  William  Balfour,  with  whom  he  was  in 
negotiation  in  1615,  and  with  whom  he  had  a.  fracas  at  Leith 
in  1616.  The  other  was  that  commanded  at  one  time  by 
Thomas  Erskine  and  at  another  by  Robert  Irvine,  and  was 
probably  the  company  formerly  commanded  by  Sir  William 
Edmond  and  subsequently  by  his  son.  In  1618  Sir  William 
Brog  described  his  regiment  as  '  the  first  and  oldest  regiment 
of  foreign  nationality  in  these  Netherlands,1  and  it  undoubtedly 
represented  the  Scottish  companies  which  first  came  over  to 
the  aid  of  William  the  Silent.  Buccleuch's  regiment  had 
arrived  in  the  latter  part  of  1603.1  But  although  the  country 
was  not  at  war,  and  although  the  documents  present  frequent 


1  The  appearance  of  officers'  names  in  the  '  States  of  War '  does  not  always 
correspond  with  the  date  of  entry  of  their  commissions,  and  of  their  being 
regarded  as  having  taken  the  oath.  The  appointment  seems  frequently,  even 
when  the  original  appointment  is  not  noted  as  made  by  the  commander-in-chief 
to  supply  death  vacancies  in  the  field,  to  have  preceded  by  some  time  the  formal 
commission  and  oath,  and  in  many  cases  to  have  been  originally  made  by  the 
provincial  authorities.  See  case  of  George  Coutts,  July  iQth,  1615,  p.  280. 

The  Resolutions  of  Holland  contain  the  following,  dated  November  loth, 
1618  :  '  H.  E\y  appearing  in  the  assembly  mentions  the  custom  heretofore  always 
adhered  to  in  filling  vacancies  in  the  Captaincies  of  the  Compies  on  Reparti- 
tion Holland  ;  and  many  Compies,  as  well  foreign  as  native,  being  now  vacant,  H. 
Ex*  desires  to  be  told  what  the  intentions  are.  Res.  :  H.  Ex**  shall  continue  to 
have  the  right  to  fill  the  vacancies  in  foreign  compies  and  all  those  occurring  in 
the  field,  in  home  compies  after  consulting  the  col.  and  commanding  officers  of 
the  respective  Regts.' 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 

illustrations  that  the  soldiers  of  certain  companies  were  living 
in  the  '  piping  times  of  peace,"*  there  were  some  opportunities 
of  special  service,  and  with  the  active  Spinola  on  their  frontiers, 
and  their  own  suspicions  of  Spanish  faith,  the  States  had  to 
keep  their  house  as  a  strong  man  armed.  Indeed,  when  the 
first  rumblings  of  the  Thirty  Years1  War  were  felt  in  close 
proximity  to  their  eastern  fortresses,  Prince  Maurice  took  the 
field  in  a  campaign  of  guarded  reserve,  in  which  Spinola  and 
he  mutually  passed  each  other  by  on  the  other  side,  while 
practically  aiding  antagonists  who  were  their  respective  allies. 
In  1610,  when  the  succession  to  the  Duchies  of  Juliers  and 
Cleves  was  contested  between  Leopold  of  Austria  on  the  one 
side  and  the  Elector  of  Brandenburgh  and  the  Elector 
Palatine  on  the  other,  an  auxiliary  force  of  British  troops 
was  sent  to  the  aid  of  the  Protestant  claimants.  Two  English 
and  one  Scots  regiment  were  made  up  from  the  British  troops 
serving  in  Holland,  and  in  the  case  of  the  Scots,  nine  com- 
panies were  taken  from  the  two  regiments,  Sir  Robert  Hender- 
son of  Buccleuch's  regiment  acting  as  Colonel,  Caddell  of 
Brog's  regiment  as  Lieut. -Colonel,  and  Sir  William  Balfour  as 
Sergeant-Major.  The  command  of  the  whole  was  given  to 
Sir  Edward  Cecil  (Lord  Wimbledon),1  and  the  force  distin- 
guished itself  in  the  siege  and  reduction  of  Juliers  (Gulick). 
In  a  narrative  of  the  siege  by  an  eyewitness, 2  the  writer  states 
that  on  the  15th  August 

'  this  day  ere  night  the  enemy  threw  fireworks  into  General 
Cecil's  Main  Batteries,  which  burnt  long  and  did  much  harm 
before  the  same  could  be  quenched :  the  enemy  maintaining  the 
same  with  cannon  and  musket  the  most  part  of  the  night :  but 
Sir  Robert  Henderson,  Colonel  of  the  Scots,  had  the  Guard  that 
night,  who  shewed  great  judgment  both  to  quench  it  and  to 
hinder  the  enemy  from  attempting  it  any  more,  who  shot  wild  fire 
and  granadoes  most  part  of  the  night.' 

Juliers  was  surrendered  on  1st  September.     The  reputation 
already  gained  in  the  service  of  the  States  is  well  illustrated  by 

1  See  Dalton's  Life  and  Times  of  General  Sir   Edward   Cecil,    Viscount 
Wimbledon,  List  of  Officers,  State  Papers,  Holland,  1610. 

2  Weymouth's    account    of   the  Siege    of   Gulick,   Royal   MSS.    (Dalton's 
Cecil.) 


INTRODUCTORY  223 

an  anecdote  with  which  Lord  Wimbledon  commenced  his  little 
*  Treatise  upon  Cavalry.1*  c  Henry  iv.  of  France,  whensoever  any 
of  the  Princes,  Nobilitie,  or  Gentry  desired  to  kiss  his  hand, 
would  tell  them  they  should  have  been  much  more  welcome  to 
him  if  they  had  seen  the  face  of  the  Prince  of  Orange, 
meaning  the  wars  by  it.' 

The  instructions  given  in  January  1615  to  Sir  Dudley 
Carleton,  on  his  being  sent  as  Ambassador  to  the  Hague,  con- 
tained a  special  clause  relating  to  the  English  and  Scottish 
troops  in  Dutch  pay.  '  And  because  we  have  of  our  subjects 
in  the  service  of  the  States  upon  the  point  of  200  companies 
we  cannot  but  be  sensible  of  their  good,  and  therefore  recom- 
mend them  to  your  care  and  protection  to  assist  them  with 
your  countenance  in  all  their  lawful  causes  and  pursuits,  and 
by  your  power  to  defend  them  from  injuries  and  wrongful 
oppression.'1  The  English  companies  which  had  hitherto 
formed  the  garrisons  of  the  cautionary  towns  were  in  1616 
erected  into  an  additional  regiment,  thus  making  the  British 
infantry  in  the  Dutch  service  consist  of  two  Scots  and  four 
English  regiments. 

The  Ambassador's  correspondence  contains  several  references 
to  the  Scots  in  foreign  service.  At  one  time  he  conveys  the 
apprehensions  of  the  States  that  the  Earl  of  Argyle  is  going 
to  take  service  with  the  Spaniards ; 2  at  another  Sir  Robert 
Henderson  cautions  him  in  regard  to  a  deserted  soldier  of  his 
company,  who  has  become  a  c  meddler  with  Jesuits ; 3  and  again 


1  On  July  7th,  1617,  Carleton  mentions  having  sent  a  despatch  to  His  Majesty 
by  Colonel  Brogue,  and  on  Feb.  4th,  1617-8  acknowledges  having  received  one 
from  Secretary  Lake  by  Sir  William  Balfour. 

2  1618.    Nov.  3rd. — Carleton  states  that  S.  Horace  Vere  reported  that  the 
States  am1"8  came  to  him  *  to  acquaint  him  that  the  States  were  advertised  from 
Brussels,  that  the  Earl  of  Argyle  having  there  settled  himself  and  his  lady  in 
their  return  from  Spa  this  last  summer,  seeks  the  command  of  a  regiment  of  the 
king's  subjects  in  the  service  of  the  Spaniard,  which  as  it  would  turn  much  to 
their  prejudice  by  debauching  with  the  English  and  Scots  soldiers,  who  are  ever 
ready  upon  such  new  occasions  to  run  to  the  enemy,  they  beseech  his  Majesty  not 
to  give  any  to  it.'      'Such  would  prove  like  that  of  the  Irish,  a  nursery  of  dis- 
affected persons.' 

3  1619,  May  i5th,  Sir  Robert  Henderson  to  Sir  D.  Carleton. — 'Concerning 
William  Gordon  who  had  been  of  his  company,  but  had  left  it  above  two  years 
and  took  away  with  him  2000  guilders,  he  married  Straghan,  a  burgomaster's 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 

the  ambassador  himself  sends  a  cautious  report  upon  Captain 
Henry  Bruce,  who  has  just  returned  from  the  service  of  the 
Emperor.1  That  the  Scottish  troops  were  a  powerful  support 
to  the  House  of  Orange  in  the  struggle  between  Prince  Maurice 
and  the  Calvinists,  and  John  van  Olden  Barneveld  and  the 
Arminian  party  is  also  indicated  by  an  experience  of  Colonel 
Henderson's  reported  by  Sir  Dudley  Carleton  on  June  18th,  1619. 

'  At  Horn  Schonoven  and  some  other  towns  of  Holland,  the 
Arminians  in  considerable  numbers  have  had  these  last  Sundays 
past  their  meetings  and  preachings  with  public  profession  so  to 
continue,  though  it  be  with  hazard  of  life  and  goods :  and  at 
Alcmaer  on  Sunday  last,  an  assembly  of  them  being  gathered  to- 
gether in  a  wood  adjoining  to  the  town  and  Colonel  Hynderson 
(who  doth  there  command  over  the  extraordinary  troops  sent 
thither  expressly  to  suppress  these  tumults)  going  thither  to 
accompany  the  states  deputies  who  went  to  forbid  the  meeting, 
was  assailed  by  the  people  with  their  knives,  not  without  some 
danger  to  himself  and  the  deputies,  until  a  troop  of  soldiers  came 
up,  by  whom  they  were  beaten  away,  but  without  blood.' 


daughter,  and  left  his  wife  miserably,  so  that  it  was  not  to  be  expected  he  would 
come  into  these  parts.  That  he  was  a  debauched  Papist  and  a  meddler  with 
Jesuists. ' 

1  1620.  April  I5th.  Carleton  to  Secretary  Naunton. — '  Here  is  arrived  some 
few  days  since  from  Vienna  a  Scottish  man  of  good  place  and  reputation  in  the 
Emperor's  wars  [Capt.  Henry  Bruce]  who  hath  presented  himself  unto  me,  and 
desired  me  to  make  known  on  his  behalf  to  his  Majesty  that  he  hath  voluntarily 
retired  himself  with  good  leave  of  the  Emperor,  because  he  would  not  bear  arms 
against  his  Majesty's  son-in-law.  He  hath  served  the  Emperor  formerly  when 
he  was  Duke  of  Gratz,  in  his  wars  against  the  Venetians  when  they  lay  before 
Sardinia,  and  was  now  lately  governor  of  Nidarburg  in  the  confines  of  Austria 
and  Moravia,  whereof  the  town  being  taken  from  him  by  surprise  by  the  Count  de 
la  Torre,  though  he  rendered  the  castle  by  composition,  it  is  thought  his  coming 
away  is  not  altogether  voluntary.  He  was  once  in  service  of  this  State  and  well 
esteemed  of,  but  here  he  will  be  no  more  trusted,  for  he  is  a  hot  Papist,  and 
Parsons,  the  English  Jesuit's  books  are  his  chief  study.  From  hence  he  intends 
to  go  directly  into  Scotland  as  soon  as  he  can  receive  certain  monies  at  Amster- 
dam, which  he  hath  exchanged  to  a  good  sum  from  Vienna,  as  that  which  he  saith 
he  hath  profited  in  the  wars.  Now,  whether  he  comes  as  he  pretends  out  of  the 
zeal  of  a  good  subject,  or  (as  is  suspected  among  his  fellow-soldiers)  upon  dis- 
grace, or  (as  may  be  doubted  of  one  who  changeth  his  religion  in  his  old  days) 
employed  by  Jesuits,  whose  convert  I  hear  he  is,  I  humbly  refer  to  His  Majesty's 
judgment.  So  it  is,  that  I  find  him  a  person  of  that  consideration  that  deserves 
his  Majesty's  care  what  becomes  of  him.'  (He  went  direct  to  England.) 


INTRODUCTORY  225 

The  Twelve  Years'  Truce,  which  should  have  expired  on  the 
9th  of  April  1621,  was  by  the  mediation  of  the  British  and 
French  Ambassadors  prolonged  to  the  3rd  of  August,  and  it 
was  thought  that  if  the  Arch-Duke  Albert  had  lived  longer,  it 
would  have  been  converted  into  a  permanent  peace.  He  died 
on  July  13th,  and  Prince  Maurice,  now  by  the  death  of  his 
elder  brother  the  head  of  the  House  of  Orange,  was  anxious 
for  fresh  triumphs  in  the  field. 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 


[1610 


STATES  OF  WAR  (1610-1618). 


1610 

Holland. 

monthly 

men 

monthly 

Horsemen.                    compy         pay 

pay 

Wisschardt,   .          70  men    £472 

Henry  Balfour,         70 

£1059 

Infantry. 

Thomas  Arskyn,        „ 

n 

Col.  Backlouch,     200    „       2612 

Leuinston,       .           ,, 

yy 

Col.  Brogh,            150     „       2014 

Francois  Hender- 

Capn Robert  Hen- 

son,              .          yy 

yy 

derson,         .      100     „       1417 

Schot,      .         .           „ 

yy 

[Here  follow  a  number  of 

Wilm  Douglas,           „ 

yy 

L 

English  names. 

Wm  Balfour, 

yy 

men           monthly 

Wm  Hutson,  .            „ 

yy 

Caddel,             .         70         £1059 

George  Bod  well,        ,, 

yy 

Oliuver  Wodney,     „                 „ 

John  Halket,    .          „ 

yy 

Mackinge,       .         „                 „ 

Mongo  Hamilton,      „ 

yy 

W^Coutis,1     . 

David  Balfour,           „ 

yy 

Thomas  Ewingh,  sergeant-major  of  the  Regiment  of  Brogh, 

£30 

Andrew  Hunterus,  clergyman  of  the  Scots,2     .             .            £33, 

s.6.  3d. 

Pensions. 

The  Prince  of  Scotland,  £5m  yearly,       .             .             .       £4<xvi 

s.13  d.4 

The  children  of  Capn  John  Nysbeth,  yearly, 

£200 

Widow  of  Cn  John  Balfour.        ..... 

50 

The  children  of  Capn  Waddel,  viz.  Archibald,  John  and 

Wm.  each  yearly,    ...... 

Mrs.  Margaret  Stuart,  widow  of  the  Agent  d' Amman, 
Wm  Murray  ofPickerles,  on  the  life  of  John,  Agnete, 

Elizabeth,   and   Margarete,  his  children,  each  J 

part, 
Elisabeth  Crighton,  widow  of  the  Cn  Dallachy,  the  half  for 

herself  and  the  other  half  for  John  and  Catherine 

Dallachy,  each  £100, 

Elisabeth  Forbes,  widow  of  Capn  Willem  van  Nysbeth, 

the  one  half  at  her  death  [the  other  half],  to  Wm. 

Arthur,  and  Margareta  Nysbet,  each  £  part,  yearly 

1  Probably  a  mistake  for  Allan  Coutts. 

2  Rev.  Andrew  Hunter.     See  representations  by,  pp.  245  and  294. 


200 


400 


400 


400 


i6i3] 


STATES  OF  WAR 


227 


The  children  of  Capn  Prop,  Jan  and  Janneken  Prop, 
each  the  half,  ..... 

Mrs.  Anna  Kirpatricx,  widow  of  Capn  Strachan, 

The  children  of  Cn  James  Egger,  named  Niclaes  and 
Margareta,  each  one  half,  .... 

Mrs.  Suanah  Splithoff,  widow  of  Capn  Kilpatricx,  the 
one  half  till  her  death  and  the  other  half  during 
the  lifetime  of  her  children — Jan,  Maria,  and 
Helena  Kilpatricx,  .  ... 

Prudentia  Laurens,  daughter  of  the  Cavalry  Captain 
Louys  Laurent,  ..... 

Anna  van  Dyck,  widow  of  Cn  Blair, 

Joost  Blair,        .  .  .  .  . 


Zeeland.      Infantry 

[After  several  English  names 

come] 

men    monthly  pay 

Caps  Walter  Bruce,  70          £1059 
„   George  Homes,  „  „ 

„    Mombry,  „  „ 

Pensions 

Bart.  Balfour,     yearly,     £1000 
The  widow  of  Col.  Morgan,      600 


Utrecht.    Infantry 


£200 
200 

125 


50 

50 
50 
50 


monthly 
pay 

£1059 


Cn  Hamilton,     .       70 
Setton,       .      .   ,       „  „ 

Wm.  Martin,1  ,,  „ 

Pensions 
The  widow  of  James  Blaire, 

yearly  £400 


Andrew  Renton, 


150 


1613 
Rendered  in  August 

Gelderland.     Foot 

Donaldson 

70  men 

£1059 

Hollandt.     Foot 

Col.  Brogh,     .       150  men 

£2014 

Henry  Balfour,  .     70  men 

£1059 

Rt  Henderson,       150    „ 

2014 

Thos.  Arskyn,   .         „ 

3) 

Caddel,  .         .       70      „ 

1059 

H.  Levingston,  .         ,, 

)3 

Geo.  Ramsey,2  .             „ 

j) 

Francois  Henderson,  „ 

33 

Mackinge,          .             ,, 

33 

Schot  [Robert],           „ 

3) 

Allane  Coutis,   .             ,, 

3) 

Wm  Douglas,              „ 

33 

1  See  p.  203. 

2  George  Ramsay  succeeded  Captain  Udny  on  23rd  October  1610,  having 
been  recommended  as  lieutenant  in  1607  and  1609  (pp.  207  and  240).      He  was 
dead  before  I4th  April  1615,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  John  Kininmond.     His 
widow  and  children  were  recommended  by  Breda  in  1616  (p.  283).     See  also 
request  by  his  widow,  24th  May  1632. 


228  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1613 


W**  Balfour,         .  70  men     £1059 
Wm  Hudson,          .         „  „ 

Geo.  Bodwel,         .         „  ,, 


Mongo  Hamilton,      70  men   £1059 
Davidt  Balfour,      .         „  „ 

D.  Lindesay,1         .         „  „ 


Jan  Halket,  „  „ 

Pay 
Col.  Brogh  for  his  person,  .....      £400    0    0 

Wardens  and  Quartermasters 

Thos.  Ewing,  Sfc  major  of  Brogh,    .  .  .  80     0     0 

Robert  Mestertou  qr  mr  of  Col.  Brogh,       .  .  .  50    0     0 

Officers  of  Justice 
Willem  Carcadie,  Provost  Marshal  of  Brogh,         .  .  50     0    0 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  Minister  of  the  Scots,  .  .  .          33     6     8 

Pensions 

The  son  of  Capn  Penthon  [Renton],             .             .  .          12  10     0 

The  children  of  Capn  Jan  Nysbeth,              .             .  .          16  13    4 

Widow  capn  Jan  Balfour,            .             .    •       £50  434 

„         „     WmHendrick,        .             .120  10    0    0 

Pieter  Michiel,    ....             50  434 

Gracious  Pensions 
Widow  Kirpatrick  to  enable  her  to  keep  little  son  at  school  for 

6  years,  ......  £50 

Pensions  for  settlement  of  accounts  and  previous  services 

The  children  of  cap.  Waddel,  Archibald,  Jan,  and  Willem  200  each,  £600 
Maria  Rig,  Widow  Capn  Melvil,  on  the  lives  of  Jacques,  Davidt, 

Janneken,  Tanneken  and  Hester,  80  each,  .  .  .  400 
Guilliaume  Murray  of  Pickerles  on  the  lifes  of  Jan,  Elisabeth  and 

Margaretha,  his  children,  each  one  third,  .  .  .  300 

Jan  and  Catharina  Dalachy,  children  of  capn  Dalachy,  .  .  200 

Elisabeth  Forbes,  widow  capn  Wm  Nysbeth,  etc.,  .  .  .  400 

Mistress  Anna  van  Duvenvoorde,  widow  Col.  Cuningham,  etc.,  .  300 

The  children  of  cap.  Prop,  Jan  and  Janneken,  .  .  .  200 

Mistrees  Anna  Kirpatrick,  widow  cap.  Strachan,  .  .  .  200 

The  children  of  Cap.  James  Egger,  Niclaes  and  Margaretha,  .  175 
Guiliam  Sudeman  capn  on  his  life  and  on  that  of  Maria  van  Eyck 

his  wife,  or  on  the  longest  living,  ....  100 

widow  Lfc  Penbrouck,  ......  100 

Zealand.     Foot 


Brouwnfielt,          70  men        £1059 
Jhon  Hamilton,          „  „ 


Walter  Bruce,         70  men      £1059 
George  Homes,  .         „  ,, 

Moubray,    .         „  „ 

1  David  Lindsay  had  succeeded  to  the  company  of  Lord  Buccleuch,  having 
taken  the  oath  on  6th  April  1612.     He  died  before  I2th  February  1620. 


1617]  STATES  OF  WAR  229 

Pay 

Col.  Robert  Henderson,   .         .      £300 

Forbes,  S*  Major,       .         .  80 

Blaire,  qr  mr,     .         .         .  36 

Michiel  Henderson  Pr.  M.,      .          50 

£466 
Pensions 
Col.  Balfour  1000  yearly,      .  .  . .  .  .      £83    6    8 

Utrecht.     Foot 
Setton,          .  .  70  men  £1059 

Vriesland.     Foot 
Arthur  Forbes,     .  .  90  1297 

Groriingen.     Foot 
Norman  Bruce,  .  .  70  1059 

1614 

The  list  of  officers  (under  Guelderland  and  Holland)  is  similar,  and 
under  Guelderland  occurs  e  Pension — Juff :  Anna  van  Lieven,  widw 
van  Capn  Arthur  Stuart  (yearly),  £75.' 

1617 

Holland.     Cavalry 

monthly  pay 

Robert  Ixvin,1  ...  70  £2457 

Wm  Balfour,2    .  2067 

Gelderland.     Foot 
Donaldson,  .  70  men  .  .  £1059 


•LT-HJUUltiy, 

Col.  Brogh, 
Col.  Henderson, 
Thos.  Edmondt,3 

.T<Yhn  KAnrnmnnr 

.  150  men 
150 

70 

t  * 

3 

Hollanc 
.  £2014 
.     2014 
.     1059 

9                                ' 

L    Foot 
Jacques  Sandilants,5  70  men 
[Mackinge], 
Allane  Coutis,                   „ 

£1059 

1  Robert  Irvine.  2  See  p.  69. 

3  Son  of  Colonel  Sir  William  Edmond  (p.  54) ;  received  commission  January 
i6th,  1617  in  succession  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Caddel.     Succeeded  by  William 
Drummond  on  nth  August  1625,  on  becoming  a  captain  of  cavalry.      Report  as 
to  his  company  of  cavalry,  1628. 

4  John  Kininmond  succeeded  George  Ramsay  on  5th  April  1615,  and  died 
before  2nd  December  1630,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  John  Bellenden. 

5  Sir  James  Sandilands,   commissoned  i6th    November  1618,  in    succession 
to   Captain   Mackenzie,   sergeant-major    in  same    regiment  (Colonel    Brog's), 
26th  October  1627.     Lieutenant-colonel,  4th  May  1631.     Colonel  in  succession 
to  Sir  William  Brog,  1 3th  March  1636.       Dead  before  8th  March   1639,  when 
succeeded  by  Colonel  James   Erskine.      Was   succeeded   in  command  of  his 
company  by  his  lieutenant,  Thomas  Livingstone. 


230  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1617 


Robert  Coutis,1  .  70  men  .  £1059 

Thos.  Arskyn,     .  „                 „ 

H.  Levingston,    .  „                „ 

Francois  Henderson,  „  .       ,, 

Robert  Schot,     .  „  .        „ 

James  Lindesey,2  „  .        „ 

WmOrrock,3  „  .        „ 
[Wm  Balfour],    . 


Wm  Hudson,       .    70  men  .  £1059 

James  Henderson,4  „  .  „ 
[Geo.  Bodnel],  . 

Jhon  Hacket,     .    70  men  .  £1059 

Mongo  Hamilton,        „  .        3i 

David  Balfour,  .  „  .  „ 
John  Murray,5  .„._,, 
[David  LindesayJ, 


Pay  on  Holland 
Col.  Brogh,  for  his  person,  .  .  .  .  .  £400 

Allane  Coutes,  lA-Col.,        .  .  .  .      100 

Col.  Henderson,        ......     300 

Francois  Henderson,  Lfc-Col.,  ....      100 

Hacquet,  s*  major,    .  .  .  .  .  .80 

Blaire,  qr  mr,  .  .  .  .  .  .50 

Michel  Henderson,6  Provost  m.,  .  .  .50 

£580 

Wardens  and  Quartermasters 
Wm  Drommond,7 
[Thos.  Ewingjs*  major  Regfc  Brogh,      ....  £80    0     0 

Robert  Mesterton,  qr  mr,          .  .  .  .  .     50    0    0 


1  Robert  Coutts  succeeded  Sir  Henry  Balfour,  9th  August   1615,  and  was 
succeeded  by  William  Drummond,  7th  December  1621.     Referred  to  as  'the  late 
Captain  Coutts  '  in  1628. 

2  James  Lindsay,  commissioned  3ist  March  1615.      Married  Isabella  Mow- 
bray,   divorced    wife    of    Captain   R.    Scott,   in    1627.      Succeeded   by  John 
Henderson,  22nd  September  1629. 

3  William  Orrock  took  oath  as  captain  in  succession  to  Sir  William  Balfour, 
November  23rd,  1618.    Served  at  Cleve,  1622.      Deceased  before  24th  October 
1631,  when  succeeded  by  John  Kirkpatrick. 

4  James  Henderson  took  oath  on  4th  November  1618,  in  succession  to  Captain 
Bothwell.    Sergeant-major,  1 3th  February  1633.      Lieutenant-colonel,  2Oth  July 
1634.     Was  dead  before  7th  July  1638.      Douglas  mentions  Sir  James,  a  younger 
son  of  James  Henderson  of  Fordell,  along  with  his  brother,   Sir  Robert  (p.  60) 
as  'both  colonels  in  Danish,  Swedish,  and  French  wars.'      On  6th  July  1638 
the  States-General   specially  commissioned  two  representatives   to   attend  the 
funeral  of  the  late  Lieutenant-Colonel  Henderson,  who  had  lost  his  life  in  the 
active  service  of  the  State. 

5  John  Murray  took  oath  on  I2th  February  1620,  in  succession  to  D.  Lindsay. 
Captain  Murray  died  before  I2th  March  1621. 

6  Michael  Henderson. 

7  William   Drummond,    commissioned   as   captain   in   succession   to   Robert 
Coutts,  7th  December    1621.      Sergeant-major,   1617.       Killed  at  Groll,  and 
succeeded   by  Walter   Murray,    2gth   September   1627.       He  was    a    son  of 
Alexander  Drummond   of  Meadop,   second   son   of  Alexander  Drummond   of 
Carnock,  and  thus  a  cousin  of  Colonel  Bartholomew  Balfour. — Genealogy  of  the 
Drummonds. 


i6i;]  STATES  OF  WAR  231 

Officers  of  Justice 
Willem  Carcadie,  Provost  Marshal,  Reg*  Brogh,         .  .  £50    0    0 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  minister,    .  »  .  .  .     33     6    8 

Pensions 
[The  children  of  Capn  Jan  Nysbeth],   .  .  .          .      200      16     8    4 

Janneken,  the  daughter  of  Capn  Jan.  Nysbett,  .      100        863 

Widow,  Capn  Wm  Hendricon,  .  .  .  .      120      10    0     0 

Pieter  Michiels,  .  .  .  .  .      50          4    3    4 

Gracious  Pensions 

[Widow  Kilpatrick  to  keep  her  little  boy  at  school  for  2  years 
more,  £50 ;  this  expired  in  Feb.  1618]. 

Pensions  for  settlement  of  accounts  and  previous  services 
Capn  Wm  Balfour,  for  his  life,        .  .  .  .  .      £600 

Maria  High,  widow  Capn  Melvil,  on  the  lifes  of  Jacques,  David 

Janneken,  Tanneken  and  Hester,  each  80,    .  .  .         400 

Guillaume  Murray  of  Pickerles,  on  the  lifes  of  Jan,  Elisabeth, 

[Margrieta]  his  children,  one  [third]  half,       .  .  .         200 

Jan  and  Catharina  Dalachy,  children  of  Capn  Dalachy,  deceased, 

[300]  each  100,  .....  [300]  200 

The  children  of  Capn  Wm  Nysbeth,  deceased  :  [William],  Arthur 

and  Margrieta  Nysbeth,  [200]  each  one  [third]  half,      .    [200]  133,  6  8 
Mistress  Anna  van  Duvenvoorde,  widow  Col.  Cuningam,  on  the 
lifes  of  mistress  Magriet  van  Duvenvoorde,  the  wife  of  Capn 
of  Horse  Wisschaert,  and  Elisabeth  Cuningham,        .  .         300 

The  children  of  Capn  Prop,  Jan  and  Janneken  Prop,  one  half  each,         200 
Mistress  Anna  Kilpatrick,  widow  Capn  Strachan,  on  her  life,        .         200 
The  children  of  James  Egger,  Niclaes  and  Margrieta,  each  half,  175 

Guilliaume  Suderman  100  on  his  life  [or  on  that  of  Maria  von 

Eyck  his  wife,  or  the  longest  living],  .  .  .100 

Widow,  Lieutenant  Penbrouck,  on  the   lives  of  Thos.,  Jan,  Jan- 
neken, Willemke,  Henry,  and  Richard  Penbrouck ,  each  one  6th,    . 
The  children  of  Cap"  Kilpatrick,  Jan,  Maria,  and  Helena  Kil- 
patrick, .......  25 

Joost  Blaire,  .......  50 

Zeeland.    Foot 

Walter  Bruce,        .  70  men  .  .     £1059 

Geo.  Homes,          .  „  „ 

Brouwnfielt,  .  „  .    .  „ 

Pensions 
Col.  Balfour,  £1000  yearly  on  his  life,     .  .  *          £83     6     8 

Utrecht.    Foot 

Marioribankes,1      .           120  men  .  .     £1655 

Sitton,  .  .          „ 

1  Thomas  Marjoribanks  took  oath  upon  a  commission  in  succession  to  Captain 
Hamilton  on  i6th  January  1620.     Dead  by  4th  September  1636. 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1617 

Groningen  and  Ommelanden.     Foot 

George  Coutis,1      .          120  men  .  .     £1655 

Philip  Balfour,2     .  „  .  .          „ 

Vriesland.    Foot 
Archibald  Bethone,3          120  men  .  .     £1655 

[Names  within  brackets  erased  in  original :  those  in  italics  are  additions]. 


1618 
Holland 


Cavalry.  men     monthly  pay 

Wisschart,         .      70          £2457 
Infantry. 

Col.  Brogh,      .     150  2014 

„     Henderson,     „  „ 

[Here  come  43  English 

names.  ] 

John  Kennimont,     70  1059 

Mackinge, 
Allane  Coutis,  . 
Robert  Coutis,  . 
Thomas  Edmond, 
Thomas  Arskyn, 


33  33 

33  33 

33  33 

33  )) 


men    monthly  pay 

Leuingston,       .       70         £1059 
Franchois  Hender- 
son, .       „  „ 
Robert  Schot,    . 
James  Lindesay, 
William  Balfour, 
William  Hudson, 
George  Bodwell, 
John  Hacket,  . 
Mongo  Hamilton, 
David  Balfour, 
David  Lindesay, 


33      33 


33      33 


S3  33 


33  33 


Tractementen  op  Holland.    Salaries  paid  only  by  Holland.4 

Colonnel  Brogh  voor  sijn  persoon,      ....          £400 

Colonel  Henderson,    ......  300 

Franchois  Henderson,  I/  C1,  .  .  .  .  .  100 

Hacquet,  Sergeant  Major,       .....  80 

Blaire,  quartiermeester,  .....  36 

Michiel  Henderson,  provost,  .....  50 

t'samen  £566 
Officieren  van  Justitie 
William  Carcadie,  provoost  van  Col.  Brogh,       .  .  .        £50 

Ministers 
Andreas  Hunterus,  Predicant  van  de  Schotten,  .       £33,  s.6  d.3 


1  George  Coutts  received  his  commission  in  succession  to  Norman  Bruce  on 
8th  July  1615   (letter  from  Groningen,   igth  June   1615).      Was  at   Rees  in 
1622,  became  sergeant-major,  Earl  of  Buccleuch's  regiment,   3Oth   December 
1628.     Lieutenant-colonel,  I7th  July  1629.     Seems  to  have  died  in  1638,  when 
Philip  Balfour  was  promoted  to  be  lieutenant-colonel. 

2  Sir  Philip  Balfour,  eldest  son  of  Colonel  Bartholomew  Balfour  (see  p.  48), 
took  oath  on  2nd  June   1621,  became  sergeant-major  of  Earl  of  Buccleuch's 
regiment  before  Bois-le-Duc  on  yth  July  1629.     Lieutenant-colonel,  7th  March 
1639.      Became  colonel  of  same  regiment  in  succession  to  Lord  Almond,  5th 
November  1640.     Retired  before  igih  May  1646,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
Sir  William  Drummond.     See  petitions  by,  in  1631  and  1639. 

3  Archibald  Bethune  seems  to  have  succeeded  Arthur  Forbes  in  1614. 

4  This  list  is  given  in  Dutch, 


1 620]  STATES  OF  WAR 

Pensioenen 

De  Zoone  van  Capn  Renton,       ...  £12,  s.10 

Kinderen  van  Capn  John  Nysbeth,         .  .  .     £16,  s.lOd.4 

Weduwe  Capn  John  Balfour,      .  .  .  .       £4,  s.3.  4d. 

Gratieuse  pensioenen  tot  nu  toe  betaelt  ten  comptoire  van  den 
Ontfanger-generael  [pensions  given  out  of  grace,  hitherto 
paid  out  by  the  Receiver  General]. 

De  weduwe  van  Kilpatricx  om  haer  soontgen  ter  schoole  te 
houden,  noch  voor  den  tyt  van  2  jaren.  's  jaers  [the 
widow  of  Kilpatrick,  to  keep  her  son  at  school  for  2 
years  more],        ......          £50 

Pensioenen  spruytende  uyt  saecke  van  affrekeningen  ende 
voorgaende  diensten  [pensions  originating  in  matters  of 
accounting  and  for  service  rendered]. 

De  Kinderen  van  Capn  Waddel,  als  Archibald,  Jan,  ende 

Willem  Waddel,  elck  £200,       ....          600 

Capn  Wm  Balfour, 600 

Guillaume  Murray  van  Pickerles,  ten  lyve  van  Jan,  Elisa- 
beth ende  Margrieta  zijn  Kinderen,  elx  een  derde  part 
[in  lifetime  of  J.,  E.,  and  M.  his  children  each  £],  .  300 

Jan  ende  Catharina  Dallachy,  kinderen  van  Capn  Dallachy, 

elcx£lOO, 200 

De  kinderen  van  wijlen  [children  of  the  late]  Cn  Willem 
Nysbeth,  als  Willem,  Arthur  ende  Margrieta  Nysbeth, 
elcx  een  vierde  part  [J  part],  ....  200 

Joffe  Anna  van  Duvenvoord,  weduwe  van  den  Col.  Cuningam,       yearly 
ten  lijve  van  Jouff  [in  the  life  of  Mrs.]  Margriet  van 
Duyvenvoorde,    huysvr    [wife]    van    den    Ritmeester 
Wisschart,  ende  Elisabeth  Cuningham,  elcx  de  helft 
[eachil  .  ....        £300 

De  kinderen  van  Capn  Prop,  Jan  ende  Janneken  Prop,  elcx 

de  helft, .200 

Joffr.  Anna  Kilpatricx,  weduwe  van  Capn  Strachan,  .  200 

John  Barckley,  .  .  .  .  .  .150 

De  kinderen  van   Capn  James   Egger,  genaemt  Nicolaes 

ende  Margrieta,  elcx  de  helft,   ....  125 

JofP"  Maria  de  Lion,  wede  van  Capn  Henry  Balfour,  .  75 

De  kinderen  van  Capn   Kilpatrick,  als  Jan,  Maria,  ende 

Helena  Kilpatrick,         .....  25 

1620. 
Holland.     Cavalry 

men        monthly 

Robbert  Wrving  [?] 70        £2457 

Wm  Balfour,  .  .  .  .70  2064 

[The  rest  are  the  same  as  the  previous  year.] 


234  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1609 


II 

EXTRACTS  FROM  CORRESPONDENCE,  RECOM- 
MENDATIONS, RESOLUTIONS,  REPORTS,  AND 
REQUESTS,  1609-1611. 

Letters  of  King  James. 
(Rec.  May  30,  1609.) 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — L'estat  de  voz  affaires  estant  a 
Pr^sen^  tel  que  vous  n'en  avez  plus  besoin  de  grande  partie  des 
gens  de  guerre  que  vous  entreteniez  auparavant  et  entretenez 
encore,  tellement  qu'il  vous  sera  necessaire  de  congedier 
beaucoup  d'iceulx.  Et  d'aultant  qu'il  y  a  plusieurs  de  noz 
sujectz  de  ce  mestier  la  en  voz  services,  qui,  n'estantz  pas 
employez  en  vostre  service  voudroient  volontiers  chercher  leur 
fortune  ailleurs.  Nous  prions  que  par  vostre  authorite  il  soit 
permis  a  quiconque  des  nostres  qui  voudroit  faire  levee  de 
telles  gens  en  ce  pai's  la,  de  les  enlever  et  transporter  ou  bon 
luy  semblera,  sans  vostre  empeschement  ou  destourbier 
quelconque.  Et  prions  Dieu,  Messieurs  et  Comperes  vous 
tenie  tousfours  en  sa  sainte  et  digne  garde. — Vostre  bien  Bon 
Amy  et  Compere.  JAQUES  R. 

Escript   a   nostre   Palais   de   Westminstre,   le   ix.   jour   de 
May  1609. 

(Datum,  April  17.     Recep.  May  19,  1609.) 

MESSIEURS, — Ayantz  entendu  de  par  noz  Ambassadeurs 
que  la  conclusion  s'est  faicte  de  la  trefve  entre  vous  le  Roy 
d'Espagne  et  les  Archiducqs  nous  avons  voulu  aussy  tost  vous 
fre  cognoistre  combien  nous  en  sommes  contentz  d'autant  que 
croyons  qu'en  un  tel  subiect  mieux  ne  se  pouvoit  fre  et  qu'en 


1609]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS    235 

Tissue  cPicelle  comme  aussy  en  la  conduite  chez  le  commen- 
cement vous  avez  trouve  par  effects  de  quelle  sincerite  nous 
nous  sommes  portes  envers  Tasseurance  et  prosperite  de  vos 
affaires.  Orez  estant  par  cest  accord  vre  estat  en  termes 
d'estre  estably  comme  vous  vous  asseurerez  que  nous  ferons 
tousiours  tous  les  offices  d'un  voysin  amy  et  confedere,  aussy 
pour  le  present  se  nous  offrent  deux  considerations  lesquelles 
vous  recomandons  a  bon  escient.  L'une  que  puisque  vous 
estez  asseurez  de  repos  avec  ceux  centre  qui  vous  avez  eu  si 
longue  contestation  vous  vueillez  purveoir  a  la  continuation 
d'une  bonne  et  parfaicte  union  entre  vous  mesmes.  Ce  qui 
touche  si  avant  a  vre  propre  salut  et  seurete  que  ne  doubtons 
point  que  vre  prudence  d'heure  a  autre  ne  le  vous  represente. 
L'autre  est  telle  qu'appartient  non  moins  a  nre  sollicitude  et 
prevoyance  qu*a  vre  reputation,  C'est  que  puisqu'a  cause  de 
ceste  trefve  il  est  a  penser  que  ne  vueilliez  charger  vre  Estat 
de  si  grande  nombre  de  gens  de  guerre  que  par  cy-devant  vous 
avez  entretenu,  en  la  diminution  que  vous  en  ferez  vous 
vueilliez  principalement  avoir  esgard  a  la  retention  et  re- 
muneration de  nos  subiectz  par  le  long  et  fidele  service 
desquelz  comme  aussy  au  prix  de  leur  sang,  il  ne  se  peult  nier 
que  plusieurs  de  voz  victoires  n'ayent  este  gaignees.  Envers 
lesquelles  si  vous  monstrez  maintenant  gratitude  et  recognois- 
sance,  il  sera  a  vre  honneur  vers  tous,  et  a  ceste  nation,  grande 
occasion  de  continuer  la  bienveillance  et  affection  a  vre  Estat. 
Quant  a  noz  Ambassadeurs  ayantz  acheve  Toeuvre  pour 
laquelle  ilz  y  ont  este  envoyez  et  en  laquelle  ils  ont  travaille  si 
longuement  oultre  le  seiour  qu'a  faict  le  Sieur  Winwood  par 
tant  d'annees  Nous  les  avons  ordonne  de  revenir  Fun  et  Tautre 
et  ne  doubtons  nullement  qu'ayant  laisse  chez  vous  si  bonnes 
marques  de  leur  prudhomie  et  affection  en  ce  qui  leur  appar- 
tenoit  en  ceste  coniunction  vous  vueilliez  aussy  avoir  pour 
agreable  le  retour  comme  nous  avons  faict  celuy  de  vre  Ministre 
fidele  le  Sieur  Carron  qui  s"*en  est  alle  vers  vous. — Vre  bien 
bon  amy,  JAO.UES  R. 

De  nre  palais  de  Westminstre,  le  xvii.  iour  d'Avril  1609. 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE 


[1609 


Letters  and 
Requests  to 
the  Council 
of  State. 


From  the  Governor  of  Breda  to  the  Council  of  State. 
(August  8,  1609.) 

MY  LORDS,  —  Although  I  have  several  times  admonished 
and  commanded  the  lieutenants  of  Captains  Forbes 1  and 
Scott 2  before  their  departure  to  satisfy  and  pay  divers  burghers 
of  the  town  of  Breda,  who  were  out  of  pocket  both  to  the 
said  captains  and  also  to  their  officers  and  soldiers.  For 
example,  Captain  Forbes  owes  the  sum  of  300gl.  5s.  2d.,  and 
Captain  Scott  the  sum  of  45gl.  19s.  2d.,  which  you  may 
see  from  the  documents  hereto  appended.  Nevertheless  they 
have  removed  to  Vendicq,  in  obedience  to  the  order  sent  by  his 
Excellency,  without  in  any  way  satisfying  said  burghers,  who 
have  begged  me  to  write  in  their  favour  to  your  lordships,  in 
order  that  they  may  be  paid  their  just  debts,  in  which  I  most 
humbly  join  my  petition  to  theirs.  Not  doubting  that  your 
lordships  will  so  arrange  that  the  good  burghers  shall  succeed 
in  getting  payment,  and  they  at  another  time  will  be  the 
more  willing  to  assist  the  soldiers  in  their  needs. — Herewith, 

etc.,  your  W M Honours'  obedient  and  very  loyal 

servant,  JUSTINUS  VAN  NASSAU. 

At  Breda,  this  8  August  1609. 


Re  Captain  Gordon's  Company.     (Oct.  6, 1609.) 

MY  LORDS, — Since  your  lordships  have  been  pleased  to  com- 
mand that  I  should  always,  and  from  time  to  time,  make  you 
acquainted  both  with  the  situation  and  condition  of  this 
garrrison,  and  also  of  its  captain  and  officers,  stating  which  of 
them  have  been  absent,  and  how  long,  I  shall  therefore  not 
neglect  as  regards  them,  to  communicate  to  you  the  following. 
First,  that  the  soldiers  here  are  kept  in  good  order,  the 
watches  looked  to,  and  to  sum  up  in  a  word  everything  as 
carefully  attended  to  as  ever  was  the  case  before  the  date  of 
this  truce,  which  in  fact  you  will  find. 

Further,  as  concerning  the  captain  and  officers  of  the  com- 
pany, your  lordships  will  be  pleased  to  hear  that  there  are 


1  See  p.  71, 


2  See  p.  64. 


1609]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS    237 

no  absentees  except  Captain  Gordon,  who  has  not  been  here 
during  twenty-five  or  twenty-six  weeks ;  indeed,  all  the  year 
round,  he  has  not  been  one  month  with  his  company.  His 
lieutenant,  too,  has  been  absent  over  six  months,  his  oldest 
sergeant  over  six  weeks ;  and  the  other  sergeant  is  on  the  sick 
list.  Thus  there  is  but  one  officer,  viz.,  the  ensign,  a  foul 
useless  drunkard,  in  the  company,  which  to  all  intents  and 
purposes  has  none.  Moreover,  the  said  company  is  very  badly 
paid  and  upheld,  so  that  out  of  extreme  poverty  many  soldiers 
desert,  and  as  is  well  known  very  few  of  the  others  are  fit  for 
duty.  And  (with  respect  I  say  it)  such  a  state  of  matters  is 
not  what  ought  to  be,  and  is  a  condition  fraught  with  evil 
consequences.  I  pray  therefore  that  your  lordships  may  see 
good  to  order  the  said  captain  very  sharply  to  betake  himself 
with  his  officers  to  his  garrison,  to  pay  and  uphold  his  com- 
pany, as  other  captains  here  do,  lest  for  want  of  this  it  sink 
into  utter  ruin,  for  the  poverty  among  them  is  extreme. 

This  is  what  at  present  I  had  to  write. — And  with  these 
presents,  etc.,  JOHAN  DE  WITT. 

Actum  at  Steenbergen,  the  6th  October. 


To  the  Council  of  State.     (Oct.  7,  1609.) 

MY  LORDS, — Your  lordships  will  please  to  understand,  that 
on  the  25th  July  last  the  States-General  ordered  me  to  furnish 
information  monthly  to  their  High  Mightinesses  regarding  the 
state  of  these  garrisons,  and  the  condition  of  the  soldiers,  stating 
what  officers  were  present  in  or  absent  from  their  companies,  and 
although  I  have  several  times  sent  them  information  regarding 
these  matters,  and  among  other  points,  that  Captain  Gordon, 
whose  company  has  been  here  in  garrison  over  a  year,  has  never 
been  more  than  one  month  with  the  same,  indeed  during 
twenty-six  successive  weeks  he  has  never  been  with  his  com- 
pany, and  is  still  absent.  His  lieutenant  was  not  there 
during  six  months,  his  oldest  sergeant  during  six  weeks.  Such 
was  the  state  of  matters  that  only  one  officer  was  found  in  the 
company,  viz.,  the  ensign — a  foul,  rank,  and  careless  drunkard, 
the  company  being  practically  without  a  single  officer.  More- 


238  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1609 

over  the  soldiers  of  the  said  company  were  miserably  found  and 
paid,  on  which  account  very  many  of  them  deserted,  and 
through  poverty  came  to  ruin. 

But  in  regard  to  these  points,  I  have  never  received  any 
answer,  and  because  the  company  remaining  almost  without 
officers  and  oversight  has  gradually  become  so  impoverished 
that  the  misery  smouldering  within  it  can  no  longer  be  endured 
nor  the  complaints  and  sighs,  and  through  this  the  whole 
company  will  evidently  be  brought  to  ruin.  Also  that  three 
times  the  said  soldiers  have  besought  me  with  increasing 
vehemence  to  advise  your  lordships  of  their  misery  and 
poverty,  and  some  remedy  must  be  adopted,  otherwise  they 
must  perish  in  their  extremity.  For  this  purpose  I  have  sent 
off  this  messenger  who  can  by  word  of  mouth  inform  you  of 
the  existing  need  and  give  details  about  it.  Also  that  many 
burghers  complain,  that  having  out  of  compassion  for  the  poor 
soldiers  provided  them  with  some  necessaries,  they  have  not 
been  paid  for  it.  Therefore  I  entreat  most  earnestly,  that  it 
may  please  your  lordships  to  give  heed  to  the  calamities  of  the 
said  soldiers,  and  everything  connected  therewith,  that  ought 
to  be  seen  to.  To  order  the  said  Captain  Gordon  most  strictly 
to  betake  himself  with  his  officers  as  soon  as  possible  to  his 
company,  to  pay  and  provide  for  his  soldiers  as  is  right,  and 
also,  so  as  to  prevent  the  complete  ruin  of  the  company.  But 
in  order  that  I  may  have  something  wherewith  to  satisfy  and 
comfort  the  poor  soldiers,  may  it  please  you  to  write  a  short 
reply,  and  forward  it  to  me  by  the  bearer  of  this,  in  order  that 
I  may  show  it  to  them. — And  herewith,  etc.,  Y —  H —  M — 
obedient  servant,  JOHAN  DE  WITT. 

Actum  at  Steenbergen,  7th  October  1609. 

To  the  Council  of  State  of  the  United  Netherlands. 

Captain  John  Gordon,  at  present  in  garrison  within  the 
town  of  Steenbergen,  showeth  with  due  respect,  that  it  is 
now  full  three  months  since  he,  the  petitioner,  received  payment 
from  the  State,  either  for  himself  or  his  company.  He  has 
therefore  been  compelled  to  burden  himself  to  the  last  degree 
with  the  interest  of  borrowed  money,  in  order  to  satisfy  his 


1609]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS   239 

company.  Yea,  so  deeply  has  he  engaged  himself,  that  he  has 
no  means  left  and  knows  of  none  (having  no  one  to  solicit 
for  them)  by  which  he  can  maintain  his  soldiers.  Therefore 
he  prays  most  humbly  that  your  lordships  shall  be  pleased  to 
advance  to  him,  the  petitioner,  provisionally,  the  sum  of  five 
or  six  hundred  pounds  of  forty  groats,  in  order  that  he  may  in 
some  measure  satisfy  his  company  until  orders  be  issued  some 
time  and  way  otherwise,  as  to  the  payment, 
By  doing  which,  etc. 

Gordons  disbanded  Company.^ 
To  the  Council  of  State.     (Oct.  14,  1609.) 

MY  LORDS, — Since  it  has  pleased  your  lordships  to  discharge 
Captain  Gordon  with  his  company  ;  his  soldiers,  owing  to  ill 
payment,  are  deeply  indebted  to  the  burghers  here,  which  the 
accompanying  specification,  and  the  report  of  the  Commissary 
Badburch,  charged  by  your  H.  M.  to  effect  the  disbandment 
will  well  show  and  explain,  said  soldiers  having  due  to  them  a 
considerable  sum  of  arrears  of  pay.  Yet  they  do  not  wish  to 
act  otherwise  than  to  pay  their  debts,  and  satisfy  the  burghers, 
who  supported  them  so  loyally  with  victuals  and  drink  in  their 
extreme  poverty,  to  such  a  degree  indeed,  that  but  for  their 
having  done  so,  the  company  would  have  perished  long  ago — 
as  everybody  very  well  knows.  Said  support  also  was  proffered 
mostly  by  my  persuasions  out  of  pity  for  the  poor  soldiers. 
I  have  thus  earnestly  entreated  your  lordships,  that  you 
may  be  pleased  so  to  assist  the  burghers,  and  who  have  little 
enough,  to  obtain  payment  of  their  just  debts.  For  other- 
wise many  of  them  will  be  ruined,  for  here  we  are  but  a  scant 
community,  which,  as  your  High  Mightiness  well  knows,  can 
bear  no  loss.  Therefore,  again  praying  you  to  take  into  con- 
sideration the  circumstances  of  the  case,  may  your  High 
Mightiness  be  pleased  to  assist  the  poor  people  in  this,  since 
in  so  doing  you  will  truly  perform  a  work  of  charity. — And 
with  these  present,  etc.,  JOHAN  DE  WITT. 

Actum  at  Steenbergen,  14th  October  1609. 


1  See  also  pp.  243,  253  and  292. 


240  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1609 

Recommendation  of  George  Ramsay. 
(Datum.  Novre.  25.     Recep.  Decr.  16.) 

MESSIEURS. — Ce  gentilhomme  George  Ramsey,  lieutenant  du 
Colonel  Brog,  ayant  este  absent  au  temps  de  la  mort  du  feu 
Colonel  Edmonds,  faillit  de  la  place  de  Capitayne  de  sa  Com- 
panie  qu'il  pretend  de  droict  luy  appartenir.  Or  parce  qu'en 
cela  il  a  este  moins  recogneu  que  de  raison  luy  estoit  deu ; 
estant  a  present  vacant  de  capitaine  la  companie  du  Cap. 
Rondneys,1  il  vous  vient  supplier  de  la  luy  conferer,  tant  pour 
le  regard  de  ses  merites  passez,  ayant  perdu  en  vostre  service 
de  son  sang  et  un  sien  frere,  comme  pour  luy  faire  reparation 
du  dommage  soustenu  pour  avoir  failly  de  la  Companie  du 
Col.  Edmonds.  Ores  estant  son  desir  fonde  sur  tant  de  raison, 
nous  ne  ferons  de  long  propos  a  le  vous  recommander,  sachant 
que  tant  pour  le  respect  de  justice  que  pour  Tamour  de  nous, 
vous  ferez  tout  ce  qu'appartient  a  vre  honneur  de  faire. — Vre 
bon  Amy  et  allie,  JAQUES  R. 

Royston,  le  xxv  iour  de  Novembre  1609. 

Recommendation  of  John  Young 
(Dat.  Novr.  10.     Rec.  Decemr.  24). 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — Ce  porteur  Jean  Young  bourgeois 
de  nostre  ville  d'Edimbourg,  ayant  avance  diverses  sommes  de 
deniers  aux  capitaines  et  autres  officiers  par  vous  employes  a 
faire  levee  des  gens  de  guerre  en  nostre  royaume  d'Escosse,  et 
ne  trouvant  nul  moyen  d'estre  paye  (les  dictz  officiers  s'excu- 
santz  come  n'ayantz  point  en  payement  de  vous)  est  en  fin  con- 
trainct  de  recourir  a  vous  ;  et  partant  nous  a  tres  bumblement 
supplie  de  se  recomender  come  celuy  qui  a  tousiours  employe 
sa  personne  et  moyens  pour  vous  faire  service.  Et  d'autant 
que  sa  demande  ne  nous  semble  point  desraisonable.  Nous 
vous  avons  bien  voulu  prie  de  cognoistre  sa  cause  et  donner  tel 
ordre  pour  Famour  de  nous  qu'il  en  soit  paye  tant  des  deniers 
susdictz  que  des  decomptes  de  feu  son  beaupere,  mort  en  vostre 
service.  Et  sur  ce,  Messieurs  et  comperes,  prions  Feternel  vous 
tenir  en  sa  sainte  et  digne  garde. — Vostre  bien  bon  amy  et 
Compere,  JAQUES  R. 

Escrypte  a  nostre   palais  de  Westminstre,  le  dixiesme  de 
Novembre  Tan  1609. 

i  Udny? 


i6o;]   RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS   241 

Remonstrance  des  Ambassadeurs  et  Colonels  de  la 
Grande  Brittagne 

(Exhibit,  in  the  assembly  of  the  States- General,  May  22,  1607.) 
[Partly  destroyed.] 

MESSIEURS,  MESSIEURS  LES  ESTATS  GENERAUX. — MESSIEURS,  Diplomatic 
nous  supplions  bien  humblement        .         .         .         .         en  ce 
reglement  qu'on  faict  a  present  de  vos  trou    .          .          .     qu'il  1612. 
leur  plaise  avoir  soin  de  Fhonneur  de  nostr  .          .         .  Nations 
suivant  les  recommendations  que  sa  Ma     .         .         .a  faictes 
par  ses  lettres  et  nostre  remonstrance  .         .         la  dessus 

ayans  esgard  tant  au  merite  de  leurs  services  qu'a  la  bonne 
alliance  que  de  long  temps  a  este  entre  nos  Royaumes  et 
vos  Provinces. 

Nostre  nation  a  este  la  premiere  qui  est  venue  a  vostre 
service  et  y  est  continue  sans  iutervalle,  insques  a  la  derniere 
heure.  Avec  quelle  resolution,  zele  et  fidelite  nos  gens  se  sont 
tousiours  comportes  durant  vos  guerres ;  vos  victoires  en  par- 
lent  et  le  present  estat  de  vos  affaires  remonstre  vivement ;  en  - 
bien  de  recognoissance  de  leurs  services,  nous  prions  de  ne  nous 
mectre  pas  une  tasche  d'ignominie  ce  qui  nous  ingerons  estre 
faict  si  on  nous  range  a  70  testes,  pesle  mesle,  avec  le  reste  de 
Tarmes.  (Test  ce  que  nous  demandons  [?]  et  soubz  correction 
non  sans  raison,  et  iustice  que  les  compagnies  tant  angloises 
qu'escossoises,  qui  a  la  derniere  monstre  ont  este  soubs  cents 
testes,  puissent  demeurer  au  mesme  estat,  et  celles  qui  sont  au 
dessus  ce  nombre,  la  soient  reduictes  a  cent  testes. 

Pour  faciliter  cela,  les  Collonnels  soubsignes  se  contenteront 
que  leurs  compagnies  demeurent  chasque  a  deux  cens  testes, 
contents  que  le  nombre  supernumeraire  que  hier  leur  a  este 
accorde,  soit  distribue  parmy  leurs  regimens.  Nous  croyons  que 
vos  seigneuries  ne  scauront  pas  faire  chose  qui  puisse  estre  plus 
agreable  a  sa  Mat6,  ny  plus  advantageuse  au  bien  et  honneur 
de  leur  service. 

Ri.  SPENCER.  RODOLPHE  WINWOOD. 

H.  VERB.  ED.  CECYLL. 

TH.  OGLE.- 

[The  signatures  are  those  of  the  two  Ambassadors  and  the  English  colonels. 
Although  the  Scots  troops  are  mentioned,  neither  Colonel  Brog's  nor  Lord 
Buccleuch's  names  are  appended.] 


242  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1609 

Requeste  des  Ambrs  de  la  grande  brettagne,  pour  le  traittement 
des  Ministres  aupres  des  Compagnies  de  leur  nation. 

(Exh.  10  June  1609.) 

A  MESSIEURS,  MESSIEURS  LES  ESTATZ  GENERA  ux.  MESSIEURS, 
— Nous  presentons  cette  requeste  a  V.  Sies  au  nom  des  Collonels 
de  nostre  nation  et  de  leurs  regiments,  laquelle  ne  tendant 
pas  a  autre  but  que  a  Fhonneur  de  Dieu,  au  service  de  vos 
provinces  et  au  bien  des  subiects  de  sa  Mat6  de  la  gran  Bret- 
tagne,  nous  confions  que  V.  Sies  Faccorderont  sans  difficulte. 

C'est  qu^il  leur  plaise  accorder  en  chasque  compagnie,  tant 
angloise  qu'escossoyse,  qu'est  a  present  et  doresenavant  sera  en 
vostre  service,  une  mortepaye  pour  le  traittement  de  six 
ministres  de  nostre  nation,  gens  scavants  et  de  bonne  vie, 
dont  deux  feront  leur  residence  icy  a  la  Haye,  le  troysiesme 
a  Berghen  op  Zoome,  le  4e  a  Breda,  le  5e  a  FEscluse,  le 
sixiesme  a  Nimeghen,  pour  catechiser  et  instruire  en  la 
cognoissance  de  Dieu  et  de  la  vraye  religion,  les  compagnies 
qu'y  seront  en  garnison  et  aux  lieux  circonsvoysins,  suivant  la 
lyste  mise  au  dessoubs. 

Ceste  requeste  estant  tant  recommendee  par  soymesme,  nous 
recommendons  bien  serieusement  aux  Vos  bonnes  graces. 

Ri.  SPENCER. 

RODOLPHE  WlNWOOD. 

Les  deux  Ministres  residents  a  la  Haye  iront  prescher  a 
Tergaw,1  Worden,2  Dordrech,  Leyden,  Delff,  Rotterdam, 

Le  3e,  qui  reside  a  Berghen,  prendera  a  sa  charge  toute  la 
Zelande. 

Le  4°  qui  reside  a  Breda,  aura  pour  sa  charge,  Gertruide- 
berghe,  Huysden,3  Gorcum,  Worcum,4  Bummell.6 

Le  5e  TEscluse6  et  toute  la  flandre. 

Le  6°  Nimeghen,  Arneham,  Doesbergh,  Zutphen,  Deventer, 
Grave,  Voiche.7 


1  Tergouw,  Gouda.  2  Woerden. 

3  Heusden.  4  Woudrichem.  5  Zalt-Bommel. 

6  Sluis.  7  Vucht  (?). 


1 6 10]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS   243 

July  25. — On  the  request  of  Magdalena  Hume,  formerly  Resolutions 

oftheStj  ' 
General. 


widow  of  Captain  David  Stuart,  it  was  decided  that  since  the  of  the  states' 


town  of  Bruges  is  particularly  kept  in  view  in  the  claim  of  the 
petitioner,  she  is  thereupon  to  address  herself  to  that  town. 
Nevertheless  the  States  grant  her,  out  of  commiseration,  the 
sum  of  fifty  guilders  in  all. 

The  Sutlers  of  Gordon's  Company. 
From  the  States- General  to  the  Council  of  State. 

(May  11,  1610.) 

MY  LORDS, — The  sutlers  of  the  disbanded  company  of  the 
late  Captain  Gordon  were  by  us  again  referred  to  the  States 
of  Utrecht,  in  order  that  they  might  sue  there  for  their  pay. 
We  therefore  recommend  you  so  to  assist  these  poor  petitioners 
once  more  with  your  Lordships'  intercession,  that  they  may 
succeed  in  getting  their  payment,  or  at  least  come  to  an  agree- 
ment with  the  other  creditors  in  Utrecht ;  inasmuch  as  an 
attempt  is  being  made,  against  all  reason  and  justice,  to  nullify 
their  right  of  hypothec. — Herewith,  etc.,  your  Lordships  good  % 
friends, 

THE  STATES-GENERAL  OF  THE  UNITED  NETHERLANDS. 

CAROL  BENTINCK,  V*. 
By  Order  of  the  same 

AERSSEN. 
From  the  Hague,  the  llth  May  1610. 

Recommendation  of  James  ErsJcine. 

(Recep.  June  8,  1610.) 

HAULTS  ET  PUISSANTS  SEIGNEURS,  NOS  BONS  AMYS  ET  ALLIEZ, —  Diplomatic 
Ayants  eu  occasion  de  nous  servir  par  deca  du  Chevalier  Jaques  CorresP°a- 
Arskyn,  Gentilh.  de  nre  Chambre  privee,  capitaine  d'une  com- 1609-14. 
pagnie  de  cuirassiers  a  vre  solde,  Favons  retenu  de  sa  charge 
plus   longuement  que  de   son   gre   il   n'eust   voulu.      Lequel 
desirant  de  s'en  retourner  vers  vous  maintenant  pour  s'acquicter 
de  tout  ce  qui  luy  appartient,  Nous  Tavons  voulu  accompagner 
de  ceste  cy,  tant  pour  vous  faire  scavoir  la  vraye  cause  de  son 
absence,  laquelle  nous  esperons  ne  vous  sera  point  desagreable, 
come  pour  vous  prier  de  luy  continuer  tousiours  vre  bonne 
grace  en  tout  ce  qu'il  aura  occasion  de  vous  en  requerir.     Et 
si  vos  affrs  le  peuvent  permectre  et  que  la  paix  continue  avec 


244  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1610 

voz  voisins,  de  sorte  que  pour  le  present  vous  n'ayez  a  faire  de 
son  service,  nous  prions  de  le  nous  renvoyer,  iusques  a  ce  que 
Toccasion  se  presente  de  vous  servir  de  luy.  Ce  que  nous 
aurons  pour  fort  agreable  et  demeurons. — Votre  tres  affectione 
amy,  JAQUES  R. 

De  fire  Palais  de  Westminster,  le  xxiv  jour  d'Avril  1610. 

October  %5th. — Thomas  Stuart,  Englishman,  having  served 
these  Lands  about  eighteen  years,  and  having  been  severely 
wounded  in  the  head  in  the  trenches  before  Gulick,1  was 
granted,  out  of  commiseration,  and  in  order  to  effect  his  cure, 
twenty-four  guilders  ;  but  this  is  not  to  be  used  as  a  precedent. 

Letter  from  the  Municipality  of  Wilmstadt. 
(Nov.  10, 1610.) 

MY  LORDS, — It  would  appear  that  William  Nory,  Scots- 
man, at  present  an  inhabitant  of  our  town,  received  at  the 
taking  of  the  Sconce  of  Crimpen,  during  the  first  troubles,  a 
wound  in  one  leg  from  a  shot,  which,  as  time  went  on  (in  spite 
of  every  remedy  applied  by  him),  got  much  worse  and  festered ; 
so  that  now  there  are  no  means  by  which  he  can  be  cured. 
Owing  to  this,  and  the  great  expenses  he  incurred,  he  has 
fallen  into  such  poverty,  that  he  has  no  means  wherewith  in 
his  old  age  to  support  himself  and  his  wife.  Wherefore  we 
write  to  your  Lordships  in  his  favour  (also  he  has  conducted 
himself  honestly  and  burgherlike  in  this  town  for  a  consider- 
able number  of  years).  And  we  humbly  pray,  that  you  be 
pleased  to  grant  the  said  William  Nory  some  reasonable 
aliment,  both  on  account  of  his  former  services,  and  because 
he  is  unable  to  earn  his  bread,  in  order  that  he  may  thereby 
support  himself  in  his  extreme  poverty  and  old  age.  By 
doing  this,  you  will  perform  a  work  of  mercy  before  God  the 
Lord,  and  comfort  the  recipient  in  his  great  misery.  We 
conclude  with  our  humble  respects. — My  Lords,  your  Lord- 
ships' obedient,  etc.,  THE  SHERIFFS,  BURGOMASTERS  AND 

ALDERMEN  OF  THE  FORESAID  TOWN. 

Written  in  Wilmstadt,  this  15th  November  1610. 

1  Juliers. 


i6ii]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS   245 

Petition  of  Colonel  Earth  Balfour.     (Exh.  Dec.  7,  1610.) 
To  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States-General. 

With  becoming  reverence  and  respect,  James  Cracke,  on  Requests 
behalf  of  Colonel  Bartolm.  Balfour,  residing  abroad  in  Scotland,  Jl^jjj*" 
begs  leave  to  intimate,  that  in  the  year  1594,  your  High  Mighti- 
nesses granted  the  said  colonel  a  yearly  pension  of  two  hundred 
pounds,  of  forty  grotten  each,  in  payment  of  his  services  ;  which 
pension  has  been  paid  here  by  Mr.  Doublet,  the  Receiver- 
General.  But  when  the  same  pension  became  due  on  the  16th 
day  of  April  1610,  the  said  colonel  empowered  a  merchant  from 
Scotland  to  receive  the  money,  but  he  received  none ;  and  in 
consequence  lodged  a  protest,  to  the  great  injury  of  the  said 
colonel.  Therefore  the  petitioner  prays  most  humbly  that  it 
may  please  your  High  Mightinesses  to  order  the  Receiver- 
General,  Mr.  Doublet,  or  his  commissioner,  to  pay  the  said 
pension  as  previously,  amounting  to  one  thousand  pounds, 
without  delay  or  objection,  in  order  to  avoid  all  extraordinary 
expenses.  By  doing  this JACQUES  CRACKE. 

Petition  of  Rev.  Andrew  Hunter. 

(Receptum  Januar  5.) 

ILLUSTRISSIMIS    ET    CONSULTISSIMIS    DOMINIS    D.D.    ORDINIBUS  Letters  and 
GNALTB, — Anno  superiore  per  anticipationem  accepi  cent,  flore-  {^council 
nos  in  castris,  deinde  coram  Juliaco  a  Domino  Dubeletto  triginta  of  state. 
octo  florenos ;  hinc  ex  ducentis   illis  florenis  quos   in  extra- 
ordinarium    stipendium   quotannis   conceditis   sexaginta   duo 
floreni  supersunt ;  et  plane  statueram  vos  per  anticipationem 
non   urgere,   sed  familise  sustentandae   et  creditoribus  satis- 
faciendi  circa  et  necessitas  (praeter  valetudinariae  et  decum- 
bentis  uxoris  meae  statum)  invitum  me  hue  rapiunt,  ut  una 
cum  62  illis  florenis  centum  etiam  florenos  per  anticipationem, 
expetam.     Cavebo  in  posterum  (si  fueri  possit)  ne  vobis  in 
huiusmodi  negotio  molestus  sim. 

ANDREAS  HUNTERUS,  Evangelij 
Jesu  Christi  Minister. 

Captain  Forbes's  Company  at  Tiel.     (April  18,  1611.) 
The  Commander  of  the  Garrison  in  Tiel  to  the  Council  of  State. 
MY   LORDS, — This  afternoon  the   officers  here   at  present, 


246  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1611 

and  most  of  the  soldiers,  of  the  company  of  Captain  Forbes,1 
garrisoned  here,  came  to  me  with  the  complaint,  that  now  in 
the  twenty-seventh  week,  they  have  as  yet  received  no  advance  of 
money,  and  during  all  this  time  had  supported  themselves  very 
poorly  and  with  difficulty,  and  that  it  was  impossible  for  them 
to  endure  this  state  of  matters  or  to  support  themselves  any 
longer :  that  also  because  of  hunger  and  anxiety  they  must 
have  been  forced  to  desert,  had  they  not  been  supplied  with 
victuals  by  the  good  burghers  and  inhabitants  of  this  town, 
particularly  by  the  widow  of  T.  Reyner  Gijsberts.  But  this 
support  the  citizens  no  longer  could  or  would  give,  as  there  is 
now  due  to  them  by  the  company  a  considerable  sum  of  money. 
On  account  of  which  they  (the  soldiers)  have  also  pledged 
themselves  to  such  an  extent,  that  they  have  lost  all  credit. 
Therefore  in  regard  to  this  humbly  praying  I  make  this  strong 
representation  in  the  name  of  them  all,  that  now  after  such 
long  patience  and  miserable  support  they  may  be  comforted 
and  their  arrears  paid ;  a  duty  which  (in  order  to  avoid  more 
confusion)  I  neither  could  nor  would  neglect.  And  therefore 
having  expressed  on  their  behalf  my  sentiments  regarding 
these  matters,  I  pray  most  humbly,  and  entreat  your  High 
Mightinesses  to  make  ample  provision,  so  that  the  said  soldiers 
be  paid  their  arrears,  and  that  no  further  delay  occur,  and  also 
that  all  serious  tumults  and  misfortunes  (evidently  to  be  expected 
otherwise)  may  be  prevented.  Therefore  trusting  entirely  to 
your  High  Mightinesses  for  ample  provision  against  further 
troubles,  and  for  satisfying  the  soldiers,  I  pray  the  Almighty, 
etc. — Your  High  Mightinesses  most  ready  and  obedient 
(Signed)  DIEDERECH  VIJGH,  Lord  of  Soelen 

Sheriff  in  Nederbetuwe,  Commander  of 

the  Garrison  in  Tiel. 
At  Tiel,  the  18  April  1611,  old  style. 

To  the  Council  of  State.     (May  6,  1611.) 

We,  the  undersigned  Aldermen  of  the  city  of  Tiel,  hereby 
declare,  that  yesterday  being  the  5th  day  of  May  1611,  new 
style,  Francois  Doublet,  army  paymaster,  brought  the  officers 

1  See  p.  71- 


i6u]   RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS   247 

and  common  soldiers  of  the  company  of  Captain  Forbes  into 
the  church  in  the  foresaid  city,  having  been  ordered  and 
commissioned  to  do  so  by  your  Lordships,  Councillors  of 
State ;  and  they  were  asked  in  our  presence  how  they  stood 
with  their  captain,  with  respect  to  the  payment  of  their 
services,  and  what  amount  of  arrears  was  due  to  them  by 
their  captain.  After  the  said  questions  were  put  by  the 
paymaster  two  distinct  times,  the  people  declared  unanimously  , 
that  the  said  captain  on  the  day  previous  to  the  paymaster's 
arrival,  being  the  20th  May,  had  paid  the  arrears  of  the 
company  (sixteen  or  eighteen  men  excepted)  wholly  and  in 
full  up  to  the  6th  of  May  inclusive,  that  he  (the  captain)  was 
not  able  to  pay  the  remainder  of  the  unpaid  soldiers,  owing  to 
the  shortness  of  time,  but  he  promised  in  our  presence  to  do  so 
to-day.  At  which  the  whole  company,  particularly  those  who 
had  not  yet  received  their  money,  were  satisfied ;  that  the 
captain  had  also  satisfied  the  widow  of  Reynier  Gijsberts,  who 
had  long  supplied  the  said  soldiers  with  victuals,  paying  her 
800  guilders  in  cash,  and  having  assigned  the  balance  to  be 
paid  her  in  Friesland. 

We  have  signed  this  declaration  at  Tiel,  this  6th  May  1611. 
M.  V'd  BOCHELL.  BOTH  VAN  DER  EEM. 

The  Council  of  War  at  Zwolle  to  the  Council  of  State. 
(June  27,  1611). 

The  citation  which  your  Lordships  have  been  pleased  to  draw 
up  at  the  request  of  the  quartermaster,  David  Arskyn,  dated 
the  17th  June  last,  new  style,  was  delivered  to  us  on  the  17th  of 
the  same  month,  old  style ;  and  from  it  we  have  learned  that 
the  quartermaster's  servant,  named  Robert  Hardy,  though 
innocent,  was  before  this  accused  and  placed  under  apprehension 
for  stealing  certain  linen  from  the  Commissary  Bloemendaal. 

Item. — That  the  said  Robert  Hardie,  after  long  imprisonment 
and  accusation,  was  on  the  19th  February  1609,  when  nobody 
had  any  thing  to  say  against  him,  acquitted  by  us,  and  ordered 
to  be  sent  out  of  prison,  he  being  also  condemned  to  pay  the 
costs  of  the  imprisonments,  though  we  ought  properly  to  have 
condemned  the  said  Commissary  in  them. 


248  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1611 

Item. — That  on  account  of  these  costs,  the  said  Robert  must 
have  remained  under  apprehension,  he  having  no  means  to  pay 
them. 

Item. — That  the  influential  provost,  Herman  Westmeyer, 
brought  an  action  against  the  quartermaster  before  us,  and 
pled  on  Robert's  behalf  to  have  the  cost  of  his  imprisonment 
paid  by  said  quartermaster. 

Item. — That  finally,  proceedings  went  so  far,  that  by  mis- 
take, on  the  7th  of  March  last,  we  by  our  sentence  condemned  the 
petitioner  to  pay  the  costs  of  the  imprisonment  of  the  foresaid 
Robert;  from  which  sentence  the  quartermaster  appealed  to 
your  Lordships,  and  thereupon  you  charged  us,  in  as  far  as  this 
business  concerns  us,  to  appear  before  you  at  the  Hague,  or  to 
send  our  commissioners.  And  even  if  this  matter  does  not 
concern  us,  seeing  we  have  administered  justice  (as  we  were 
bound  to  do) ;  yet  we  could  not  neglect,  in  obedience  to  your 
Lordships,  to  answer  the  citation,  not  in  any  such  way  as  to 
make  ourselves  parties  in  this  business,  but  only  that  you  may 
acquire  a  just  knowledge  of  the  facts  of  the  case,  which  are  as 
follows : 

The  Commissary  Bloemendaal  did  not  cause  the  said  Robert 
to  be  apprehended  and  put  in  prison,  also  did  not  accuse  him, 
as  the  quartermaster  too  liberally  intimated  to  your  lordships. 
But  the  procedure  in  the  case  was  such  as  is  to  be  gathered 
from  the  precognition  and  the  extract  from  this  Council  of  War 
protocol,  both  dated  7th  June  1609,  of  which  we  here  enclose 
copies. 

Further.  It  is  true  that  the  late  bailiff  of  Salandt,  who  at 
the  time  was  at  the  Hague,  conferred  at  length  about  this 
imprisonment  case,  with  some  of  your  peers.  On  that  occasion 
(as  the  bailiff  frequently  related)  they  expressed  themselves  as 
very  thankful  that  his  Lordship  was  keeping  such  good  order 
here,  and  begged  that  henceforward  he  would  continue  to 
punish  all  other  inconveniences  and  petulances  that  might 
occur,  and  that  troopers  or  soldiers  here  might  set  agoing. 
And  when  the  late  bailiff  informed  your  lordships  that  Robert 
had  no  way  of  paying  his  board,  it  pleased  you  to  permit  the 
bailiff  and  provost  to  allow  said  board  (to  wit,  six  stuivers 
daily  till  the  19th  January,  that  is,  to  the  day  of  Robert's 


1611]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS  AND  REPORTS   249 

release)  to  be  included  in  the  justiciary  expenses,  and  the  said 
money  was  immediately  delivered  to  the  provost  by  the  bailiff 
coming  at  that  time  from  the  Hague.  And  whereas  no  appre- 
hension was  asked  for  by  Bloemendaal,  nor  was  any  accusation 
made  by  him  (as  will  appear  from  the  foresaid  documents),  we 
had  no  reasons  to  condemn  him  to  pay  the  costs.  It  is  also 
to  be  noted  particularly,  that  while  all  this  was  going  on, 
the  quartermaster,  whose  imprisoned  servant  was  declared  free 
on  the  19th  January  1609,  ought  to  have  let  him  go  and  remain 
free,  and  not  have  commanded  him  anew  to  remain  under  the 
charge  of  the  provost  (as  will  appear  from  testimony  of  wit- 
nesses produced,  of  Philip  Edgar,  of  the  prisoner  himself, 
Robert  Hardie,  and  of  two  servants  from  Zwolle).  But  the 
quartermaster  did  not  trouble  himself  about  this,  wherefore  he 
ought  to  blame  himself  and  nobody  else,  and  in  reference  to 
this  should  not  be  of  opinion  that  we  made  a  mistake  in  our 
judgment  given  on  the  7th  March,  seeing  that  what  was  then 
done  took  place  after  full  deliberation  and  mature  consulta- 
tion, in  the  presence  of  fifteen  military  officers  standing  there, 
who  had  been  fully  admonished  on  oath  to  act  rightly  in  the 
matter.  Also  it  is  to  be  noted  that  the  quartermaster  carried 
through  a  suit  before  the  magistrate  of  Zwolle  regarding  this 
matter,  against  the  said  Commissary  Bloemendaal,  but  with 
what  result  we  do  not  know.  Perhaps  if  it  had  gone  well 
with  him  there,  he  would  not  have  come  to  trouble  your  High 
Mightinesses.  And  as  far  as  we  can  make  out,  the  quarter- 
master is  doing  it  solely  to  give  annoyance  to  the  provost, 
which,  with  submission,  we  could  not  withhold  from  your 
lordships.  Herewith  we  humbly  pray  the  Almighty  to  pre- 
serve you  long  in  health,  under  the  peaceable  rule  of  salvation. 

J.  G.  TENGNAEGEL,  V*. 

Dated  Zwolle,  this  twenty-seventh  June,  Anno  sixteen  hun- 
dred and  eleven,  old  style. 


250  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1611 


III 


EXTRACTS  RELATING  TO  THE  SERVICES  AND 
CLAIMS  OF  SIR  WILLIAM  BALFOUR  AND 
CAPTAIN  HENRY  BALFOUR.1 

1611-1615 

To  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States- General  of  the 

United  Netherlands. 

Sir  Henry  Balfour  humbly  and  with  due  reverence  hereby 
showeth,  that  he  has  now  served  your  Highnesses  and 
the  Provinces  during  twelve  years  as  captain,  in  which 
capacity  (without  boasting)  he  hopes  that  he  conducted 
himself  as  becomes  a  nobleman,  on  all  occasions  which 
presented  themselves  in  your  service.  And  since  the  office  of 
lieutenant-colonel  in  the  regiment  of  Colonel  Brock  is  at 
present  vacant,  the  petitioner  begs  .to  submit  that  he  has 
favourable  recommendations  from  His  Majesty  of  Great 
Britain,  directed  to  Lord  Wynwout,  His  Majesty's  Ambassador 
here,  claiming  your  Highnesses'  intervention  in  order  that  it 
may  please  your  Highnesses  to  grant  the  office  of  lieutenant- 
colonel  to  the  petitioner,  in  consideration  of  the  foregoing,  to 
which  he  begs  to  refer  as  giving  your  Highnesses  information 
of  the  request  of  the  petitioner,  and  of  His  Majesty's  particular 
desire  in  his  favour  for  his  promotion.  Moreover,  with  the 
same  view,  the  petitioner  has  also  obtained  the  written  recom- 
mendation of  Ambassador  Carron — here  annexed.  It  is  there- 
fore the  petitioner's  humble  and  most  respectful  prayer,  that  it 
may  please  your  Highnesses  out  of  regard  to  His  Majesty 
aforesaid,  and  for  consideration  of  the  petitioner's  long  and 
faithful  services,  to  do  him  the  honour  and  favour  of  preferring 
him  before  others,  and  graciously  to  bestow  on  him,  the  fore- 
said  command  of  lieutenant-colonel,  etc. 

1  Sir  Henry  Balfour,  see  p.  61.     Sir  William  Balfour,  see  p.  69. 


1611]        SIR  WILLIAM  BALFOU1TS  CLAIMS  251 

MESSIEURS, — J'ay  charge  de  la  part  de  sa  Mat6  de  la  grande 
Brettagne  de  recommander  a  Vs  Sries  les  pretensions  du 
suppliant;  ce  que  ie  fais  tres  affectueusement,  suppliant  Vs 
Ses  sur  les  raisons  alleguees  en  cette  requeste  et  les  recommen- 
dations de  Sa  Mat6  de  luy  accorder  sa  demande  en  recompense 
de  ses  bons  et  fideles  services.  RODOLPHE  WiNwooD.1 

Letter  from  the  Dutch  Ambassador,  Noel  de  Car  on. 
To  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States-General. 

MY  LORDS, — His  Highness  the  Prince  of  Great  Britain  has 
sent  Sir  David  Murray,  first  Lord  of  his  bedchamber  to  me, 
with  the  request  that  on  his  behalf  I  would  recommend  to  you 
Sir  William  Balfour,  the  bearer  of  this,  one  of  His  Majesty ""s 
Privy  Councillors.  His  request  is  (and  he  claims  to  be  one  of 
the  oldest  captains  in  the  regiment  of  the  late  Colonel 
Sutton,2  in  whose  place  Colonel  Brog  is  now  appointed)  that  he 
shall  get  the  post  of  lieutenant-colonel,  as  that  post  has  been 
long  vacant,  and  he  hopes  that  his  appointment  will  be  agree- 
able to  the  said  Colonel  Brog,  and  that  in  other  respects  he 
may  thereby  be  able  to  render  better  and  more  acceptable 
service  to  the  Land.  This  is  all  that  I  know  about  this  request, 
and  the  said  Sir  William  has  intimated  as  much  to  you  confi- 
dentially. I  therefore  wish,  should  your  High  Mightinesses 
resolve  to  fill  said  post,  that  this  nobleman  be  preferred  before 
others,  NOEL  DE  CARON.  e 

From  South  Lambeth,  the  8th  July,  1611  (old  style). 

1613,  June  3. — On  the  request  of  Captain  Henry  Balfour, 
praying  to  be  appointed  as  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  regiment 
of  Colonel  Brogh.  Taking  into  view  the  strong  recommenda- 
tion of  the  Electoral  Princess  Palatine,  written  from  Arnhem  in 
a  missive  of  the  18th  ult.  to  the  Advocate  of  Holland,  it  was 
resolved  that  their  High  Mightinesses  give  favourable  consider- 
ation to  said  recommendation,  so  soon  as  they  shall  proceed  to 
the  disposal  of  that  and  other  military  appointments. 

1  Henry  Balfour  refers  to  a  letter  of  recommendation  of  the  Dutch 
Ambassador  wherein  William  Balfour  is  recommended.  As  William  and  Henry 
were  both  in  the  service  of  the  States,  their  names  were  probably  confounded, 
and  Caron  intended  to  recommend  Henry.  See  also  the  Resolutions  of  the 
States-General.  Winwood  wrote  the  French  lines  on  the  request. 
3  This  is  a  mistake,  Brog  succeeded  Edmond. 


252  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1613 

June  13. — Upon  the  request  of  Captain  William  Balfour,  the 
eldest,  and  at  that  date,  only  son  of  the  late  Henry  Balfour, 
formerly  colonel  of  a  regiment  of  Scotsmen,  in  the  service  of 
these  lands,  praying  for  payment  of  his  late  father's  arrears 
for  services. 

After  deliberation  it  was  agreed  and  declared,  that  the 
petitioner  in  respect  of  the  good  services  of  his  late  father,  and 
the  recommendation  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  shall  be 
held  as  recommended  when  occasion  offers.  But  as  regards  the 
foresaid  request  of  payment  for  his  father's  services  in  Brabant 
and  Flanders,  being  outside  the  United  Provinces,  their  High- 
nesses cannot  enter  on  that  matter. 

June  18. — Upon  the  request  of  Sir  William  Balfour,  as  sole 
heir  of  the  late  Captain  David  Cant,  for  the  payment  of  the 
said  captain's  services,  it  was  resolved  that  this  request  be 
placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Clerk  of  the  Treasury,  that  their 
Highnesses  may  be  advised  concerning  the  situation  of  the 
matters  therein  related. 

June  26. — The  Clerk  of  Court  gave  in  a  statement  of 
arrears  due  for  services  rendered  to  the  Lands  by  the  late 
Captain  David  Cant  with  his  company,  from  1st  September 
1585  to  17th  April  1592,  giving  the  amount  according  to  the 
two  existing  settlements  of  accounts,  as  21343  pounds,  11 
shillings,  whereof  Captain  William  Balfour,  as  heir  of  the 
*said  deceased  Cant,  requests  payment.  Hereupon,  after  con- 
sultation, and  having  regard  to  the  strong  recommendation  of 
Her  Highness  the  Electoral  Princess  Palatine  in  favour  of  the 
above  mentioned  Balfour,  it  was  agreed  that,  without  satisfy- 
ing all  his  claims  (the  services  of  Colonel  Balfour  in  Brabant 
among  them),  he  is  to  be  gratified  with  a  pension  of  400 
guilders  yearly,  to  be  paid  him  until  he  be  invested  with  the 
lieutenantship  [i.e.  lieutenant-colonelcy]  of  Colonel  Brogh,  or 
otherwise  advanced,  always  providing  he  shall  first  prove  that 
he  is  the  heir  of  the  late  above  mentioned  Captain  Cant. 

September  10. — The  request  of  Captain  Henry  Balfour 
was  read,  praying  that  in  regard  to  the  recommendation  of 
the  Electoral  Princess  Palatine  regarding  him,  their  Highnesses 
should  provisionally  allow  him  to  increase  his  company  to  one 
hundred  and  ninety  or  one  hundred  and  eighty  heads.  But 


1615]        SIR  WILLIAM  BALFOUR'S  CLAIMS  253 

on  that  matter  decision  was  postponed  till  after  the  revisal  or 
reading  of  the  minutes  of  the  State  of  War. 

August  26. — Two  requests  were  read — the  one  from  John 
Gordon,1  and  the  other  from  Henry  Balfour — praying  to  be 
appointed  to  the  post  of  sergeant-major  in  the  regiment  of 
Colonel  Brog,  or  that  of  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  same  regi- 
ment. But  in  the  meantime  decision  thereon  was  postponed. 

1615,  January  19. — A  letter  was  received  and  read  from  Resolutions 
the  King  of  Great  Britain,  dated  October  25th  last,  from  the 
Court  at  Royston,  and  written  on  behalf  of  Sir  William 
Balfour,  eldest  and  only  surviving  son  of  the  late  Sir  Henry 
Balfour,  formerly  colonel  of  a  regiment  of  Scots  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  Lands,  and  heir  along  with  his  two  nephews  2  (for 
whom  he  holds  power  of  attorney  3)  of  the  late  Captain  Cant, 
deceased ;  that  payment  may  be  granted  him  of  arrears  for 
services  rendered  to  the  Lands  by  the  said  late  Captain  Cant. 

After  consultation,  it  was  resolved  to  put  the  above  men- 
tioned missive,  with  the  accompanying  request  of  the  said  Sir 
William  Balfour,  and  the  accounts  of  the  late  Cant  aforesaid, 
into  the  hands  of  the  Clerk  of  Court  for  revisal,  and  to  note 
whether  any  alterations  have  occurred  in  them,  or  any  part  of 
them  has  been  paid ;  further,  to  ascertain  what  still  remains 
due  to  the  said  late  Captain  Cant  for  his  services  since  the 
accounts  were  made  up,  and  of  all  this  fully  to  inform  their 
Highnesses  privately. 

January  25. — The  report  of  the  Clerk  of  Court  was  given 
in  on  the  claims  of  Sir  William  Balfour  as  heir  of  the  late 
Captain  Cant,  in  regard  to  the  arrears  for  service  of  the  said 
captain,  both  these  of  which  an  account  was  drawn  up,  and 
those  for  services  subsequently  rendered.  And  as  the  said  Sir 
William  Balfour  appears  to  be  carrying  on  negotiations  with 
Witschart,  cavalry-captain,  with  a  view  to  his  taking  over 
Witsart's  company  of  horse,  and  in  return  paying  him  said 
arrears,  it  was  proposed  on  the  part  of  the  States-General  to 
promise  to  said  Witssaert  and  his  wife,  as  a  full  settlement  of 
the  aforesaid  arrears,  a  pension  of  500  or  at  the  most  600 

1  John  Gordon's  company  had  been  dismissed  in  1609.  It  does  not  appear 
whether  this  was  or  was  not  the  same  man. 

3  The  word  may  equally  mean  cousins  or  nephews.  2  Procuration. 


254  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1615 

guilders  yearly  during  the  lifetime  of  the  said  Witssaert  and 
of  his  wife.  And  it  was  agreed  that  the  Advocate  of  Holland 
shall  arrange  matters  with  the  parties,  and  find  what  their 
opinion  is. 

February  19. — On  the  petition  of  Sir  William  Balfour, 
asking  for  payment  of  account  for  services  rendered  to  the 
country  by  the  late  Captain  Cant,  his  uncle,  up  to  his  death  ; 
also  of  the  services  rendered  by  his  late  father  as  colonel, 
amounting  to  a  sum  of  about  ^40,000,  according  to  docu- 
ments and  bonds  thereanent  in  possession  of  the  petitioner, 
it  was  resolved  and  agreed,  on  account  of  several  important 
considerations,  that  the  Clerk  of  Court  shall  interview  the 
petitioner  and  treat  with  him  for  full  settlement  of  all  his 
claims,  with  respect  both  to  the  services  of  his  father  aforesaid 
and  of  the  late  Captain  Cant,  and  in  lieu  of  the  same  shall  offer 
him  an  annual  pension,  to  continue  during  the  lifetime  of  said 
petitioner,  of  600  guilders,  and  a  cash  sum  of  1000  guilders, 
on  condition  that  in  return  he  shall  bind  himself  to  receipt  in 
full,  and  hand  over  the  said  account  and  the  old  bonds  of  his 
father  in  his  possession,  and  drawn  up  in  the  usual  form  on  the 
States- General. 

March  3. — The  Clerk  of  Court  reported  that  he  made  to 
Captain  Balfour  their  Highnesses  offer,  for  the  full  settlement 
of  all  his  claims  both  in  respect  of  the  services  of  his  late  father, 
whose  bonds  he  is  in  possession  of,  and  of  Captain  Cant,  his 
uncle,  to  whom  he  is  heir,  amounting  in  all  to  more  than 
62,000  guilders,  but  that  the  said  Captain  Balfour  would  not 
be  satisfied  with  this  offer,  but  desires  to  have,  in  addition  to 
the  pension  of  600  guilders  annually,  a  further  cash  sum  of 
^3000,  and  that  the  pay  of  his  uncle  of  1000  guilders  per 
annum  be  settled  on  him  for  life.  Whereupon,  after  delibera- 
tion, it  was  resolved  to  adhere  to  the  offer  of  the  pension 
of  600  guilders  annually,  but  to  increase  the  offer  of 
a  cash  sum  of  1000  guilders  to  2000,  of  which  sum  1000 
guilders  are  to  be  paid  at  once,  and  the  remaining  1000 
guilders  within  a  year,  always  providing  that  he  shall  show 
that  he  is  sole  heir  of  the  said  Cant,  his  uncle  ;  and  in  case  said 
Captain  Balfour  does  not  accept  this  offer,  negotiations  with 
him  are  to  be  stopped. 


1615]        SIR  WILLIAM  BALFOUR'S  CLAIMS  255 

1615,  April  7.— The  Clerk  of  Court  reported  that  Captain 
Balfour  has  accepted  the  offer,  which  their  Highnesses  allowed 
him  to  make,  in  settlement  of  all  his  claims  as  heir  of  the  late 
Captain  Cant,  and  of  his  father,  the  late  Colonel  Balfour,  for 
services  rendered  by  them  both  in  Brabant  and  Flanders  and 
in  this  country,  none  of  these  services  excepted ;  and  the 
accounts  and  bonds  for  the  same  he  is  willing  to  give  up,  he 
receiving  a  pension  of  600  guilders  annually  and  a  cash  sum  of 
2000  guilders,  of  which  1000  to  be  paid  immediately,  and  the 
remaining  1000  guilders  within  the  next  year,  and  making  the 
one  proviso  that  the  pension  be  settled  on  his  life  and  the  life 
of  his  son.  This  having  been  deliberated  on,  it  was  agreed  to 
give  the  said  captain  the  choice  either  to  have  the  pension 
settled  on  his  own  life  or  on  the  life  of  his  son ;  or  else  the  one 
half  of  it  on  his  own  life  and  the  other  half  on  the  life  of  his 
son,  on  condition  that  he  shall  take  the  responsibility  of  sub- 
sequent recriminations,  if  any  others  should  come  forward  and 
claim  to  be  joint  heirs  of  the  said  Captains  Cant  or  Balfour, 
namely  those  for  whom  he  has  declared  he  holds  power  of 
attorney;  the  said  pension  to  begin  from  the  day  when  the 
offer  was  made  to  him. 

April  23. — In  the  matter  of  the  petition  of  Captain  Sir 
William  Balfour,  it  was  agreed  that  the  pension  of  ^600 
per  annum  voted  to  him,  half  on  his  life  and  half  on  the  life  of 
his  son,  William  Balfour,  be  settled  only  on  the  life  of  his  said 
son,  William  Balfour. 


256 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 


[1611 


IV 


Council  of 
State. 


EXTRACTS  RELATING  TO  THE  SERVICES  AND 
CLAIMS  OF  COLONEL  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  AND 
HIS  SON  THE  FIRST  EARL  OF  BUCCLEUCH. 

1611-1620 

1611,  May  21. — In  reference  to  the  statement  of  arrears  of 
the  superior  officers  of  the  regiment  of  Colonel  Buccleuch, 
communicated  by  the  Receiver-General,  by  desire  of  the 
States-General,  it  was  agreed  that  the  Receiver-General  pay  the 
officers,  viz.,  Lieutenant  [Colonel]  Henderson,  Quartermaster 
Blair,  Sergeant-Maj  or  Forbes,  and  the  Provost  of  the  regiment, 
their  arrears  of  pay  for  last  year  1609  up  to  51st  December 
last  inclusive. 

HAULTZ  ET  PUISSANTS  SEIGNEURS,  NOZ  BONS  AMIS  ET  CON- 
FEDERES, — II  n'y  a  longtemps  que  nous  avons  escript  en  faveur 
du  Sieur  Baron  de  Bucklugh,  vous  ayant  represente  ses  occasions 
et  nfe  desir  de  se  pouvoir  absenter  pour  quelque  temps  de  la 
charge  qu'il  tient  chez  vous  pour  nous  servir  de  luy  aux  affaires 
de  nfe  Royaulme  d'Escosse.  Lesquelles  occasions  comme  elles 
s'accroissent  de  plus  en  plus,  le  mesme  desir  nous  pousse  aussy 
pour  vous  reiterer  noz  premieres  instances  et  vous  prie  qu'avec 
vfe  permission  et  gre,  il  y  puisse  faire  plus  grand  seiour  sans 
encourir  prejudice  en  sa  charge  et  ce  qui  en  depend.  Et  cepen- 
dant  sur  la  moindre  occasion  qui  se  presentera  et  a  la  premiere 
semonce  que  luy  en  ferez,  nous  ne  fauldrons  de  le  renvoyer 
quant  et  quant,  pour  se  ranger  promptement  a  vfe  service. 
A  laquelle  nfe  requeste  nous  avons  a  adiouster  aussy  que  le 
vueilliez  traicter  gracieusement  en  matiere  de  son  traictement 
pour  le  temps  passe,  afin  qu'il  puisse  trouver  en  effect  que 
nfe  premiere  intercession  quVvons  faict  pour  luy,  ne  luy  sera 
este  inutile,  come  nous  avous  comande  nre  Ambassadeur 
aupres  de  vous,  de  vous  en  faire  instance  plus  particular e. 


i6n]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  257 

Nous  nous  confions  que  pour  le  regard  de  nfe  service  ne  ferez 
difficulte  de  nous  attribuer  ceste  requeste,  et  serons  prestz  de 
le  recognoistre  quant  Foccasion  nous  sera  offerte.  Vfe  tres 
affectione  Amy 

De  nfe  Palais  de  Westminstre,  ce  24e  jour  d'Avril  1611. 

JACQUES  R. 

May  25. — Lord  Winwood,  Ambassador  of  the  King  of  Great  Resolutions 
Britain,  was  present  at  the  meeting,  and  presented  a  letter 
from  His  Majesty,  dated  the  24th  April  last  at  Westminster, 
in  favour  of  the  Baron  Buccleuch,  to  the  end  that  the  king 
might  still  for  a  time  be  permitted  to  employ  him  in  Scotland 
in  His  Majesty ""s  service  without  prejudice  to  his  commission 
here,  and  all  pertaining  thereto.  Requesting  that  he  be  treated 
graciously  as  to  his  pay  for  the  time,  His;Majesty  having  em- 
powered the  above  mentioned  lord  as  his  deputy  to  make  a 
point  of  this,  after  which  his  Excellency  made  and  delivered  in 
writing  the  following  proposals. 

Voz  Seigies  entendent  par  les  lettres  du  Roy  mon  Maistre 
de  quelle  affection  sa  Mat6  desire  que  Fabsence  de  Monsr  le  Baron 
de  Bouclough,  laquelle  toutesfois  n'est  pas  advenue  sans  vostre 
licence  et  permission,  puisse  estre  excusee  ;  et  pour  quelque  peu 
de  temps  davantage,  soubs  votre  bon  plaisir  encore  prorogee, 
ce  que  Sa  Mat6  ne  demande  pas  a  Finstance  dud.  Sieur  de 
Boucloughe,  ny  pour  quelque  bien  qu'il  en  tirera,  ains  pour  le 
respect  particulier  de  son  service  ;  scachant  par  Fexperience 
qu'il  a  eue  de  sa  suffisance  que  sa  presence  en  Escosse,  moyen- 
nant  que  cela  puisse  estre,  sans  prejudice  a  voz  affayres,  y  sera 
fort  necessayre  pour  le  reglement  de  la  polyce,  laquelle  pour 
estre  bien  establie,  requiert  Fauthorite  des  Seigrs  du  pa'is,  qui 
sont  non  seulement  estimez  pour  leur  qualite,  mais  reverez 
encores  pour  leur  prudence  et  preudhommie.  CTcst  la  privaute 
que  sa  Ma16  use  envers  vous,  de  se  servir  de  vos  serviteurs, 
laquelle  liberte  vous  pourrez  prendre  hardiment  en  son  endroict 
de  vous  servir  des  siens  pour  le  bien  et  advancement  de  voz 
affayres.  L'instance  que  sa  Mat6  faict,  que  tant  pour  le  passe 
que  pour  le  venyr,  durant  son  absence,  le  traictement  qui  luy 
appartient  en  quallite  de  Collonel,  ne  soyt  pas  retranche,  puis- 
qu'il  n'a  este  absent  que  par  permission  de  voz  Seigries.  C'est 

£ 


258  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1611 

pour  monstrer  le  soing  qu'elle  a  que  le  Sieur  de  Bouclough, 
employe  en  son  service,  ne  re9oyve  point  de  dommage,  non  pas 
qu'elle  doubte  que  voz  octroys,  en  lieu  de  graces,  soyent  con- 
vertis  en  mulctes  et  amendes :  Quod  in  gratiam  est  concessum, 
in  odium  non  debet  detorqueri.  La  faveur  qu'il  vous  plairez 
faire  a  ce  Seigr,  sa  Mat6  prendra  en  tres  bonne  part  et  la 
recognoistra  par  tous  offices  de  meilleur  Amy  et  Allie.  Je 
supplie  que  je  puisse  avoyr  par  escript  vostre  responce  et  pour 
ma  decharge  et  que  le  Baron  de  Boucloughe  tant  mieux  se 
puisse  regler  sans  y  contrevenyr,  a  ce  que  de  vostre  part  sera 
ordonne.  Faict  le  25e  de  May  1611. 

Signe  RODOLPHE  WINWOOD. 

A  consultation  was  held  on  the  proposal,  made  at  the  meet- 
ing in  the  forenoon,  by  the  Lord  Winwood,  Ambassador  of  the 
King  of  Great  Britain,  in  favour  of  the  Baron  of  Buccleuch,  in 
order  that  he  may  be  permitted  to  remain  for  a  certain  time 
still  in  Scotland,  in  the  service  of  His  Majesty.  And  all  things 
considered,  an  understanding  was  come  to  that  it  would  be 
difficult  to  agree  to  said  request  because  of  the  disservice  and 
bad  precedent  of  it  to  the  Land.  But  especially  seeing  that 
the  said  Lord  Baron,  petitioning  as  having  been  more  than 
seven  years  in  the  service  of  the  Land,  has  not  been  present 
personally  in  the  same,  in  all,  more  than  six  months.  And 
that  therefore  the  said  Lord  Winwood  be  requested  to  take 
this  excuse  in  good  part  and  transcribe  it. 

In  case,  however,  his  Excellency  should  further  insist,  it  was 
agreed  that  on  the  recommendation  of  His  Majesty,  consent  be 
given  for  the  said  baron  to  have  six  months  more  leave  from  his 
regiment  without  reference  to  or  stoppage  of  his  pay  that  is 
due  or  will  be  due,  and  as  besides  there  is  no  reason  for  that 
since  the  regiment  as  yet  is  not  accepted  on  any  repartition. 
But  we  declare  nevertheless,  that  the  matter  shall  be  attended 
to,  as  soon  as  the  assembled  deputies  of  the  provinces  shall 
have  arrived. 

1612,  January  10. — Mr.  Magnus  presiding,  intimated  that 
through  his  Excellency  he  had  received  intelligence  of  the 
death  of  Colonel  Buccleuch,  and  being  afraid  that  the  King 
of  Great  Britain  might  again  set  about  recommending  in  his 
place  as  commander  of  the  regiment  some  one  not  having  the 


1612]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  259 

necessary  skill  and  experience,  that  therefore  his  Excellency 
would  ask  their  Highnesses  to  take  into  consideration  whether 
it  might  not  be  advisable  (in  anticipation  of  such  action),  that 
they  at  once  commission  a  fit  colonel ;  that  his  Excellency 
recommends  the  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  said  regiment,  Robert 
Henderson,  whom  he  knows  as  a  good  soldier,  and  who  is  well 
fitted  for  the  position,  and  that  a  provisional  instrument  might 
be  granted  him  to  assume  the  command  of  the  said  regiment 
and  keep  it  in  good  military  order.  All  which  having  been 
considered  and  weighed,  it  was  agreed  on  the  said  recom- 
mendation of  his  Excellency  that  an  instrument  be  granted  to 
the  said  Lieutenant-Colonel  Henderson,  whereby  he  shall  be 
commissioned  to  command  the  foresaid  regiment  in  the  same 
quality  as  hitherto  he  has  held,  and  containing  further  a  pro- 
mise that  should  their  Highnesses  decide  to  appoint  or  com- 
mission a  colonel  at  some  future  time  over  the  said  regiment, 
he  was  to  be  preferred  before  any  one  else. 

r 

Recommendation  of  Lord  Buccleuch. 
(Jan.  4.    Rec.  Feb.  8,  1612.) 

HAULTS  ET  PUISSANTS  SEIGNEURS  NOZ  BONS  AMIS  ET  ALLIEZ, —  Diplomatic 
Nous  vous  avons  desia  par  noz  lettres  assez  instammen  reco-  dence  1509 
mande  Taffaire  du  Baron  de  Bucklugh,  lequel  pour  vous  estre  1614. 
bien  et  particulier*  cognu,  il  n'est  pas  besoing  par  redites 
inutiles  de  vous  plus  representer.  Seulement  vous  prions 
encore  par  celle-cy  d'y  vouloir  avec  telle  promptitude  qu'il 
conviendra  mettre  la  derniere  main  et  de  comuniquer  a  nre 
Ambassadeur  demeurant  aupres  de  vous  (auquel  avons  n'agueres 
renouvelle  la  charge  de  vous  en  faire  instance  de  nre  part,  et 
de  nous  advertir  au  plustot  de  ce  qui  s'en  sera  ensuivy)  vfe 
premiere  resolution  la  dessus.  Ce  que  ne  doubtons  point  que 
vous  ne  vueilliez  faire  tres  volontiers,  non  seulement  pour 
exempter  la  partie  interessee  de  toute  fascheuse  attente,  ains 
pour  nous  faire  voir  par  mesme  moyen  le  soing  que  vous  avez 
de  satisfaire  a  noz  subiects,  mesmement  a  ceux  que  nous  avons 
en  estime,  en  toutes  leurs  iustes  poursuittes,  co  de  nre  cdste 
nous  demeurons. — Vre  bien  affectionne  amy,  JAQUES  R. 

De  nre  Palais  de  Westminstre  le  4e  jour  de  Janvier  1612. 


260 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 


[1612 


Resolutions 
of  the  States- 
General 


Diplomatic 
Correspon- 
dence. 


July  16. — The  request  was  read  of  Johan  Cleck,  and  Johan 
van  Thielburgh,  the  servant  and  solicitor  of  the  late  Colonel 
Buccleuch,  with  an  appended  letter  of  the  King  of  Great 
Britain,  dated  12th  January  last,  in  favour  of  the  son  of  the 
said  colonel ;  written  to  urge  that  an  order  be  issued  about 
the  payment  of  arrears  for  services  of  the  said  colonel.  And 
it  is  decided  to  have  the  advice  of  the  Council  of  State  there- 
anent,  with  the  admonition  that  they  attend  well  to  all  the 
particulars. 

September  1. — The  advice  is  read  of  the  Council  of  State, 
convened  25th  August  last,  concerning  the  request  of  the  ser- 
vant and  solicitor  of  the  late  Colonel  Buccleuch,  and  first  it 
was  agreed  that,  before  disposing  of  the  matter,  inquiry  be 
made  in  what  state  the  affairs  of  the  said  Buccleuch  are,  and 
what  passports  he  has  had. 

1613,  February  8. — Hereafter  the  said  Lord  Winwood 
declared  that  he  was  charged  by  His  Majesty  to  present  to 
their  Highnesses  a  letter  of  His  Majesty,  dated  the  4th  January 
last,  whereby  His  Majesty  again  strongly  recommends  and 
requests  that  they  will  be  pleased  to  show  all  diligence  in  the 
affairs  of  the  Baron  of  Buccleuch,  with  such  promptitude  and 
willingness  as  is  fitting;  and  to  communicate  to  His  Majesty's 
Ambassador  residing  here  their  resolution,  to  be  taken  finally 
thereon.  To  which  end  the  said  Lord-Depute  made  urgent 
request,  and  asked  that  said  resolution  be  given  to  him  in 
writing. 

After  consultation  it  was  resolved  in  substance  to  reply  that 
seeing  the  pay  of  the  late  Baron  of  Buccleuch  has  never  been 
accepted  by  the  Provinces  on  the  repartition  of  which  he  held  his 
footing,  therefore  no  resolution  can  be  come  to  about  the  pay- 
ment of  the  said  pay  until  the  Provinces  shall  have  given  their 
consent  to  the  quota  demanded  from  each  towards  payment  of 
the  old  debt.  That  being  done,  proceedings  will  be  taken 
with  all  due  consideration  for  the  recommendation  of  His 
Majesty ;  and  a  resolution  will  be  arrived  at  in  the  business  of 
the  said  Baron  of  Buccleuch  as  favourable  as  in  the  present 
situation  of  the  government  of  their  Lands  shall  be  found  just, 
reasonable,  and  right. 

1613,  Feb.  8. — Sur  le  contenu  de  la  lettre  du  roy  de  la 


1613]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  261 

Grande  Bretaigne,  datee  le  quatriesme  iour  de  Janvier  dernier, 
escript  par  Sa  Maj.  en  faveur  du  baron  de  Bucklugh,  presentee 
et  recommandee  ce  jour  d'huy  en  Tassemblee  a  Messeigneurs 
les  Estats  Gnlx  des  Pays  Bas  Unis  par  le  Sr  Winwood, 
ambassadr  de  sad.  Majeste,  declarent  iceulx  Seigneurs  Estatz 
aultant  que  le  tractement  de  feu  le  baron  de  Bucklugh  n'a 
jamais  este  accepte  par  la  province  sur  laquelle  il  avoit  este 
repartie.  C'est  pourquoy  qu'il  ne  peult  estre  resolu  sur  le 
payement  d'icelluy,  avant  que  les  provinces  soient  d'accord  sur 
le  faict  des  quotes  d'icelles  (a  quoy  Ton  travaille  tous  les  iours) 
et  que  les  consentemens  requis  pour  le  payement  de  vielles 
debtes  seront  accordez.  Cela  faict  sera  alors  avec  toutes 
bonnes  considerations,  avec  regard  a  la  recommendation  de 
sad.  Maj6  et  sur  Paffaire  du  diet  baron  de  Bucklugh  si  favor- 
ablement  resolu,  comme  selon  la  constitution  presente  de  Pestat 
de  ce  pays  il  sera  trouve  en  justice,  raison  et  equite  convenir. 

Faict  en  Tassemblee  des  d.  Seigneurs  les  Estatz  Gnlx  le  8e 
jour  de  Febvrier  Tan  xvic  et  treize. 

August  7. — The  request  of  the  son  of  the  late  Colonel 
Buccleuch  was  read,  requesting  liquidation,  settling  of  accounts, 
and  satisfaction  for  the  arrears  for  his  father's  services.  But 
it  was  agreed,  before  coming  to  a  decision,  to  read  the  minutes 
of  the  advice  regarding  it  drawn  up  by  the  Council  of 
State. 

October  19. — A  request  was  read,  presented  on  the  part  of 
the  son  of  the  late  Baron  of  Buccleuch,  praying  for  payment 
of  arrears  of  his  father's  services. 

And  it  was  agreed  to  place  the  same  in  the  hands  of  the 
Council  of  State,  to  be  examined  more  particularly,  and  thereon 
to  advise  their  High  Mightinesses. 

October  26.— Read  the  advice  of  the  Council  of  State, 
dated  the  24th  inst.,  on  the  request  of  the  son  of  Colonel 
Buccleuch,  holding,  for  reasons  mentioned  therein,  that  their 
Honours  in  this  matter  do  not  know  how  otherwise  to  advise 
than  they  advised  a  year  ago,  1612,  August  23rd,  on  the  request 
of  the  servant  and  solicitor  of  the  late  Colonel  Buccleuch,  for 
settlement  and  payment.  They  have  to  advise  the  States- 
General  that  his  regiment  landed  at  the  close  of  1603,  and  he 
himself  in  the  beginning  of  1604.  And  according  to  a  resolu- 


262  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1613 

tion  of  their  High  Mightinesses,  his  pay  as  colonel  commenced 
on  the  1  st  of  January,  and  as  captain  on  the  1 6th  January 
1604  ;  and  so  continued  serving  till  the  25th  December  1611 ; 
that  he  was  absent  most  of  the  time  in  Scotland  and  England, 
as  he  left  with  passport  at  the  commencement  of  the  siege  of 
Sluys  in  May  1604,  and  in  1605,  a  little  before  they  went 
afield,  and  was  that  summer  not  with  them  in  the  field.  Also 
in  1606,  even  before  the  war,  he  was  not  afield.  So  that  in 
the  year  1605,  or  till  the  beginning  of  the  year  1606,  he  was 
little  in  this  Land,  except  that  he  returned  ouce  or  twice,  and, 
nevertheless,  he  was  paid  as  colonel  till  29th  of  June  1609,  and 
as  captain  till  the  6th  July  1609.  Nor  has  he  had  here  any 
continuous  passports  of  absence  except  what  were  sought  for  in 
the  interval.  From  all  which  it  is  rather  to  be  inferred  that 
his  place  was  kept  open  for  him  than  that  he  has  a  right  to 
enjoy  pay.  And  we  should  therefore  be  of  opinion,  under 
correction,  that  the  remonstrant  ought  to  be  well  content  with 
the  wages  and  payments  he  received. 

November  25. — The  advice  of  the  Council  of  State  was  read 
again,  of  date  24th  October  last,  on  the  request  of  the  son  of 
the  late  Colonel  Buccleuch.  And  it  was  agreed  to  commission 
the  Clerk  of  Court  to  sound  the  petitioner's  commissioners  as 
to  whether  they  are  empowered  to  come  to  an  agreement  and 
treat  in  regard  to  all  the  petitioner's  claims,  and  in  that  case, 
it  is  suggested  that  they  might  negotiate  for  a  yearly  pension 
during  the  life  of  the  petitioner,  as  satisfaction  in  full  of  all 
the  petitioner's  claims,  none  excepted. 

1615,  January  20. — Taking  into  account  negotiations  pre- 
viously begun  on  the  part  of  the  heir  of  the  late  Baron  and 
Colonel  Buccleuch,  and  what  was  offered  to  his  commissioners 
in  full  payment  of  his  arrears.  It  was  agreed,  that  to  Delia 
Butler,  legitimate  daughter  of  the  late  Captain  Thomas  Butler, 
whom  the  said  Baron,  being  then  only  fifteen  years  of  age, 
seduced  and  bent  to  his  will  and  lust,  there  shall  be  paid,  by 
way  of  deduction  from  the  sum  that  shall  be  agreed  upon, 
and  settled  as  due  to  the  said  heir,  one  hundred  guilders  in  all. 
The  one  half  ready  money,  and  the  other  half  within  the  next 
six  months. 

August   15. — On   the   recommendation   of  Lord    Wotton, 


i6i5]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH 

Ambassador  Extraordinary  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  with 
the  view  of  obtaining  for  the  heir  of  the  late  Colonel  Buccleuch 
satisfaction  in  reference  to  the  foresaid  colonel's  arrears. 

After  deliberation,  it  was  understood  and  agreed  that  the 
offer  already  made  shall  be  renewed  to  the  commissioners  of 
the  foresaid  heir,  and  in  the  transaction  they  are  to  remember 
the  little  daughter  of  the  foresaid  colonel,  by  Delia  Butler, 
daughter  of  Captain  Butler. 

August  26. — Hereafter  the  foresaid  Lord  Ambassador 
recommended  two  matters,  the  one  about  the  son  of  the  late 
Colonel  Buccleuch,  that  the  same  should  be  satisfied  and  paid 
his  father's  arrears  in  money  and  not  by  a  pension. 

September  8. — The  Clerk  of  Court  was  again  commissioned 
to  confer  more  particularly  with  the  commissioners  of  the  heir 
of  the  late  Colonel  Buccleuch,  about  the  offer  of  the  life  pen- 
sion of  twelve  hundred  guilders  a  year,  during  his  whole  life 
long,  made  to  him  as  in  full  payment  of  all  his  claims.  Also 
in  reference  to  the  satisfaction  he  undertakes  to  give  for  the 
support  of  the  mother  and  bastard  child,  left  by  the  foresaid 
colonel,  for  which  urgent  request  is  made  to  their  High 
Mightinesses. 

November  11. — The  Clerk  of  Court  reported  that  he,  in 
pursuance  of  the  charge  of  their  High  Mightinesses,  has  been 
in  communication  with  the  commissioner  of  the  son  and  heir 
of  the  late  Colonel  Buccleuch,  about  the  offer  made  to  him 
here  on  a  former  occasion,  of  a  pension  of  twelve  hundred 
guilders  a  year,  in  full  payment  of  all  the  claims  of  the  said  heir 
to  the  arrears  for  his  late  father's  services  to  the  Land,  and 
that  the  said  commissioner  has  declared  that  he  will  accept  the 
foresaid  offer,  provided  their  High  Mightinesses  please  to 
grant  him  a  deed  to  the  effect  that  if  at  any  future  time  a  new 
regiment  were  to  be  raised  in  Scotland  for  their  service,  that 
they  should  appoint  him  master  over  it,  and  commission  him  as 
colonel.  And  otherwise  that  he  is  content  to  acquit  and  dis- 
charge on  the  offer  of  the  said  pension  of  twelve  hundred 
guilders  yearly,  provided  their  High  Mightinesses  be  pleased  to 
provide  him  with  the  first  colonelcy  of  the  Scots  presently  in 
service,  that  shall  become  vacant  by  the  death  of  the  colonel. 
Declaring  further  about  the  claim  of  the  woman  by  whom  the 


264  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1615 

late  Colonel  Buccleuch  had  a  child,  still  living,  that  the  said 
woman  received  from  the  foresaid  colonel  one  thousand  guilders, 
that  she  also  received  from  their  High  Mightinesses  at  the 
expense  of  the  arrears  of  the  said  colonel,  in  one  sum,  one  hun- 
dred thalers,  and  in  another,  sixty  guilders.  That  in  addition 
he  is  willing  to  pay  her  four  hundred  guilders  more,  and  that  in 
his  opinion,  the  said  woman  ought  therewith  to  be  well  con- 
tented. But  should  their  High  Mightinesses,  in  spite  of  all 
this,  consider  the  offer  not  enough,  he  leaves  it  to  be  fixed  at 
their  discretion. 

It  was  agreed  that  the  said  Clerk  of  Court  shall  refer  the 
matter  as  above  to  the  said  woman,  and  learn  from  her  whether 
she  is  willing  to  be  satisfied  with  these  terms.  If  not,  what 
more  she  claims,  and  with  what  she  would  be  contented,  and  in 
addition,  whether  she  would  be  willing  to  part  from  her  child. 

December  3. — Heard  the  report  of  the  Clerk  of  Court  on  his 
conference  with  the  commissioners  of  the  son  of  the  late  Baron 
Buccleuch,  formerly  Colonel  of  a  Scottish  regiment  in  the  ser- 
vice of  these  Lands,  and  with  the  mother  of  the  bastard  child 
of  the  said  Baron  by  her.  In  satisfaction  of  all  said  mother's 
claims  for  her  own  support  and  that  of  the  said  child,  she 
asked  one  thousand  guilders  ready  money,  and  four  hundred 
guilders  yearly,  whereupon  the  foresaid  commissioners  offered 
her  only  six  hundred  guilders  ready  money  and  two  hundred 
guilders  yearly,  and  to  relieve  her  from  keeping  the  said  child. 

After  deliberation  their  High  Mightinesses  concluded  and 
resolved,  that  the  said  mother,  for  all  her  claims,  is  to  receive 
eight  hundred  guilders  in  ready  money  once,  and  over  and  above 
that  two  hundred  guilders  yearly  for  her  support,  and  besides 
that,  two  hundred  guilders  a  year  for  the  support  of  the  said 
child,  until  by  legal  attestation  from  the  city  of  Edinburgh,  it 
shall  be  shown  to  their  High  Mightinesses  that  the  said  child 
shall  have  been  adopted  by  the  heir  of  the  said  Baron  of  Buc- 
cleuch and  supported.  On  which  the  said  two  hundred  guilders 
for  the  child  here  shall  cease. 

December  19. — A  remonstrance  handed  in  by  the  commis- 
sioners of  the  heir  of  the  late  Baron  of  Buccleuch  was  read. 
And  it  was  agreed  that  the  Clerk  of  Court  shall  confer  more 
particularly  with  the  same,  in  order  to  understand  the  remon- 


1616]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  265 

strant's  intentions  and  say  to  him,  that  their  High  Mighti- 
nesses do  not  desire  in  this  matter  in  any  way  to  use  their 
authority,  but  that  the  remonstrant  shall  have  to  give  his 
consent  to  the  offers  made,  as  well  in  regard  to  the  principal, 
as  in  respect  to  the  woman  or  mother  of  the  child,  willingly,  or 
refuse  to  do  so. 

1616,  January  31. — On  the  petition  of  Delia  Botlers,  re- 
questing that  it  may  please  their  High  Mightinesses  to  increase 
the  200  guilders  assigned  to  her  as  a  provision  by  way  of 
deduction  from  the  claims  of  the  late  Baron  of  Backlough  by 
such  additional  sum  as  may  enable  her  both  to  satisfy  her 
creditors  and  to  live  on  in  this  cold  winter:  it  is  resolved 
that  the  petitioner  must  be  satisfied  in  the  meantime  with  the 
said  200  guilders,  on  the  understanding  that  her  creditors  may 
not  seize  her  goods. 

April  30. — On  the  request  of  Miss  Delia  Butler,  praying 
that  the  child  the  deceased  Colonel  Buccleuch  had  by  her  be 
left  in  her  charge,  and  that  for  the  support  of  herself  and  the 
foresaid  child,  the  resolution  made  some  time  ago  by  their  High 
Mightinesses  regarding  this  matter  be  allowed  to  take  effect. 
After  deliberation  it  is  understood  that  they  will  not  permit 
the  child  to  go  to  the  heir  of  the  foresaid  Colonel  Buccleuch, 
but  let  it  remain  with  the  petitioner  on  the  footing  of  the 
foresaid  resolution. 

July  16. — To  Delia  Butler,  by  whom  the  late  Colonel 
Buccleuch  had  a  child,  there  was  granted  for  her  support,  and 
that  of  the  child,  fifty  guilders  ready  money,  and  fifty  guilders 
more  within  the  next  six  months,  by  way  of  deduction  from 
the  arrears  of  the  foresaid  colonel. 

July  22. — On  the  request  of  Hans  van  Thielburch,  praying 
for  payment  of  the  three  thousand  guilders,  which  the  late 
Baron  of  Buccleuch  is  justly  indebted  to  him  for  moneys 
advanced  and  services.  But  a  resolution  as  to  that  is  post- 
poned till  the  transaction  commenced  with  the  heir  of  the 
foresaid  Lord  Baron  shall  be  concluded. 

November  1. — In  consideration  of  the  coming  cold  winter, 
a  further  sum  of  150  guilders  is  voted  to  Delia  Botlaers  on  the 
same  conditions  as  before ;  this  sum  to  be  deducted  from  the 
arrears  still  due  by  the  country  to  Baron  Bachlough. 


266  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1617 

1617,  May  10. — To  Miss  Butler  on  the  foregoing  footing  is 
yet  granted  100  guilders  once,  for  the  support  of  her  little 
daughter,  which  she  had  by  the  late  Baron  of  Buccleuch.1 

Noel  de  Caron  to  the  States- General. 
(Oct.  19,  1617.     Rec.  Nov.  14.) 

MY  LORDS, — Annexed  is  an  autograph  letter  of  His  Majesty, 
in  which  he  requests  me,  on  his  behalf,  to  direct  the  attention 
of  your  High  Mightinesses  to  the  case  of  the  Baron  of  Buccleuch, 
in  order  that  he  be  paid  the  money,  which  the  State  owes  to 
his  late  father.  In  effect,  the  king  charged  his  secretary  Lord 
Winwood  to  state,  that  it  seems  the  said  Buccleuch  would  be 
willing  to  give  an  acquittance  and  full  discharge  for  the  debts 
your  High  Mightinesses  owe  to  him  in  consequence  of  the 
circumstances  referred  to,  provided  he  be  appointed  a  colonel 
in  their  service ;  which  the  king  thinks  can  be  done,  without 
further  expense  to  the  country,  if  an  agreement  could  be  made 
with  Colonel  Brock,  whom  the  king  considers  will  now  be 
pretty  well  up  in  years  ; 2  and  that  it  is  time  he  should  retire 
from  war.  In  addition,  he  should  receive  a  certain  honorary 
pension,  to  be  provided  for  Colonel  Brock  by  the  said 
Buccleuch.  The  king  is  of  opinion  that  this  matter  would 
be  speedily  settled  if  you  would  arrange  matters  with  the  said 
Brock.  The  king,  with  the  same  end  in  view,  will  write  to 
his  ambassador  Carleton,  in  order  that  on  the  king's  behalf  he 
may  do  all  he  can.  I  willingly  recommend  this  proposal  to  the 
consideration  of  your  High  Mightinesses,  His  Majesty  being  so 
much  interested  in  the  matter,  as  the  said  Lord  Winwood 
informed  me.  I  have  also  written  to  his  Excellency  who,  I 
suppose,  will  also  communicate  with  your  High  Mightinesses  in 
order  that  the  matter  may  be  so  arranged  as  to  be  of  the 
greatest  service  and  profit  to  the  land.  Truly,  my  lords,  the 
said  Buccleuch  is  a  young  nobleman,  brave  and  well  fitted  for 


1  It  is  interesting  to  note  the  ultimate  fortune  of  the  child  who  had  been  the 
subject  of  so  much  application  and  negotiation.     '  Jeane  Scot,  natural  sister  of 
Earl  Walter,  called  by  Satchells  "Holland's  Jean,"  married   Robert  Scott  of 
Quhitslaid,  who,  on  8th  November  1633,  granted  a  discharge  to  Earl  Walter  for 
8000  merks  of  tocher  with  her. ' — Sir  William  Eraser's  Scott s  of  Buccleuch. 

2  Colonel  Brog  was  nevertheless  able  to  render    good    service  for  nineteen 
years  more. 


1617]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  267 

war.  I  well  know  that  in  attending  to  this  matter,  your  High 
Mightinesses  will  perform  an  act  of  great  friendship  to  His 
Majesty.  NOEL  DE  CARON. 

MONSIEUR  CARON, — Encores  que  ie  vous  aye  souvent  rec- 
comande  1'affaire  du  Sieur  de  buccleugh  pour  interceder 
aveques  messieurs  les  estats,  qu'il  puisse  avoir  quelque  satis- 
faction d'eux,  pour  les  debtes  deues  a  son  pere ;  si  est  ce  que 
ie  n*en  ay  encores  receu  aucune  responce,  afin  donques  que 
vous  puissies  scavoir,  aveques  quelle  instance  ie  demande  que 
iustice  luy  soit  faicte  aveques  toute  faveur  et  bonne  expedition 
en  ce  cas,  ie  vous  envoye  ce  mot  escripnt  de  ma  main  propre, 
remectant  a  secretaire  Winwoode  de  vous  informer  plus 
particulierement  sur  ce  subiect  et  vous  recomendant  a  la  pro- 
tection du  tout  puissant. — Vostre  bon  amy,  JAQUES  R. 

November  4. — The  Messrs.  Goch,  Bouchorst,  and  Vernau 
report  that  they  have  intimated  orally  to  the  Lord  Ambassador 
Carleton  the  conditions  on  which  their  High  Mightinesses  have 
agreed  to  grant  the  requested  deed  of  expectancy  to  the  Earl 
of  Buccleuch,  as  to  which  also  some  argument  took  place 
between  both  parties.  It  was  thought  proper,  before  resolving 
further  thereon,  that  a  concept  of  the  deed  or  resolution  be 
drawn  up  in  writing,  that  afterwards  it  may  again  be  read 
over  here,  and  checked  in  such  a  way  as  may  be  found  necessary. 
It  is  to  contain  the  complete  discharge  of  all  his  claims  on  the 
Land  on  account  of  his  father's  services,  and  otherwise,  the 
payment  of  his  father's  debts  here  in  this  Land  not  excepted. 
The  missive  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain  was  read  over,  dated 
from  Belvoir,  the  5th  August  last,  in  favour  of  the  Lord  Earl 
of  Buccleuch,  in  order  that  he  be  satisfied — whether  in  ready 
money,  or  by  his  being  provided  with  some  honourable  charge 
in  the  service  of  the  Land.  And  looking  closely  at  all  that 
had  been  previously  done  in  this  matter,  it  was  found  that 
their  High  Mightinesses  have  always  shown  themselves  inclined 
to  the  completion  of  the  matter  aforesaid,  and  that  it  was 
owing  to  the  said  Earl  of  Buccleuch  himself  that  the  affair  had 
not  terminated  sooner,  he  not  having  been  willing  to  accept 
the  equitable  offers  made. 

Out  of  regard  to  the  strong  recommendations  of  His  Majesty, 
and  the  good  qualities  of  the  foresaid  earl — about  whom  their 
High  Mightinesses  have  certainly  had  other  good  reasons  to 


268  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1617 

excuse  them — and  in  order  yet  to  show  their  inclination  to 
and  affection  for  the  good  qualities  of  the  said  earl,  and  how 
much  they  esteem  what  His  Majesty  has  been  pleased  to  recom- 
mend about  the  matter  through  the  foresaid  missive  and  His 
Majesty ^s  ambassador,  also  through  their  own  commissioners 
who  were  last  in  England,  it  was  resolved  that  the  foresaid 
Lord  Earl  of  Buccleuch  be  granted  satisfaction  in  one  of  the 
said  two  ways  :  either,  one  way,  by  granting  him  a  deed  to  the 
effect  that  he  shall  have  the  first  colonelcy  that  shall  become 
vacant  among  the  troops  of  the  Scottish  nation,  and  in  case, 
before  a  vacancy  occurs,  a  new  regiment  of  Scots  should  be 
raised,  that  the  same  shall  be  done  under  him.1  But  it  is  to 
be  understood  that  in  accepting  this  he  is  to  renounce  the 
other  proposed  way  of  satisfaction,2  and  to  resign  all  his  claims 
on  the  Land,  their  High  Mightinesses  understanding  it  to  be 
just  and  in  order  that  the  large  debts  due  by  his  late  father, 
the  Baron  of  Buccleuch,  to  his  solicitor,  here  in  this  Land,  be 
paid  by  the  said  earl.3 

The  '  Acte  Expectatif: 

1620,  July  14.— The  States-General  of  the  United  Nether- 
lands, on  account  of  the  earnest  prescript  of  His  Majesty  the 
King  of  Great  Britain,  and  the  very  serious  recommendation  of 
Lord  Carleton,  His  Majesty's  ambassador,  also  in  consideration 
of  the  merits  of  the  late  Lord  Baron  of  Buccleuch,  and  the  good 
qualities  of  the  present  Earl  of  Buccleuch,  have,  in  conformity 
with  their  High  Mightinesses1  resolution  of  the  4th  November 
last,  and  the  declaration  regarding  it,  drawn  up  in  writing,  by 
the  said  Earl  of  Buccleuch,  in  his  missive  of  the  19th  May 
last,  with  the  said  Earl  of  Buccleuch  therein  agreed,  and  we 
do  agree  by  these  presents  to  this  Act  of  Expectancy  ('  Acte 

1  i.e.  that  the  colonelcy  of  the  new  regiment  should  be  given  him. 

2  This  apparently  refers  to  a  money  settlement. 

3  It  will  be  seen  that  when  the  colonelcy  of  his  father's  regiment  fell  vacant, 
by  Sir  Robert  Henderson's  death  at  Bergen-op-Zoom,  it  was  given,  not  to  the 
earl,  but  to  Sir  Francis  Henderson,  the  next  in  command,  the  reason  probably 
being  the  critical  condition  of  military  affairs,  and  the  necessity  for  appointing 
an  officer  of  experience.     It  was  not  till  1629,  when  the  States  reorganised  their 
Scottish  troops  in  three  instead  of  two  regiments,  that  the  earl  received  a  com- 
mand, being  then  appointed  to  the  new  regiment.     As  to  his  services,  see  Sir 
William  Fraser's  Scott s  of  Buccleuch^  vol.  i.  p.  253. 


i62o]  CLAIMS  OF  LORD  BUCCLEUCH  269 

Expectatif ' ),  to  wit,  that  his  lordship  shall  have  conferred  on 
him  by  their  High  Mightinesses  the  first  colonelcy  that  shall 
fall  vacant  among  the  troops  of  the  Scottish  nation,  here  in  the 
Land  on  military  duty  and  service. 

Or  if,  before  a  vacancy  occur,  a  new  Scottish  regiment  be 
raised,  such  levy  shall  be  made  by  his  lordship's  person — all 
without  guile. 

Drawn  up  at  a  meeting  of  their  said  High  Mightinesses,  the 
States- General,  under  their  seal,  signed,  and  the  signature  of 
the  Lord  Recorder,  on  the  14th  day  of  the  month  July,  in  the 
year  1620. 

The  Earl  of  BucdeucKs  letter  of  thanks.  (July  16.) 
HAULTS  ET  PUISSANTS  SEIGNEURS, — La  favorable  resolution 
de  voz  Seigneuries,  touch  ant  mon  affaire  sur  la  recommanda- 
tion  de  Sa  Mat6  nFa  donne  Foccasion  et  la  hardiesse  de  vous 
addresser  ceste  lettre  icy.  Le  contenu  est  seulement  de  vous 
rendre  graces  en  toute  humilite  pour  la  faveur  qu'il  a  pleu  a 
Voz  Seigneuries  monstrer  en  mon  endroict  et  vous  resoudre x 
que  je  suis  content  d'accepter  et  embracer  la  susde  resolution 
avec  les  conditions  y  comprinses.  Suppliant  cependant  tres 
humblement  Voz  Seigries  de  vouloir  donner  vfe  Acte  la  dessus, 
par  quel  moyen  voz  Seigries  couppants  chemin  a  tous  aultres  se 
depescheront  de  leur  importunite  et  me  encourageront  de  pour- 
suivre  alargiement  la  dessus  de  Fenvie  que  j'ay  tousjours  eu  de 
vous  servir.  Car  ce  n'este  pas  Favarice  qui  m'a  pousse  a  cecy, 
mais  seulement  (come  j'ay  tan  tost  diet)  Faffection  que  ie  porte 
au  service  de  voz  Seigneuries  et  le  desir  que  j'ay  d'estre  employe 
en  quelque  chose  honorable  en  la  guerre.  Ce  n'est  pas  nm 
faulte  que  voz  Seigneuries  n'ayent  entendu  de  moy,  il  y  a 
longtemps,  car  je  n'ay  jamais  receu  advertissement  de  vostre 
resolution,  que  depuis  ces  quinze  jours;  aultrement  j'eusse  este 
narri2  d'avoir  differe  sy  longtemps  de  donner  a  voz  Seigies 
notice  de  mon  intention.  A  raison  de  quoy  plaist  a  voz 
Seigneuries  de  m^excuser,  ainsy  laissant  de  vous  importuner 
d'avantage  pour  cest  fois  icy,  mais  vous  baisant  tres  humblement 
les  mains,  je  demeure  de  vos  Seigneuries  le  tres  humble  et  tres 
loyall  serviteur  (et  estoit  soubzsigne)  BUKILEUGHE. 

De  ma  maison  le  29e  du  May  1620. 

1  Repondre  (?)  2  Marri  (?) 


270 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 


[1612 


RESOLUTIONS,  REPORTS,  REQUESTS,  RECOMMEN- 
DATIONS, AND  OTHER  ENTRIES. 

LETTER  OF  KING  JAMES  i. 
Recommendation  of 'Thomas  Cumyn,  student  of  theology. 

(Dat.  March  11,  1612.  Rec.  Octob.  24,  1613.) 
HAULTS  ET  PUISSANTS  SEIGNEURS  NOZ  BONS  AMYS  ET  ALLIEZ, — 
Ce  pauvre  Gentilhome  Thomas  Cumyn,  filz  du  feu  Guillaume 
Cumyn,  Lieutenant  d'une  compagnie  de  gens  de  cheval,  lequel 
a  este  tue  en  vostre  service,  ayant  luy  aussy  en  sa  premiere 
ieunesse  suivy  les  armes,  s'est  depuis  peu  adonne  aux  estudes 
et  princip*  de  la  Theologie,  en  laquelle  il  a  si  bien  employe  le 
temps  qu'il  desire  sur  toutes  choses  poursuivre  si  heureux 
comencements  en  cas  qu'il  y  soit  encourage  par  suffeditation  de 
moyens  a  ce  convenables.  Or  d'autant  qu'il  a  este  ne  soubz  vre 
obeissance  bien  que  des  parens  Escossais  et  comence  ses  estudes 
en  voz  pai's,  ou  il  desire  les  continuer,  nous  avons  a  sa  tres 
humble  requeste  trouve  bon  le  vous  recomander  et  vous  prier 
que  le  vueillez  fournir  de  quelque  appointement  qui  le  puisse 
encourager  a  Fachevement  de  ses  estudes,  a  ce  qu'il  se  rende 
capable  de  servir  vre  Estat  ou  il  aura  este  esleve,  et  FEglise  de 
Dieu  y  establie. — Vre  bien  bon  amy,  JAQUES  R. 

Escript  a  Thetford,  le  xie.  jour  de  Mars  1612. 

Provincial  States  of  Utrecht  to  the  Council  of  State. 

(April  9,  1612.) 

MY  LORDS, — In  reference  to  the  matter  made  known  to  us 
by  Alexander  Wishart,  Captain  of  the  Cavalry  Company  here 
in  garrison,  regarding  which  he  complained,  and  made  a  re- 
quest to  us,  your  Honours  will  learn  the  particulars  thereof 
from  the  annexed  document.  And  since  we  consider  his 
request  reasonable  and  to  the  interest  of  the  Provinces,  and 


1612]          RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  271 

particularly  serviceable  to  this  place,  we  could  not  refuse  to 
recommend  his  request  to  the  consideration  of  your  Lordships, 
since  otherwise  the  authority  of  the  magistracy  and  of  the 
commanders  and  officers  of  the  army  would  be  brought  into 
utter  contempt,  and  might  cause  serious  detriment  to  the 
Provinces. — Herewith,  etc.,  the  Deputies  of  the  States  of  the 
Province  of  Utrecht. 

At  Utrecht,  the  9th  April  1612. 

To  their  Lordships  the  Deputies  of  the  three 
Provincial  States  of  Utrecht. 

Alexander  Wishart,  Captain  of  a  Cavalry  Company,  in  the 
service  of  the  States- General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  begs 
with  all  due  reverence  to  offer  the  following  remonstrance.  That 
he,  the  remonstrant,  never  gave  any  one  belonging  to  his 
company  the  slightest  reason  to  revolt  against  his  Excellency,  or 
take  part  in  any  plot  or  unlawful  gathering.  Although  a  good 
number  of  them  lately  chose  to  hold  a  meeting  in  this  city,  in 
a  certain  yard  near  the  Green  Horse  Belt.  The  one  summoning 
the  other  there,  and  forming  a  plot  of  this  nature,  that  a  cer- 
tain number  of  them  had  their  opinions  and  claims  set  down 
in  a  written  document  which  they  signed,  as  will  appear  from 
the  enclosed  copy  of  their  request.  And  since  the  same  has  a 
taste  of  sedition  and  disobedience,  and  also  was  entered  on 
without  notice  to  their  Lordships,  the  Governor,  the  Com- 
misary  Lemm,  or  any  of  their  lawful  superiors,  and  as  they  did 
not  pursue  their  claim  by  way  of  remonstrance ;  and  such  in- 
subordination being  not  only  injurious  to  this  city  and  garrison, 
but  also  to  this  company,  besides  being  of  disadvantage  to  the 
Provinces.  Therefore  he,  the  remonstrant,  would  like  to  dis- 
charge some  of  the  ringleaders  from  his  company.  But  he 
would  prefer  to  do  so,  with  the  cognisance  and  previous  know- 
ledge of  their  Lordships,  the  Councillors  of  State.  Therefore 
he  humbly  begs  your  Lordships  will  be  pleased  to  grant  him 
your  favourable  recommendation  to  said  Councillors  of  State, 
in  order  that  his  Excellency  may  be  permitted  to  dismiss  six 
or  seven  individuals,  and  at  once  receive  an  equal  number  in 
their  place,  etc. 


272  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1612 

COPY 
To  the  Governor  and  Council  of  War  in  Utrecht. 

We  the  undersigned,  all  of  us  troopers  of  the  Company  of 
Alexander  Wishart,  humbly  pray  that  your  Lordship,  the 
Governor  and  the  Council  of  War  will  be  pleased  to  pardon 
the  liberty  we  have  taken  in  approaching  you  with  our  claims, 
as  set  forth  in  the  request  we  have  signed.  It  happened 
through  our  ignorance,  and  we  are  heartily  sorry  to  have  given 
occasion  to  my  Lord  Governor  and  Council  of  War  to  be 
incensed  at  our  conduct;  sorry  likewise  that  we  revolted 
against  our  captain.  In  all  this  we  petition  you  graciously  to 
pardon  us.  By  doing  so,  etc. 

Signed  by  twenty- two  both  in  marks  and  names,  and  presented 
in  the  Council  of  War  on  the  28th  March  1612. 

Signed  after  comparison  with  his  private  copy,  and  presented 
at  the  time  above  mentioned.  This  copy  is  found  therewith  to 
agree,  by  me,  the  Magistrate,  (signed)  D.  VAN  LEEUWEN. 

Companies  of  Captains  Douglas  and  Balfour. 
To  My  Lords  the  Council  of  State.     (April  25,  1612.) 

May  it  please  your  Lordships  to  receive  the  rolls,  which  I 
herewith  forward  to  you,  of  the  musters  by  me  carried  out,  of 
the  company  of  Captain  Douglas  (leaving  for  Grave)  and  like- 
wise of  the  company  of  Captain  Balfour — exchanged1  by  the 
Commissary  Corens  ;  both  being  fine  bodies  of  men,  but  armed 
after  the  manner  of  their  nation,  contrary  to  the  resolution 
passed  some  time  ago  by  your  Lordships,  regarding  the  arming 
of  the  soldiers.  Moreover,  I  find  daily  that  with  increasing 
frequency  the  captains  grant  leave  to  the  majority  of  their 
soldiers  to  go  out  and  work  far  and  near ;  yea,  many  remain 
absent  from  their  respective  garrisons  during  the  night, 
making  provision  for  their  watches  (so  they  say),  which,  if  it 
happened  to  a  small  number,  it  might,  I  think,  in  present  cir- 
cumstances, be  tolerated  for  a  time,  so  that  they  may — living 


1  Exchanged  by  Commissary  Corens.  Perhaps,  by  alternation  with  Com- 
missary Corens,  i.e.  taking  my  alternate  turn  of  mustering  it.  Literally  it  is, 
by  Commissary  Corens  brought  in  exchange,  alternation. — Translator's  Note. 


1612]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  273 

being  so  dear  in  the  district — better  support  themselves  in  the 
service.  But  since  it  has  gone  beyond  all  bounds,  and  takes 
place  without  any  order,  particularly  during  the  daytime, 
whereby  posts  are  left  almost  deserted,  as  your  Lordships  may 
observe  from  the  enclosed  list  of  the  review  held  by  me  in  the 
afternoon  at  Ysendyck,  as  a  matter  of  duty,  I  cannot  refrain 
from  acquainting  your  Lordships  with  this,  that  you  may  give 
due  attention  to  it.  And  that  your  Lordships  be  the  more 
certain  of  what  has  been  said  I  shall  detail  the  circumstances 
of  the  said  review,  or  in  case  any  captain  should  complain  of 
being  circumvented  or  improperly  taken  by  surprise.  At  the 
muster  in  the  St.  Cataleynen  redoubt  on  the  20th  inst.,  in 
order  to  keep  the  surrounding  garrisons  at  their  posts,  I  at  the 
same  time  advised  the  commandant  in  Ysendyck  of  the  musters 
in  such  a  manner  that  Captain  W.  Wabbe  (then  in  command 
in  the  absence  of  Monsr  d'Hautheyn)  received  my  letter  in  good 
time,  as  he  acknowledges,  between  10  and  11  o'clock  forenoon, 
shortly  after  which  I  arrived  and  commenced  by  reviewing  the 
company  of  Captain  Balfour  in  the  Jouffrouwen  redoubt,  it  being 
about  three  in  the  afternoon  when  I  commenced  to  review  the 
said  company.  May  I  add,  my  Lords  (under  correction),  that  I 
am  of  opinion  there  was  ample  time  in  the  interval  to  have  got 
more  men  together  had  they  not  been  scattered  far  and  wide, 
working  here  and  there,  some  of  them  I  tell  you  usually 
working  at  a  distance  of  two  or  three  miles  from  their  garrison. 
These  I  pretended  to  discharge,  not  choosing  to  have  informa- 
tion of  their  exodus  from  the  garrison.  But  by  reasons  given 
I  wished  first  to  advise  your  Lordships  of  the  matter,  that  you 
may  be  pleased  to  instruct  me  what  course  I  should  take ;  at 
the  same  time  praying  that  it  may  please  your  Lordships  to 
write  to  the  governor  or  the  commanders  respectively  on  the 
subject,  and  let  them  keep  their  men  better  together,  so  as  to 
be  always  properly  ready  for  muster.  From  which  much 
good  advantage  will  result,  and  confusion  and  misunder- 
standing be  prevented.  .  .  .  Herewith  humbly  recommending 
myself  to  the  good  grace  of  your  Lordships,  I  pray  God,  etc. 
— Your  Lordships  humble  faithful  servant, 

D.  VAN  BOMBERGEN. 

At  Sluys,  25th  April  1612. 


274  THE  TWELVE  YEARS^  TRUCE  [1612 

Annexa  (in  original  Dutch). 

Reveue  van  den  Garnisoene  binnen  Ysendyck,  op  den 
xx  Aprilis  1612. 

De  compaie  van  monsr  d'Hautheyn. 

Musquetten,        .         .         14 
Spiessen,      ...         22 

36  coppen. 
De  compaie  van  den  Capn  Yerhorst. 

Musquetten,        .         .         21 
Spiessen,      .         .         .         15 

36  coppen. 
De  compaie  van  den  Drossaert  Straelen. 

Musquetten,        .         .         22 
Spiessen,     .  .         15 

37  coppen. 
De  compaie  van  den  Cap"  Livingston. 

Musquetten,         .         .         25 
Spiessen,      ...         21 

46  coppen. 
De  compaie  van  den  Cap"  Wabben. 

Musquetten,        .         .         22 
Spiessen,     .         .         ^22 

44  coppen. 
De  compaie  van  wylen  den  Capn  Ram. 

Musquetten,        .         .         10 
Spiessen,      .         .         .         16 

26  coppen. 

Records  of  1613,  December  31 . — There  was   read   the   advice   of  the 

amend.  Council  of  State,  dated    the   19th  inst— on  the  request  of 

Robert  Henderson,  and  also  on  the  resolution  before  mentioned, 
of  their  High  Mightinesses — to  the  effect  that  they  are  of 
opinion  that  the  'petitioner's  pay  as  colonel  ought  to  com- 
mence from  this  date  onward.  That  the  States  of  Zeeland 
have  shown  that  they  are  satisfied  to  accept  that  he  is  to 


1614]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  275 

receive  his  pay  upon  their  repartition,  according  to  what  (in 
accordance  with  the  contents  of  said  resolution,  viz.  of  the  28th 
April  1612)  he  himself  has  declared ;  on  condition  that  the 
Lords  of  Zeeland  also  further  agree  to  give  him  said  pay.  In 
addition,  said  pay  of  colonel  is  to  be  kept  at  three  hundred 
guilders  a  month,  as  it  is  appointed  also  in  the  State  of  War, 
and  he  is  to  be  satisfied  therewith  like  other  colonels,  par- 
ticularly of  our  own  nation.  But  a  resolution  on  the  matter 
is  postponed  until  the  consent  of  the  Province  be  examined, 
and  it  be  understood  what  the  Council  of  State  think  of  it. 

To  the  Council  of  State.     (Jan.  7,  1614) 

MY  LORDS, — There  was  handed  to    me  by  the   bearer  of  Letters  and 

,.  ..          ..„  TIT-  •          ,1      Requests  to 

this  a  certain  missive  from   your   Lordships   concerning   the  the  council 

request  of  the  creditors  of  Cavalry  Captain  Arskyn.1  From  of  State, 
which  I  understand  that  your  Lordships  were  informed  by 
these  creditors,  that  I  out  of  eighteen  whole  months1  pay 
received  by  me  since  the  said  captain  left  have  retained 
under  name  of  my  own  pay  5400  guilders  belonging  to  the 
creditors,  and  that  I  allowed  myself  to  be  induced  by  the 
cornet  of  the  said  company  to  let  said  sum  together  with 
further  sums  the  creditors  had  a  claim  on  out  of  the  arrears  of 
pay  be  forwarded  to  the  said  cornet,  in  payment  of  what  the 
captain  is  said  to  have  promised  him  for  the  transport  of  the 
company.  As  to  this,  I  most  humbly  cannot  withhold  from 
your  Lordships  that  as  regards  the  money  which  I  received 
from  the  States  of  Vriesland,  the  long  continued  bad  payments 
have  obliged  me  to  spend  for  the  support  of  the  company,  not 
only  the  said  sum,  but  above  ten  thousand  guilders  more  (which 
I  advanced  from  my  own  pocket,  and  negotiated  for  on  my 
credit),  but  for  which  said  company  would  necessarily  have 
dwindled  away  and  fallen  into  confusion.  Besides,  in  all  cases 
where  a  liquidation  and  full  payment  of  a  company's  pay  is 
made  there  has  always  been  an  opinion  prevalent  that  the 
money  should  go  to  the  creditors,  and  that  they  should  get  a 
share  in  some  way  due  to  them  on  the  strength  of  the  resolu- 
tion of  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States- General  and  by 

1  See  also  supra,  p.  215. 


276  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1614 

injunctions  given  to  the  captain.  It  never  occurred  to  me 
that  the  cornet  or  anybody  else  should  in  the  slightest  degree 
be  favoured  to  the  injury  of  the  creditors.  And  since  mention 
is  made  in  your  Lordships'  letter,  that  the  creditors  claimed  a 
right  over  the  sum  of  three  hundred  guilders  per  month,  I 
cannot  omit  humbly  to  recall  to  the  recollection  of  your 
Lordships  that  the  resolution  of  the  States-General,  dated  the 
3rd  November  1610,  is  to  the  effect  that  the  captain  may  pay 
said  debts,  with  the  half  of  his  pay,  as  paid  monthly,  retaining 
the  other  half  for  his  maintenance;  and  in  such  a  manner 
that  on  no  account  shall  more  than  two  hundred  guilders  a 
month  of  the  captain's  pay  be  allowed  to  the  creditors.  Besides, 
in  addition  to  this,  the  captain  had  yet  assigned  out  of  the 
other  half  to  Bartholomew  Reminger  the  sum  of  twelve 
hundred  and  seventy-six  guilders,  payable  at  the  rate  of  a 
hundred  guilders  a  month,  which  sum  aforesaid  of  two  hundred 
guilders  a  month,  altogether  amounting  to  twelve  hundred  and 
seventy-six  guilders,  I  shall  do  all  I  can  to  pay  as  soon  as  the 
company  receive  payment  of  their  arrears.  But  also  out  of 
what  was  left  of  the  captain's  pay  I  kept  his  horses  and  servants 
and  cleared  away  divers  other  charges  left  by  him.  Also  many 
difficulties  occurred  daily,  because  of  these  long-continued  bad 
payments.  I  humbly  pray  herewith  that  your  Lordships  will 
not  permit  that  any  further  deductions  of  the  captain's  pay 
[be  made]  beyond  the  said  two  hundred  guilders  a  month, 
together  amounting  to  twelve  hundred  and  seventy-six  guilders, 
since  I  could  not  otherwise  make  ends  meet ;  and  then  my 
faithfulness,  if  I  have  proved  it  to  the  company  during  the 
time  of  these  bad  payments,  would  be  miserably  rewarded. — 
Herewith,  etc.,  your  obedient  and  always  willing  servant, 

(Signed)         THIMAN  VRIESE,  Secy. 
Datum  Zwolle,  the  7th  January  1614. 

(Jan.  31,  1614.) 

MY  LORDS, — I  duly  received  the  missive  of  your  Lordships 
of  27th  November  last,  with  appended  copy  of  the  request,  pre- 
sented to  you  by  Captain  Wishart.  In  the  missive  you  charge 
me  to  observe  at  the  next  inspection  how  many  troopers  in 
that  company  are  badly  mounted  and  personally  unfit  for  the 


1614]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  277 

public  service.  And  to  find  out  how  long  all  such  badly 
mounted  and  unfit  troopers  have  been  in  the  service,  and  to 
advise  your  Lordships,  giving  the  names  of  said  troopers. 
And  in  submitting  my  answer  I  cannot  conceal  from  your 
Lordships  that  in  pursuance  of  your  instructions  I  did  my 
duty  in  the  matter,  and  by  way  of  giving  superabundant 
satisfaction  to  your  Lordships,  I  did  after  the  muster  which 
took  place  on  the  8th  of  this  present  month  of  January 
interrogate  on  oath  all  the  officers  of  the  said  company,  each 
one  apart,  whether  they  maintained  daily  the  ordinary  watch, 
and  as  to  knowledge  of  fit  and  unfit  among  their  troopers, 
whether  they  knew  of  any  badly  mounted  men  belonging  to 
the  company  unfit  for  the  public  service,  other  than  those 
presented  to  me  at  the  place  of  muster,  and  that  they  were  bound 
in  the  interest  of  the  land  to  give  their  names  and  surnames. 
Whereupon  I  could  discover  nothing  except  that  accidents  had 
happened  to  one  or  two  of  their  horses,  and  that  they  had 
bought  young  ones  instead,  which,  within  the  year,  would  be 
fit  enough  for  the  war.  Item,  two  or  three  of  the  horses  are 
a  little  under  the  size,  but  suitable  and  well  handled.  More- 
over, there  are  also  two  old  troopers,  one  of  whom  is  maimed 
in  the  leg,  and  the  other  quite  an  old  man.  They  are  both 
old  soldiers,  the  elder  having  honourably  served  those  Lands 
for  more  than  twenty-eight  years  in  succession ;  and  because  of 
his  years  is  unable  to  bear  arms.  I  leave  his  case  to  the 
discretion  of  your  Lordships.  This  advice  may  be  of  use, 
that  as  the  captain  has  absolute  command  over  his  company 
he  must  know  his  troopers  better  than  I  do.  Your  Lordships 
might  be  pleased  to  charge  him  to  reform  his  company  in 
such  a  manner  as  he  shall  consider  he  is  responsible  for  in 
the  public  service.  On  these,  my  arguments  above  detailed, 
may  it  please  your  Lordships  (taking  them  in  good  part)  to 
dispose  of  the  matter  and  command  me  according  to  your  good 
pleasure. — Herewith,  etc.,  (Signed)  JOERIEN  VAN  LENNIP. 
Utrecht,  the  31st  January  1614. 

(April  9,  1614) 

MY  LORDS, — In  pursuance  of  the  missive  of  your  Lordships, 
forwarded  to  me  with  the  enclosed  request  of  Captain  Wishart, 


278  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1614 

In  presence  of  the  said  Captain  Wishart,  I  paid  careful 
attention  during  my  last  muster  of  the  4th  inst.  to  the  quali- 
fications and  fitness  of  the  cavalry  and  horses,  and  found 
among  those  hereinafter  described,  persons  having  small  but 
well-trained  horses.  And  although  I  sharply  charged  each  of 
them  separately  to  get  themselves  better  mounts  against  the 
next  muster,  my  orders  have  not  as  yet  been  carried  out,  for 
the  reason  they  offer  in  excuse  that  they  have  not  means  to  pur- 
chase proper  horses ;  and  they  asked  three  months,  which  the 
captain  granted  them,  so  as  not  to  ruin  them.  And  by  desire 
of  your  Lordships  the  names  of  the  persons  with  small  horses 
are  given  as  follows :  Jan  Banckerts,  Jacob  de  Heuvel,  Jan 
Michel,  Jone  Allen,  one  among  them  named  Egbert  Segerssoon 
is  to  be  excepted,  as  to  be  exact  he  has  a  young  unfit  horse 
with  a  spavin  on  both  hind  legs  and  I  discharged  him  till 
further  orders  from  your  Lordships.  Besides  there  is  a  certain 
Evert  Gevers,  who  has  been  absent  more  than  six  weeks  beyond 
his  leave,  contrary  to  my  instructions,  of  all  which  I  could  not 
but  inform  your  Lordships.  Requesting  respectfully  thereupon 
your  Lordships1  advice,  according  to  which  I  shall  be  regulated. 
Praying  etc.,  Your  Worshippful  Mightinesses  obedient  servant, 

JoERIEN    VAN   LENNIE. 

Utrecht,  19th  April  1714,  new  style. 

Resolutions  1614,  October  29. — Read  the  advice  of  the  Council  of  State, 
of  states-  Of  date  the  25th  inst.,  regarding  the  request  of  the  widow  of 
Captain  Berckley,  to  the  effect  that  she  cannot  rest  her  case  in 
particular  on  the  current  pay  of  his  company,  inasmuch  as  said 
company,  during  his  period  of  service  was  all  along  on  the  foot- 
ing of  payment  by  the  States  of  Holland.  And  after  consulta- 
tion the  request  of  the  petitioner  was  refused. 

November  1. — The  widow  of  the  late  Captain  Berckley  and 
present  wife  of  Bartholomew  Bonder,  was  granted  out  of  com- 
miseration for  her  present  poor  circumstances  thirty  guilders 
in  all.1 

To  the  Council  of  State.  (Feb.  27,  1615.) 
Letters  and 

Requests  to  MY  LORDS, — As  to  what  took  place  in  the  garrison  here, 

of  state.  between  Jacques  Nering,  a  soldier  in  Colonel  Brogh's  company 

1  See  p.  211. 


1615]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  279 

and  Jan  Davidts  belonging  to  Captain  Bredenrode^s,  your 
Lordships  may  ascertain  from  the  request,  which,  with  a 
similar  missive  to  his  Excellency,  I  have  caused  to  be  forwarded 
to  you.  In  which  affair,  on  the  first  complaint  made  by 
Captain  Lieutenant  Majoribank,  commanding  the  company  of 
Colonel  Brogh,  proceedings  were  carried  so  far  that  it  came 
before  the  Council  of  War  here.  But  the  said  Captain  Lieu- 
tenant, well  seeing  that  the  request  was  not  to  the  advantage  of 
his  soldiers,  requested  that  a  fuller  inquiry  be  made  before  pro- 
ceeding further,  and  also  that  meanwhile  his  wounded  soldier 
be  released  in  order  to  get  himself  cured  of  his  several  pitiable 
wounds  and  bruises  ;  which  requests  were  both  granted  on  con- 
dition that  the  said  Captain  Lieutenant  would  stand  bail 
and  promise  to  deliver  into  custody  at  any  time  his  soldier 
aforesaid.  Which  promise  the  said  Majoribank  made,  in 
the  presence  of  a  full  meeting  of  the  Council  of  War,  and  like- 
wise Captain  Bredenrode  made  along  with  him  the  same 
promise,  on  behalf  of  his  soldiers. 

Now  whether  any  evil  intention  lurked  under  this  I  cannot 
say,  except  that  what  followed  may  well  awaken  suspicion ; 
if  one  considers  what  was  afterwards  committed  on  the 
person  of  Jan  Davidts  by  the  foresaid  Jacques  Nering  as  to 
which  the  foresaid  inquiry  will  give  your  Lordships  fuller  infor- 
mation. And  be  it  noted,  the  said  Jan  Nering  has  on  account 
of  that  become  a  fugitive,  the  said  Captain  Lieutenant  having 
become  answerable  for  his  person.  And  so  (after  previous 
consultation  with  some  of  the  Lords  of  States  here)  I  could 
not  but  inform  you  about  this — as  it  is  a  matter  fraught  with 
evil  consequences.  And  I  fear,  as  the  said  Majoribanks  stated  to 
me,  that  further  troubles  may  arise  between  the  two  companies 
aforesaid.  Therefore  I  request  the  advice  and  commands  of 
your  Lordships  about  this,  how  to  guide  myself  further  therein, 
both  in  regard  to  the  said  Jacques  Nering  and  to  Asbal  Flack, 
who  appears  to  have  excited  himself  gambling,  and  on  that 
account  sits  in  prison,  as  is  indeed  noted  in  the  foresaid 
request.  With  which  I,  etc.  Your  Hon.  Mightinesses  humble 
servant,  TH.  OGLE. 

Actum  Utrecht,  the  27th  February  1615. 


280  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1615 

To  the  Potent  Lords  of  the  Council  of  State  of  the  United 
Netherlands. 

Robert  Baelze,  sergeant  of  the  company  of  Colonel  Hender- 
son, begs  most  humbly  to  inform  you,  that  he,  the  petitioner, 
has  necessary  matters  of  business  to  transact  in  England,  of 

such  a  nature,  that  he  has  got  leave  from  his  for  the 

period  of  the  ensuing  three  months,  in  order  to  attend  to  his 
affairs ;  therefore  he  humbly  prays  that  your  Lordships  may 
be  pleased  to  grant  him  leave  of  absence  to  England  for  the 
period  of  three  months. 

To  the  Council  of  State.  (June  19,  1615.) 

HIGH  AND  MIGHTY  LORDS, — Since  my  lords  the  states  of  Stadt 
en  Landen,  after  the  death  of  Captain  Norman  Bruce,  appointed 
in  his  stead  as  captain  the  honourable  and  doughty  George 
Coutts,  and  as  yet  have  presented  him  with  no  formal  commis- 
sion, or  even  administered  to  him  the  oath ;  we  beg  therefore, 
in  the  most  friendly  way,  that  your  High  Mightinesses  will 
order  a  regular  commission  to  be  drawn  up,  in  favour  of  the 
said  Captain  Coutts,  and  administer  to  him  the  oath  in  order 
that  this  having  been  done,  he  may  rejoin  his  company,  as 
soon  as  possible. — Herewith,  etc.  Your  High  Mightinesses 
good  friends,  THE  DEPUTIES  OF  THE  CITY  OF 

GRONIKGEN  AND  SURROUNDING  DISTRICTS. 

At  Groningen,  the  19th  June  1615. 

Letter  from  the  Scottish  Privy  Council.  (Aug.  2,  1615.) 

ILLUSTRISS.  GENERO.  AMPLISS.  DIGNISS.  DOMINI, — Georgius 
Bothvellus,centurionum  unus  Legionis  Scoticae,  apud  vos,vestro 
commeatu,  ac  licentia,  hue  ad  nos,  non  ita  pridem,  instructus 
redijt:  negotiorum,  ac  rerum  causa  111 ustris  ac  generosi  Domini 
Joannis  Bothvelli,  fratris  sui,  Baronis  Sanctae  crucis,  Senatoris, 
ac  consiliarij  Regni  hujus  nuper  defuncti.  Quia  vero,  illaipsa 
familia,  resque,  ac  negotia,  administratore  altero  ejusdem 
fratre,  Francisco  Bothvello,  qui  non  ita  pridem  fato  functus  est, 
in  discrimen  ac  periculum,  ejus  obitu,  tale  deducta  sunt,  ut 
non  parvum  familiae,  nomini  ac  loco,  quern  ipse  inter  pares 


i6is]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  281 

Regni  sustinuit,  incommodum  minitentur :  nisi  hoc  unico 
fratre  superstite  supremo  stirpis  illius  azylo  refocillentur. 
Cujus  etiam  iudicio,  instructione,  ac  testimonio,  reliqui  Regni 
Senatores,  tarn  gravissimarum  quaestionum  examinandarum, 
inter  vasallos  defuncti  causa,  quam  restituendarum  difficultatum 
ac  disceptationibus  forensibus,  quae  jam  inter  ipsos  agitantur, 
non  alio,  quam  illo  assertore  ac  vindice  uti  decreverunt. 
Aequum  nobis  visum  est,  hisce  literis  intercessionis,  proroga- 
tionem  commeatus,  a  vobis  concessi,  ejus  nomine,  ab  Illustris. 
Gener.  Ampliss.  Dignitatibus  vestris  enixe  poscere.  Vosque 
amice  rogare,  ut  hanc  Centurioni  vestro  a  militia  tantisper 
emorandi  licentiam  indulgeatis,  ac  tempus  commeatus,  in 
commodum  ac  conveniens  aliquod  rebus  tantis  peragendis  (quae 
non  nisi  ipso  praesente,  ac  assertore  expediri  possunt)  spacium 
prorogetis.  Quibus  facile,  et  familiae  suae,  quae  unice  rebus 
vestris  semper  addicta  fuit,  et  nobis,  ac  controversijs  tarn 
intricatis  dirimendis,  provideatur.  Quia  vero  Capitaneus  ipse 
sub  tessera,  ac  partitione  stipendiaria,  Illustrium  Ordinum 
Hollandiae  hactenus  fuit,  pariter  obtestamur,  ut  harum 
literarum  lectionis,  ipsi  Illustrissimi  Hollandiae  Ordines  par- 
ticipes,  nullum  praejudicium,  ex  tarn  legittimis  emorandi 
ausis,  ipsi,  aut  centuriae  suae  militibus,  fieri  patiantur.  Rebus 
suis  hie  peractis  (nisi  vestrarum  rerum  graviora,  repentinum 
quid  suggerant,  ut  vestris  monitorijs  evocandus  sit)  cum  nostris 
commendatitijs  quasi  rerum  peracturum  indicibus,  ad  vos,  quam 
citissime  fieri  possit  remeabit.  Si  qua  vero  in  re  parem,  aut 
majorem  benevolentiae  significationem.  Amplitudinibus 
vestris  edere  poterimus,  id  sedulo,  et  lubentissime  praesti- 
turos  nos,  sancte  pollicemur.  Datum  Edenburgi  secundo  die 
mensis  Augusti  Anno  Dm  1615. 

Vestris  Illustr.  Gener.  ac  Ampliss.  Dignitatibus  addictissimi, 

DUNFERMELJUS  CANCELLR. 

BINNING. 

Jo.  PRESTOUN. 

ACKJBURN  [sic]. 

ALEX.  HAY. 

OLIPHANT. 

MURRAY. 

[Indorsed] :  Illustriss.  Genero.  Ampliss.  ac  Digniss.  Dominis 


282 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE 


[1616 


D.    Confoederatarum  Belgij 
nobis  syncere  dilectis. 


Provinciarum  Ordinibus  Amicis 


Resolutions 
of  States- 
General. 


Letters  and 
Bequests  to 
the  Council 
of  State. 


Diplomatic 
Correspon- 
dence, 
England, 
1615-1617. 


1616,  January  23.— On  the  petition  of  Jacob  Scott,  a 
nobleman  at  present  in  the  company  of  his  Excellency  Count 
Henry  of  Nassau,  it  is  resolved  to  increase  the  petitioner's  pay 
extraordinary  of  six  guilders  per  month  (so  as  to  increase  it), 
from  this  date  to  twelve  guilders  per  month,  in  the  place  of 
John  Atkinson,  who  died  at  Alkmaar  before  Christmas  last, 
and  who  was  sergeant  of  the  company  of  Captain  Cathcart. 

To  the  Council  of  State.     (Feb.  6,  1616.) 

.  .  .  Which  muster  I  carried  out  with  such  diligence  and 
care  as  was  in  any  wise  possible  for  me  to  do,  in  order  to  pre- 
vent any  frauds  which  might  operate  against  the  interests  of 
the  country.  And  I  found  said  companies  in  such  condition 
and  of  such  strength  as  your  Lordships  will  learn  from  the 
said  rolls.  And  in  pursuance  of  your  commission  I  passed 
none  among  the  French,  English  and  Scotch  soldiers,  except 
those  belonging  to  their  own  respective  nations ;  at  which  the 
captains  have  bitterly  complained,  and  requested  me  to  state 
in  a  note,  on  the  margin  of  the  roll,  how  many  Germans 
were  present ;  how  long  they  had  served ;  and  how  much 
they  were  paid  weekly.  (Signed)  VAN  DER  MULL. 

Recommendation  by  the  King  of  the  wife  and  the  children  of 
the  late  Colonel  Edmond  (1616). 

MESSIEURS  ET  COMPERES, — Encores  que  ce  soit  chose  superflue 
que  de  vous  recomender  les  homes  de  bien  ou  de  vous  ramen- 
tevoir  leurs  bons  services,  mesmes  apres  tant  de  preuves  de 
vostre  bonne  volonte  envers  toutes  sortes  des  gens  de  vertu,  si 
est  ce  que  la  bonne  memoire  du  feu  Colonel  Edmond  nous  a 
donnee  a  cest^heure  Toccasion  de  vous  recomender  sa  femme  et 
cnfantz.  Et  bien  que  nous  nous  asseurons  que  les  merites  de 
feu  son  mary  et  sa  propre  vertu  soyent  bastantz  de  la  faire 
obtenir  de  vous  chose  quelleconque  qui  ne  soit  pas  par  trop 
desraisonnable,  neantmoins  nous  vous  avons  bien  voulu  prie  de 
la  respecter  et  luy  donner  telle  recompense  pour  le  soulage- 


1617]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  283 

ment  de  soy  et  ses  enfantz  que  vous  donnez  aux  autres  de  sa 
reng  et  qualite.  Ce  que  nous  asseurantz  que  vous  ferez  et 
tant  plus  volontiers  pour  Famour  de  nous,  Prions  Dieu, 
Messieurs  et  comperes,  vous  tenir  tousiours  en  sa  saincte  garde. 

Escripte  a  nostre  palais  de  Grenewich  le  xxii  [?]  de  May  161  [?]. 

[N.B.  The  date  is  obscure ;  the  year  probably  1616.] 

To  the  States-General. 
MY  LORDS, — Since  the  widow  of  Captain  Ramsay  has  re-  Records  of 
quested  letters  of  attestation  from  us  as  to  the  conduct  of  her 
late  husband,  we  are  bound  to  declare  that  the  said  captain, 
during  the  years  that  he  remained  here  in  garrison,  conducted 
himself  very  well,  was  honourable  and  burgherlike  in  his  deal- 
ings, and  maintained  as  good  order  and  discipline  in  his  com- 
pany as  any  of  the  captains  of  this  garrison.  Indeed  his  death 
was  very  much  lamented  by  all  the  burghers  and  soldiers. 
Wherefore  we  are  moved  humbly  to  pray  your  High  Mighti- 
nesses that  the  said  widow  and  children  may  find  grace  and 
favour  in  your  eyes,  and  that  said  children,  being  three  sons 
and  a  daughter,  may  be  reared  for  the  service  of  the  country, 
in  order  that  they  may  follow  the  footsteps  of  such  a  brave 
and  virtuous  father,  etc., 

BURGOMASTERS  AND  ALDERMEN  OF  THE  CITY  OF  BREDA. 

Advice  of  the  Council  of  State  regarding  a  demand  for  increase 
of  pay  by  Colonel  Henderson. 

HIGH  AND  POWERFUL  LORDS, —  .  .  .  That  Colonel  Henderson 
insists  on  an  increase  of  pay  is  doubtless  more  in  order  that  he 
may  not  be  paid  less  than  another  of  the  same  standing,  than 
that  a  company,  and  such  good  pay  as  three  hundred  guilders 
a  month,  should  be  considered  too  little.  Therefore  our 
opinion  is  (under  correction)  that  it  would  be  better,  money 
being  so  scarce  at  present,  to  reduce  the  pay  of  the  other 
colonels  to  three  hundred  guilders,  rather  than  to  increase  the 
pay  of  the  said  Henderson  to  the  level  of  the  others,  to,  at 
least,  four  hundred  guilders  a  month.  So  we  advised  your 
High  Mightinesses  in  this  matter  on  the  6th  April  1613, 
though  it  pleased  your  High  Mightinesses  to  do  otherwise. 

The  Hague,  the  7th  February  1617. 


284 


THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE 


[1617 


To  the  Council  of  State.     (Oct.  17,  1617.) 

But  certain  companies  are  still  mixed  with  many  Germans. 
The  French  companies  again  begin  to  receive  some  people 
from  France,  but  they  are  persons  without  experience,  like 
those  to  be  found  among  the  recruits  which  the  English  and 
Scottish  captains  received. 

Moyens  plus  expedients  pour  le  recouvrement  de  noz  soldatz 

fugitifs. 
1618  [without  date]. 

En  premier  son  Exce  donnera  s'il  luy  plaist  un  Acte  a 
chacun  Colonel  pour  en  vertu  d'iceluy  requerir  du  Commis- 
saire,  fourier,  ou  aultre  Officier  de  chacune  ville  qui  prennent 
congnoissance  des  soldatz  entretenuz  entre  les  Compaignies 
de  leur  garnison,  les  noms  des  Anglois  qui  y  auront  este  receuz 
depuis  que  Tarmee  des  Estatz  a  este  en  Campaigne. 

Et  quTceluy  Acte  estant  delivre  par  chacun  Collonel  a  un 
ou  plusieurs  officiers  de  son  Regiment  pour  faire  recherche 
du  leurs  fugitifs,  et  iceulx  estant  trouvez  en  quelque  ville  ou 
lieu  que  ce  soit,  d'estre  assistez  des  susdictz  officiers  et  Magis- 
trats  de  la  garnison  pour  les  faire  mettre  en  prison  ou  lieu  de 
surete,  en  attendant  la  comodite  de  les  faire  mener  en  TArmee. 

Et  d'aultant  que  la  briefvete  du  temps  requiert  extreme 
diligence  pour  le  renfort  de  noz  trouppes,  il  seroit  necessoire 
(sy  son  Exce  Ta  pour  agreable)  de  faire  delivrer  a  chacun 
Collonel  plusieurs  coppies  du  dit  Acte,  signees  de  sa  main, 
pour  employer  en  mesme  temps  plusieurs  officiers  en  divers 
lieux,  pour  amener  au  iour  nomme,  s'il  est  possible  tous  les 
soldatz  qui  seront  trouvez  fugitifs. 

Representation  by  Colonel  Sir  William  Brog. 

Requests  to  To  THE    HlGH  MIGHTINESSES  MY  L.ORDS  THE  STATES-GENERAL 

states-General.  OF  THE  UNITED  NETHERLANDS.— The  faithful  servant  of  your 
High  Mightinesses,  Sir  William  Brog,  knight  and  colonel, 
hereby  showeth  with  due  reverence,  that,  according  to  mili- 
tary usages  worthily  observed  in  these  Netherlands,  all  regi- 
ments were  and  still  are  provided  with  high  officers,  as 
colonel,  lieutenant-colonel,  sergeant-major,  quartermaster  and 
provost,  as  also  was  the  case  in  the  petitioner's  regiment, 
some  months  ago  now ;  that  by  the  death  of  the  late  Lieu- 


1618]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  285 

tenant-colonel  Caddel  his  place  has  become  vacant,  and 
by  the  absence  of  Captain  Gordon  the  post  of  sergeant- 
major  is  also  vacant,  and  these  two  places,  which  are  the 
highest  and  most  important  next  to  his  own,  ought  justly 
by  succession  to  pass  to  the  two  eldest  captains  in  his  said 
regiment,  viz.,  Captain  Allane  Coutis  and  Captain  Donald- 
sonne ;  so  that  he,  the  petitioner,  hopes  that  his  regiment  will 
not  be  held  in  less  esteem  by  your  High  Mightinesses  than  the 
others,  and  the  more  for  this  reason,  because  it  is  the  first  and 
oldest  regiment  of  foreign  nationality  in  these  Netherlands, 
and  has  also  rendered  so  many  notable  and  excellent  services, 
as  the  chronicles  show,  and  as  are  still  fresh  in  the  memory  of 
everybody,  and  will  continue  certainly  to  be  so  till  death. 
And  considering  that  it  is  highly  necessary  for  the  service  of 
the  country  that  the  said  places  should  again  be  filled  by  good 
and  able  men  of  quality  and  experienced  persons,  who  have  a 
just  claim  to  them,  and  have  merited  them  by  their  services, 
in  order  that  they  may  thereby  be  encouraged,  and  that  all 
good  discipline  may  be  maintained  for  the  benefit  of  the 
country,  and  that  the  order  in  the  petitioner's  regiment  may 
be  improved,  therefore  the  petitioner  turns  to  your  High 
Mightinesses,  praying  and  requesting  very  humbly  that  it  may 
please  you,  in  consideration  of  the  reasons  before  adduced, 
graciously  to  command  that  the  said  Captain  Coets  [Coutis] 
may  be  promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain  Donald- 
sonne  to  sergeant-major,  in  the  petitioner's  regiment,  which  they 
will  repay  by  faithful  obedience  unto  death,  and  will  always 
try  to  do  their  duty  to  the  petitioner  respectfully.  By  doing 
so,  etc.,  SIR  WILLIAM  BROG. 

Petition  on  behalf  of  Sir  William  Brog,  Knight  and  Colonel. 

As,  on  account  of  the  large  amount  of  public  business,  it 
has  pleased  your  High  Mightinesses  only  to  examine  and  read, 
without  deciding  upon,  the  petition  presented  to  your  High 
Mightinesses  by  Sir  William  Brog,  colonel,  in  which  he  requests 
that  the  two  gentlemen,  Captain  Allane  Coutis  and  Captain 
Donaldsone,  may  receive  commissions  for  the  posts  of  lieu- 
tenant-colonel and  sergeant-major,  in  which  they  are  daily 
employed,  in  order  that  they  may  discharge  their  duty  with 


286  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1618 

more  respect  and  authority ;  and  as  he,  the  petitioner,  earnestly 
hopes  that  his  regiment,  as  being  the  oldest  in  the  service  of 
the  country,  will  not  be  held  in  less  esteem  than  any  of  the 
others.  So  he  very  humbly  prays  that  it  may  please  your 
High  Mightinesses  provisionally  to  dispose  favourably  of  his 
request  concerning  the  commissions,  till  the  situation  of  affairs 
permit  negotiations  about  their  maintenance ;  and  that  in  the 
meantime  all  opportunities  for  serving  the  country  may  be 
taken  advantage  of  in  the  best  way. 

Memorial  for  Captain  Andrew  Donaldson. 

MY  LORDS, — Whereas  on  the  earnest  petition  of  Colonel  Sir 
William  Brog,  regarding  the  disposal  of  the  places  of  lieu- 
tenant-colonel and  sergeant-major  in  his  regiment,  it  pleased 
your  Lordships  to  look  up  the  State  of  War,  where  it  was 
found  that  only  the  sergeant-major  of  the  said  regiment  is 
known  there,  which  post  Captain  Andre  Donaldsonne,  as  due 
to  him  by  succession,  has  already  filled  for  some  years,  at  very 
great  costs,  for  the  service  of  the  country,  without  as  yet 
having  received  authority  or  commission  from  you,  although 
he  has  made  applications  for  it,  and  the  matter  has  until  now 
been  postponed.  Therefore  he  prays  again  very  humbly  your 
Lordships  to  promote  him,  the  petitioner,  to  the  said  post  of 
sergeant-major;  hoping  to  render  such  services  to  the  country 
in  that  position,  that  they  will  receive  every  benefit  and  satis- 
faction therefrom. 

Petition  of  Captain  James  Seyton. 

To  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States-General 

of  the  United  Netherlands 

Captain  James  Seyton,  lying  in  garrison  at  Utrecht,  in 
the  regiment  of  Colonel  Brog,  having  served  this  country 
well  and  faithfully  for  the  period  of  sixteen  years,  hereby 
showeth  with  all  humility  and  respect,  that  he  has  learned 
that  it  pleased  your  Honours  recently  to  grant  a  com- 
mission in  favour  of  Captain  Donaldson  to  hold  the  post 
and  office  of  sergeant-major  of  the  said  regiment,  notwith- 
standing his  unfitness,  for  the  said  Donaldson  had  never  pre- 
viously in  his  life  before  been  a  soldier,  until  at  the  close  of 
the  siege  of  Sluys  he  brought  over  to  this  country  from 


i6i5]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  287 

England  a  company  of  infantry  on  his  own  responsibility 
(without  having  had  any  commission  or  command  from  your 
High  Mightinesses,  his  Excellency,  or  any  other) ;  but,  on  the 
contrary,  had  been  scraping  a  livelihood  by  mechanical  traffic, 
as  the  sale  of  hosiery  and  suchlike  wares,  at  Flushing  and 
elsewhere,  where  the  best  markets  were.  And  during  all  the 
time  that  he  has  held  a  commission  as  captain,  he  has  never 
been  face  to  face  with  the  enemy  nor  been  in  action,  except 
lately  before  the  town  and  at  the  capture  of  Gulick ;  which 
post  aforesaid,  and  the  office  of  major,  should  certainly  (under 
correction)  be  required  and  demanded  to  be  filled  by  an  abler 
person,  and  one  more  practised  or  experienced  in  warfare 
and  military  affairs  than  the  said  Donaldson,  and  it  was  not 
in  any  way  his  due  (I  say  nothing  about  some  pecuniary  con- 
ditions, which  caused  him  to  be  recommended  for  the  post 
by  his  aforesaid  colonel) ;  and  because  he  never  allowed  the 
flag  of  any  regiment  to  be  carried  in  his  company,  except  only 
since  the  siege  of  Gulick.  So,  on  account  of  this  the  remon- 
strant, out  of  zeal  for  the  service  for  the  Land,  has  recourse  to 
you,  humbly  praying  and  making  request  that  it  may  please 
your  High  Mightinesses  favourably  to  consider  what  has  been 
stated,  and  to  fill  the  said  place  with  some  able,  fit,  qualified 
and  experienced  soldier  and  officer.  Not  that  the  petitioner 
is  ostentatiously  offering  himself  for  the  appointment,  but 
your  High  Mightinesses  may  be  pleased,  with  the  advice  of 
his  Excellency,  to  take  such  measures  that  the  said  regiment 
and  the  land  may  be  well  and  properly  served.  Inasmuch  as 
there  are  in  said  regiment  enough  brave,  efficient  and  qualified 
persons  available;  by  doing  which,  etc.,  J.  SEYTONN. 

To  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States- General 

of  the  United  Netherlands 

Captain  James  Seyton,  in  the  regiment  of  Colonel  Brogh, 
hereby  showeth  with  all  humility  and  reverence,  that  he, 
the  petitioner,  having  lately  presented  a  petition  regarding 
the  post  and  office  of  sergeant-major  in  the  said  regiment, 
and  being  still  concerned  about  it,  by  reason  of  the  notable 
injury  which  is  happening  and  may  happen  to  the  said 
regiment  through  the  want  of  brave  and  experienced  officers ; 


288  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1618 

therefore  he,  the  petitioner,  turns  to  your  High  Mightinesses, 
humbly  praying  and  beseeching  that  it  may  please  you  to 
appoint  to  the  said  post  (with  the  consent  of  his  Excellency) 
a  qualified,  thoroughly  experienced  and  brave  person,  to  the 
end  that  the  service  of  the  country  generally,  and  the  com- 
mands of  his  Excellency  regarding  the  said  regiment,  may  be 
properly  carried  out  and  executed.  By  doing  this,  etc., 

J.  SEYTON. 

To  their  High  Mightinesses,  the  States-General 

of  the  United  Netherlands. 

Your  faithful  and  humble  servant,  Sir  Robert  Hindersoun, 
colonel  of  a  regiment  of  Scottish  Infantry,  showeth  with  humility 
and  reverence  that  he,  the  petitioner,  having  served  in  these 
Netherlands  for  the  time  of  twenty-four  consecutive  years  in 
one  grade  of  service  after  another,  was  finally  by  the  kind 
favour  of  your  High  Mightinesses  promoted  in  January  of  the 
year  1612,  with  a  commission  to  be  colonel,  in  the  place  of  the 
late  Lord  of  Backluge,  having  also  served  since  that  time  till 
February  5th  of  the  year  1614,  in  the  said  position  and  also  in 
that  of  lieutenant-colonel,  without  receiving  any  pay  except 
only  a  compliment  considerately  presented  by  your  High 
Mightinesses,  with  which  also  he,  the  petitioner,  is  satisfied. 
Thus,  though  the  petitioner's  predecessor  in  said  office  received 
monthly  till  his  death  the  sum  of  five  hundred  Carolingian 
guilders,  and  though  likewise  every  colonel  of  the  English  and 
Scottish  nation  in  the  Land's  service  earns  no  less  monthly 
than  four  hundred  Carolingian  guilders,  yet  the  petitioner 
himself  from  that  date  till  now  has  received  no  more  than  three 
hundred  Carolus  guilders  monthly.  Wherefore,  the  petitioner 
also  presented  several  petitions  to  your  High  Mightinesses,  and 
humbly  requested  that  it  might  please  you  to  increase  his  pay 
by  the  said  one  hundred  guilders  per  month,  and  thus  to  treat 
him  with  consideration  as  all  the  other  colonels  of  his  nation- 
ality are  treated  ;  and  on  all  these  petitions,  the  last  of  which 
was  presented  more  than  six  months  ago,  your  High  Mighti- 
nesses have  come  to  no  other  decision  than  that  the  petitioner 
should  have  patience  for  some  time  still,  which  hitherto  has 
been  the  case  with  him.  Therefore  he  has  recourse  again  to 


i6iS]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  289 

your  High  Mightinesses,  praying  and  requesting  very  humbly 
that  it  may  please  you,  in  consideration  of  the  reasons  given 
and  the  continual  kind  considerateness  always  shown  to  all  old 
and  faithful  servants  of  the  country,  to  increase  the  petitioners 
pay  as  colonel  by  the  said  one  hundred  guilders  per  month,  and 
he  will  try  to  repay  such  a  favour  with  ever  faithful  service. 
Which  doing,  etc.  R.  HENIIYSOUN. 

To  their  High  Mightinesses,  the  States- General  of  the 

United  Netherlands. 

The  faithful  servant  of  your  High  Mightinesses,  Sir  Francis 
Hindersonne,  showeth  with  respect  and  reverence  that  he,  the 
petitioner,  having  petitioned  to  receive  payment  of  the  arrears 
of  his  salary  as  lieutenant-colonel,  it  pleased  you  to  refer  his 
petition  to  their  Lordships,  the  Council  of  State  of  the  United 
Netherlands,  for  their  advice,  which  they,  in  the  accom- 
panying closed  missive,  reserve  for  your  High  Mightinesses ; 
and  although  their  Lordships  in  such  cases  usually  give 
advice  to  the  greatest  advantage  and  profit  of  the  country 
generally,  they,  apparently,  according  to  the  aforesaid  advice 
are  of  opinion  that  he,  the  remonstrant,  should  for  all  his 
claims  be  content  with  a  third  part  of  them,  or  thereabouts. 
Therefore  he,  the  petitioner,  prays  very  humbly  that  it  may 
please  your  High  Mightinesses  to  consider  the  multifarious 
and  long-continued  solicitations  made  by  him  about  this 
matter,  and  the  great  and  excessive  expenses  incurred,  and  in 
addition  that  he,  in  fulfilling  the  duties  of  his  office  has,  like 
others  of  a  similar  calling  and  profession  who  were  in  receipt 
of  full  pay,  given  his  services  diligently  and  faithfully,  and 
therefore  hopes  from  the  considerateness  and  prudence  of  your 
High  Mightinesses  to  receive  no  less  pay  than  they,  and  the 
more  so,  inasmuch  as  the  money  of  his,  the  petitioner's,  arrears 
of  salary,  as  well  as  the  salaries  of  all  the  other  officers  of  the 
said  regiment  have  been  handed  over  and  paid  in  full  by  the 
States  of  Zeeland,  into  the  hands  of  the  Receiver  Guil. 
Doublet.  Therefore  his  humble  prayer  is  that  it  may  please 
your  High  Mightinesses  kindly  to  see  to  it  that  he,  the  peti- 
tioner, in  regard  to  the  above-mentioned  unsatisfied  claims, 
may  receive  satisfaction  and  be  paid,  [he]  being  always  willing 
to  repay  such  a  favour  by  loyal  thankfulness. 


290  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1618 

[In  the  margin  the  following  resolution  is  written  :] 
It  was  ascertained  from  the  clerk,  Volbergen,  what  payments 
have  been  made  to  the  petitioner  by  the  States  of  Zeeland, 
and  how  much  is  still  owing  to  him  for  his  previous  services. 
Actum  March  llth,  1618. 

Col.  Fr.  Henryson. 
1618  [without  date.]  x 

Petitions  to  MY  LORDIS, — I  have  resseived  your  1.  insinuation  and  per- 

the  council  seived  thair  by  that  your  1.  ave  bein  hardlie  informed  and 
hichelie  displesed  about  that  infortunat  maleur  whitche 
against  my  intentione  and  to  my  great  regreat  is  fallin  out  in 
my  hand.  I  dout  not  bot  your  1.  hes  had  the  ful  relation 
theirof  boithe  frome  my  frendis  and  enemeis  thair  are  sudjet 
avenche  as  it  is  hapned  to  miscon strew  my  intentione.  I  have 
no  thing  to  my  defence  and  to  beir  me  witnes  save  my  con- 
sience  whitche  is  abil  to  defend  me  against  al  malitious  and 
senistreous  reports  whitche  kan  or  has  bein  giffin  your  1.  The 
fact  I  wil  not  excuse,  seing  it  is  hapned,  bot  my  intentione  to 
have  done  it  as  your  1.  hes  resseved  informatione  I  will  intrait 
you  not  to  beleif,  for  as  god  sal  beir  me  witnes  and  as  I  houp 
to  be  saved,  I  nether  menit  the  father  who  is  hurt  nor  the  sone 
who  is  deid  any  harme  tho  it  be  most  malleruslie  fallin  other- 
wayis.  I  confes  I  gave  the  fellow  who  is  deid  twa  strokkis,  bot 
far  frome  my  intentiones  to  have  takin  his  lyf,  the  on  was  efter 
he  had  confessit  to  me  to  have  bein  commandit  by  his  master 
to  have  so  natoraslie  thrie  tymes  as  he  confessit  himself  have 
takin  my  lyf  he  promisit  to  go  allong  to  me  and  justifie  the 
and  out  the  dor  he  brok  almost  away  out  of  my 

hand.  Thair  upon  I  gave  him  with  the  pommel  of  my  sword, 
upon  what  part  of  the  heid  I  know  not,  bot  if  it  hes  protured 
his  deithe,  never  man  died  of  one  les  strok,  the  other  strok 
whitche  is  set  doune  in  the  informatione  hi  did  hing  out  his 
toung  at  al  whitche  is  and  was  efter  he  had  cuttit  me  in 

the  schin  with  a  glas  fit  him  than  to  weil  he  was  als  weil 

by  al  appirance  as  ani  man  could  be,  if  he  be  deid  of  thois 
strokkis,  it  is  best  knowne  to  god  for  as  I  sal  answer  to  him  I 
kan  not  beleif  it,  always  it  was  far  frome  my  intentione  he 

1  The  original  is  in  English,  and  difficult  to  decipher. 


i6i8]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  291 

should  have  died.  I  houp  your  1.  may  easily  forbidden  if  I 
had  had  any  intentione  to  ave  takin  his  lyf,  I  could  have  takin 
it  in  mane  other  fassione  thein  efter  this  kynd  and  seing  that 
it  is  most  malleruskie  hapned  to  my  extrem  greif  and  kan  not 
be  amendit,  I  wil  most  ernestly  intreat  your  1.  favoribil  censur 
for  the  offence  and  oversycht  I  have  comitted  to  your  1.  and 
your  justice,  and  think  that  it  is  only  by  ignorance  that  I  have 
prosed  it  efter  this  fassione  and  not  in  contemp.  I  will  most 
humblie  intreat  your  1.  that  what  ever  ordur  it  pleseis  you  to 
take  with  me  that  ye  wil  be  pleased  to  pardone  the  soldier  who 
hes  no  wyl  at  al  and  who  in  manie  sundrie  occasions  has  done 
your  1.  good  service  sum  of  them  20,  sum  of  them  30  yearis  I 
wold  have  tune  according  to  your  directione  bot  I  am  nether 
weil  nor  hellger  [?]  and  hes  a  greit  manie  affairis  of  my  brothers 
children  (who  is  leitly  died)  that  I  ...  presently  in  hand  with, 
so  that  I  wil  intreat  your  1.  favorabel  permission.  Intreatting 
most  humblie  your  1.  favorabil  censur  of  al  I  kis  in  humilty 
your  1.  handis  and  sal  as  I  have  ever  bein  remayne,  your  1. 
most  humbel  and  obedient  servant,  (s.)  FRANC.  HENRYSON. 

[In  February  1618,  Sir  Dudley  Carleton  wrote  to  Secretary 
Naunton  that  Sir  Francis  Henderson's  pardon  had  been  granted 
by  the  States,  on  Carleton's  promise  in  conformity  with  his 
Majesty's  express  letter  of  October  last,  for  which  'he  had  so 
well  prepared  the  matter  before,  by  the  means  of  the  Prince  of 
Orange,  that  it  could  not  well  receive  a  denial,  though  it  was 
subject  to  many  main  difficulties.'] 

Captain  Scott's  Representation.     (Feb.  15,  1618.) 

MY  LORDS, —  .  .  .  There  was  handed  to  me  on  this  day, 
llth  of  February,  a  certain  copy  of  a  suit,  raised  against  me  on 
the  part  of  Isabella  Moubray,  soliciting  a  divorce,  in  respect  of 
which  your  Lordships  were  pleased  to  order  that  eight  days 
were  to  be  given  me  to  respond  after  the  issue  of  the  summons. 
But  since,  in  absence  of  Captain  Mackenzie,  the  command  has 
been  laid  upon  me,  here  in  Hambach,  to  restrain  the  soldiers 
from  all  outbreaks  and  disorders,  according  to  the  decrees  of 
your  Lordships,  and  consequently,  in  his  absence,  it  would  be 
very  bad  in  me  to  absent  myself  without  commission  from 
their  Mightinesses.  Therefore,  with  all  due  reverence,  it  is  my 


292  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1618 

humble  request  that  their  Lordships  will  please  to  pay  some 
little  consideration  to  this,  and  arrest  procedure  in  the  case 
for  a  short  time,  till  Captain  Mackenzie  shall  have  arrived 
here ;  and  I  shall  then  immediately  appear  in  person,  and 
defend  myself  by  word  of  mouth,  and  make  remonstrance  to 
their  Lordships  about  the  injustice  and  abuse  which  hitherto 
has  been  done  me;  not  doubting  their  benevolence,  and  the 
righteous  judgment  which  their  Mightinesses  shall  administer 
to  me. — Herewith  kissing  their  hands  with  all  reverence,  I 
remain  meanwhile  your  Honourable  Mightinesses  obedient 
servant,  ROBERT  Scorr.1 

Actum  Hambach,  15th  February  1618. 

Advice  of  the  Council  of  State  in  the  case  of  John  Gordon. 

HIGH  MIGHTINESSES, — We  do  not  know  for  what  reasons  ex- 
Captain  Johan  Gordon 2  was  discharged  with  his  company, 
since  it  happened  by  order  of  your  High  Mightinesses,  who 
undoubtedly  had  reasons  for  it. 

On  the  strength  of  the  old  services,  which  he  mentions  in 
his  petition  as  having  been  done  in  Brabant  by  his  late  father,3 
he  can  make  no  claims  on  these  united  provinces,  though  it 
seems  he  mentions  them,  not  with  a  view  to  receive  any  pay- 
ment for  them  here,  but  in  order  that  your  High  Mightinesses 
may  be  the  more  inclined  to  dispose  favourably  of  his  request. 
And  for  the  services  rendered  to  these  Lands  by  the  petitioner, 
he  has  been  fully  paid,  so  that  (under  correction)  it  is  our 
opinion,  you  knowing  as  well  as  we  do  how  little  the  Govern- 
ment can  bear  to  be  burdened  with  new  salaries,  that  the 
answer  to  be  given  to  the  petitioner's  request  be :  '  Patience.' 
Nevertheless,  submitting  ourselves  to  the  wise  and  prudent 
discretion  of  your  High  Mightinesses. 

The  Hague,  17th  February  1618. 

Actum.     (May  26,  1618.) 
To  their  High  Mightinesses  the  States-General  of  the 

United  Netherlands. 
Alexander    Balcanquall     humbly    showeth    that    he,    the 

1  See  pp.  64,  65,  298  ;  also,  230,  note  2. 

2  The  company  was  dismissed  in  1609.     See  pp.  236,  243,  and  253. 

3  See  p.  47. 


I6i8]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  293 

petitioner,  having  come  over  to  this  country  from  Scot- 
land at  the  earnest  request  of  the  late  Lord  of  Balclough, 
with  him  and  his  regiment,  served  in  said  regiment  as 
surgeon  for  the  space  of  over  four  years ;  and  thereafter, 
on  the  death  of  Mr.  Robert  Beton,  formerly  pensioned 
surgeon  of  the  older  Scotch  regiment  of  the  late  Colonel 
Edmont,  who  departed  this  life  about  the  year  1607,  the 
petitioner  has  from  that  time  till  now  acted  and  been  employed 
as  doctor  and  surgeon- general  of  both  the  Scottish  regiments. 
And  now,  the  said  Lord  of  Balclough  having  recently  left  for 
Scotland,  the  petitioner,  by  his  advice,  does  not  neglect  to 
request  of  your  High  Mightinesses  ordinary  pay,  such  as  the 
said  Mr.  Robbert  Beton  received  in  his  lifetime.  Further,  the 
petitioner  was  advised,  in  case  his  request  should  not  be  dis- 
posed of  by  your  High  Mightinesses,  to  let  the  matter  rest  till 
his  said  lord  and  colonel  should  have  returned  from  Scotland  ; 
while  he,  the  petitioner,  was,  in  consequence,  biding  his  time, 
without  pressing  further  the  said  request,  the  said  Lord  of 
Balclough  in  the  meantime  departed  this  life  in  Scotland  ; 
whereby  the  petitioner's  well-founded  purpose  has  made  no 
advance  and  been  ineffective. 

And  as  it  is  known,  and  some  of  your  High  Mightinesses 
are  very  well  aware,  that  the  petitioner  has  for  almost  fifteen 
years  consecutively  served  the  country  in  the  aforesaid  capacity 
with  fidelity,  and  that  there  has  from  the  very  beginning  been 
no  expedition  or  camp  where  the  petitioner  was  not  present 
provided  with  the  necessary  medicines,  instruments  and  ser- 
vants, and  all  at  his  own  expense,  and  without  having  received 
for  it  the  smallest  payment,  either  from  the  Land  or  from  the 
captains  of  the  said  regiment,  since  the  decease  of  the  afore- 
said Lord  of  Balclough ;  whereby  he,  the  petitioner,  finding 
that  he  has  spent  enough,  and  knowing  of  no  means  to  make 
at  this  time  any  profit  in  this  country,  would  like  to  return  to 
his  native  country.  Therefore  he,  the  petitioner,  requests  very 
respectfully  that  it  may  please  your  High  Mightinesses,  in 
consideration  of  what  has  been  stated,  to  grant  the  petitioner, 
for  his  long  and  faithful  services,  such  a  sum  as,  after  customary 
deliberation,  may  seem  to  your  High  Mightinesses  to  be  proper. 


294  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1618 

Request  of  Andrew  Hunter. 

ILLUSTRISSIMIS  POTENTISS.  ET  CONSULTISSIMIS  D.D.  DOMINIS 
ORDINIBUS  GENERALIBUS  UNITARUM  PROVINCIARUM, — Numerosa 
familia,  labores  mei  in  sacrosancto  ministerio,  passim  in 
omnibus  vestris  provincijs,  apud  longe  dissitas  vestras  scoticas 
centurias  et  non  exiguae  impensae  factae  in  itineribus  satis 
periculosis  a  me  necessario  susceptis  versus  Juliacenses  trans- 
isulanos  et  eos  qui  in  finibus  Brabantiae  et  Cliviae  morantur, 
me  adeo  urgent  ut  in  extraordinario  mini  longum  concesso 
stipendio  vestrarum  Illustium  opem  implorare  cogar.  Peto 
idcirco  obnixe  ut  decurrentis  hujus  anni  (cuius  pars  una  est 
elapsa,  altera  elabitur)  stipendium  ducentorum  florenomm 
concedere  dignemini.  ANDREAS  HONTERUS, 

Euangelij  Jes.  Christi  Minister 
in  Copijs  Vestris  Scoticis. 

[The  Recorder  of  the  States-General  noted  on  the  margin] 
Fiat  continuatie  van  het  advertissement  van  des  suppl.'s  tracte- 
ment.  gelyck  hij  dat  voor  desen  genoten  heeft.  Actum  den 
xxvii  July  1618. 

To  the  Council  of  State.  (Nov.  6,  1618.) 

Letters  and  MY  LORDS, — I  was  a  short  time  ago  at  Alckmaer  on  par- 

tiie  Council      ticular  business,  when  I  learned  from    trustworthy  burghers, 
of  State.  that  the  lieutenant  of  Colonel  Henderson,  then  in  garrison, 

passed  off  a  great  number  of  6  passevolenten ' l  and  inhabi- 
tants on  half  pay  in  his  company;  and  the  same  was  also 
told  me  by  a  soldier  who  formerly  served  under  him.  And 
even  after  he  had  left  the  service,  the  lieutenant  requested 
him  to  pass  as  a  '  passevolant,'  at  the  last  review.  In  short, 
it  is  true,  that  the  majority  of  the  burghers  complained 
about  it,  and  the  lieutenant  himself  was  frequently  blamed, 
even  in  presence  of  the  bailiff,  for  having  held  false  mus- 
ters ;  and  I  doubt  not,  that  if  he  were  taken  unawares,  with 
a  muster  extraordinary  as  it  were,  of  which  he  should  have  no 
suspicion,  there  would  certainly  be  an  exposure,  for  I  have 

1  Men  hired  for  the  inspection. 


i6i8]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  295 

learned  that  it  is  too  gross  and  extensive,  and  that  he  thus 
passes  a  considerable  number.  But  I  wished  to  inform  your 
worships. — Herewith  etc.,  your  Worships1  obedient  servant, 

FLORES  SEROOSKERCKE. 
Tholen,  6  November  1618. 


To  their  High  Mightinesses,  the  States-General  of  the 
United  Netherlands. 

Bentgen  Jansz,  sorrowing  widow  of  Captain  Wilhem  Mon-  Records  of 
cryff,1  Scotsman,  humbly  showeth,  that  as  her  late  husband  Ge^ral. 
served  this  country  for  many  years  and  lately  departed  this 
life  in  the  service  of  the  country,  having  been  wounded  at  the 
Couwensteyn  Dyke,  leaving  her  at  the  age  of  nearly  seventy- 
one  years  without  livelihood,  except  from  the  generosity  of 
your  High  Mightinesses,  which  she  has  received  annually  out 
of  commiseration,  and  for  which  she  must  thank  your  High 
Mightinesses,  and  whereas  she  never  troubles  you  on  other 
occasions,  except  in  the  greatest  need  and  at  the  most  pressing 
times,  being  also  past  the  set  limit  of  lifetime,  therefore  she 
prays  you  in  her  old  age,  poverty,  illness,  and  distress,  in  this 
hard  winter,  to  consider  her  desolation,  to  take  into  favourable 
consideration  her  husband's  services,  and  accordingly  as  you 
deem  best,  to  give  her  generous  assistance  to  maintain  her  this 
winter  that  she  perish  not  in  her  old  days  on  the  streets.  And 
by  your  doing  so,  she  will  ever  feel  bound  to  pray  for  the 
prosperity  of  the  rule  of  your  High  Mightinesses  and  the 
unity  of  the  good  inhabitants. 

[In  the  margin  is  written  :]  '  Let  the  last  resolution  taken 
regarding  the  previous  request  of  the  petitioner  be  first  looked 
into.  Actum  17th  November  1618. 

To  the  Council  of  State.  (Oct.  81,  1618.) 

MY  LORDS, — Your  lordships1  letters  of  30th  inst.,  new  style,  Letters  and 
with   the  annexed  request  of  Lieutenant  Livingston,   having  t 
been  handed   to    us,   we  summoned  before   us  the  following  of  state, 
creditors  of  said  lieutenant,  and  directed  their  attention  to  the 

1  See  p.  46. 


296  THE  TWELVE  YEARS'  TRUCE  [1618 

offer  made  by  him  in  the  said  request.  And  on  the  part  of  the 
same  begged  them  to  rest  satisfied  therewith.  Whereupon  the 
widow  of  the  late  Dirck  van  Kattenborch,  to  whom  he  is 
indebted  forty-eight  guilders,  also  the  man  Van  Oerken  Segers 
of  the  Heringbuijs,  to  whom  he  owes  a  like  sum  of  forty-eight 
guilders,  and  Wilhem  van  Kattenborch,  to  whom  he  is  indebted 
twenty-six  guilders,  all  declared,  avowed,  and  answered,  that 
they  would  accept  the  said  offer,  provided  Captain  Sir  Henry 
Livingston,  brother  of  the  said  lieutenant,  shall  guarantee  and 
be  security  for  payment  in  full.  Item.  Floris  van  Riemsdyck 
in  regard  to  his  arrears,  amounting  to  the  sum  of  two  hundred 
and  fifty  three  guilders  ten  stuivers  declared  that  he  held  the 
promissory  notes  and  bond  of  the  said  captain's  wife.  And 
Beel  the  brewer  said,  that  the  said  captain  had  made  her  a 
promise  for  the  amount  due  to  her  of  one  hundred  and  three 
guilders,  and  had  signed  for  it  in  her  account-book,  and  both 
of  them  wished  to  abide  by  that.  In  regard  to  the  man  and 
the  house  rent,  with  a  claim  according  to  the  foresaid 
request  amounting  to  fifty-seven  guilders,  he  does  not  live  in 
the  town,  but  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Maas  and  Waal, 
and  we  spoke  to  his  brother  Wilhem  van  Freycamp  about 
it,  who  declares  that  he  will  invite  his  brother  to  come 
us  with  his  answer.  Also  Johan  van  Kattenborch  appeared 
before  us,  to  whom  the  said  lieutenant  owes  the  sum  of  three 
guilders  four  stuivers,  and  like  the  first  three  creditors  aforesaid, 
declared  that  he  was  satisfied.  All  of  which  we  mention  to 
your  Hon.  Mightinesses  also  as  a  more  complete  reply,  respect- 
ing the  rearrangement  of  the  request  aforesaid. 

BURGOMASTERS,  ALDERMEN  AND  THE  COUNCIL 

OF  THE  TOWN  OF  TlJEL. 

31st  October  1618. 

To  the  Council  of  State.  (Nov.  27,  1618.) 

My  LORDS, — We  cannot  in  the  first  place  omit  to  mention 
in  regard  to  your  Lordships  repeated  writings  of  21st  inst.,  new 
style,  with  the  request  again  presented  to  you  by  Lieutenant 
James  Livingston,  brother  of  Captain  Sir  Henry  Livingston, 
that  we  have  summoned  before  us  and  exhorted  to  our  utmost 
the  creditors  of  the  said  lieutenant,  mentioned  in  his  previous 


1618]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  297 

request  presented  to  your  Lordships  and  forwarded  to  us,  to 
rest  satisfied  with  the  offer  of  payment  made  to  them.  Where- 
upon Floris  van  Riemsdyck,  mentioned  in  our  last,  declared 
that  not  only  he  himself,  but  also  the  others  refused  to  accept 
the  offer,  for  reasons  stated  in  our  foregoing  rescript,  addressed 
to  your  Lordships  (which  the  foresaid  lieutenant  neither  con- 
ceived nor  directed).  To-day  we  have  once  more  summoned 
before  us  and  exhorted  the  said  Riemsdyck,  and  besought  him 
to  rest  satisfied  with  the  offer  made  by  the  foresaid  lieutenant. 
And  with  that  end  in  view,  strongly  urged  him  to  weigh  well 
the  reasons  mentioned  in  your  Lordships  last  writings.  On 
which  the  said  Reimsdyck  answered,  and  expressly  declared, 
that  he  would  have  no  dealings  with  the  said  lieutenant,  but 
on  the  contrary  since  said  captain's  wife  had  granted  him  a 
certain  bond  for  goods  received,  he  would  have  recourse  to  the 
law,  and  bring  said  captain  before  the  court  of  this  town.  After 
hearing  his  answer,  sentence  was  pronounced,  an  extract  of 
which  is  annexed.  To  this  he  wished  to  adhere,  trusting  also 
to  be  upheld  therein,  according  to  the  bounden  duty  of  the 
judges.  And  if  the  said  Captain  Livingston  considered  him- 
self oppressed  thereby,  he  could  have  his  appeal  according  to 
the  laws  of  this  town.  Thus  we  could  not  induce  the  said 
Floris  van  Riemsdyck  to  agree  to  the  request  of  your  Lord- 
ships. He  said  also  that  it  did  not  concern  him  when  and 
where  the  said  lieutenant  came  by  his  sickness  and  maiming, 
except  to  remember  well  that  when  he  came  into  garrison  here 
he  was  whole.  And  in  this  we  have  done  nothing  further,  and 
we  know  not  what  to  do,  nor  can  we  do  anything,  etc. 

BURGOMASTERS,  ALDERMEN,  AND  COUNCIL 
OF  THE  CITY  TIJEL. 


COPY. 

Extract  from  the  Foreigners'  Case. — The  Signets 
ofTijel 

The  Court,  in  view  of  the  representation  or  complaint  of 
Floris  van  Riemsdyck,  handed  over,  along  with  the  bond  in 
favour  of  the  pursuer,  on  the  one  side,  and  on  the  other  side 


298  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1618 

the  answer  of  Henry  Livingston,  knight  and  captain,  defender. 
After  weighing  properly  the  contents  of  these  documents,  as  also 
the  power  of  attorney,  given  by  the  said  Livingston  on  the  4th 
February  in  favour  of  his  wife,  who  acknowledges  the  foresaid 
bond ;  do  condemn  the  said  defender  to  lay  down  and  pay  to 
the  said  pursuer,  within  the  period  of  three  weeks,  the  two 
hundred  and  fifty-three  guilders  ten  stuivers  mentioned  in  the 
foresaid  bond,  with  the  costs  of  the  action,  in  terms  of  the 
verdict,  by  right  of  authority. 

Actum  31st  October  1618. 

(Feb.  14,  1619.) 

MY  LORDS, — Captain  Robert  Scott  in  garrison  at  Hambach 
has  come  to  me  with  the  complaint  that  your  Lordships 
summoned  him  to  the  Hague  for  the  disposal  of  the  suit 
against  him.  Now  since  the  said  captain,  as  the  senior  among 
the  Scottish  soldiers  here,  is  in  command  of  the  garrison,  and 
sometimes  certain  disorders  and  disputes  arise,  so  that  his 
presence  among  the  soldiers  of  his  nation  is  necessary,  I 
hereby  submissively  entreat  your  Lordships  to  be  graciously 
pleased  to  inquire  into  the  circumstances  of  his  charge,  and 
therein  make  such  good  provision  that  he  may  be  despatched 
soon  and  again  returned  hither  to  command  and  maintain  due 
order  among  the  people  of  the  Scottish  nation,  and  to 
command.  .  .  .  (Signed)  FIUD  PITH  AX. 

In  the  Castle  of  Gulick,  14th  February  1619. 


(Feb.  -i-f  1619.) 

MY  LORDS, — It  has  been  reported  to  me  by  John  Law, 
soldier,  belonging  to  the  company  of  General  Cecyl,  by  way  of 
complaint,  that  the  lieutenant  commanding  the  company  gave 
the  said  soldier  his  leave,  and  against  his  desire  handed  him 
his  passport  because  of  this,  that  said  soldier  was  struck  in  the 
face  by  God  Almighty,  and  the  lieutenant  heard  that  he  was 
declaring  so.  And  since,  through  the  testimony  of  officers,  I 
have  ascertained  that  the  said  soldier  has  long  and  faith- 
fully served  the  country — both  in  Ostend,  Flanders,  and 


1619]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  299 

elsewhere — and  has  served  latterly  seven  or  eight  years  in  the 
company  of  the  said  Mr.  Cecyl,  I  hereby  object  to  the  dismissal 
of  the  said  soldier,  and  to  hunting  him  out  of  the  country. 
I  have  therefore  thought  good  to  inform  your  Lordships 
regarding  this  affair,  with  the  request  that  you  may  be  pleased 
to  write  to  me,  stating  what  course  I  shall  take  in  the  matter. 

Your  Worshipful  Mightinesses'  obedient  servant, 

(Signed)         JACOB  CROESSEN. 

Utrecht,  this  if  February  1619. 

(March  19,  1619.) 

MY  LORDS, — Since  the  magistrate  of  the  city  of  Thijel,  etc., 
handed  to  us  a  certain  missive,  with  a  copy  of  the  request  of 
Thomas  Brussen  and  Jacques  Stuart,  forwarded  to  us  by  your 
Lordships,  wherein  they  as  petitioners  made  known,  and 
declared  what  they  knew,  regarding  the  murder  committed 
by  Sergeant  Geddi  on  the  person  of  Jan  Brusson.  So  we 
could  not  do  otherwise  than  inform  you  that  we  have  used  all 
proper  means  in  order  to  obtain  evidence.  Of  which  evidence 
we  immediately  granted  a  copy  to  the  petitioners.  Then  we 
also  notice  from  the  request  that  they  have  not  shown  the  said 
copy,  and  have  grievously  accused  some  soldiers,  who  had  been 
present  at  the  fight,  and  on  whom  they  desire  to  have  justice 
and  judgment  administered,  whilst  we  cannot  discover  that 
these  soldiers  had  any  hand  in  the  deed.  Therefore  we  feel 
bound  to  forward  hereby  the  said  evidence  to  your  Worshipful 
Mightiness  in  order  that  your  worships  may  thereby  be  able  to 
perceive  the  real  state  of  the  case.  Which  having  seen,  we 
expect  the  advice  and  commands  of  your  Lordships  as  to  what 
we  shall  have  to  do  further  in  the  matter. — Praying,  etc. 

THE  GOVERNOR  AND  COURT-MARTIAL,  CONVENED  IN  TIJEL. 

(March  19,  1619.) 

Evidence  taken  in  the  case  of  the  murder  committed  by 
N.  Geddi,  sergeant,  belonging  to  the  company  of  Sir  Francois 
Henderson,  Kt.,  etc.,  on  the  3rd  February  1619,  in  the 
chamber  of  the  redoubt  on  the  person  of  Jan  Bruessen. 

Elsken  the  wife  of  Antonis  Dirck,  living  in  the  redoubt, 


300  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1619 

on  being  heard,  declared  on  oath  that  she  saw  that  Sergeant 
Geddi  wishing  to  go  home  about  eventide,  had  had  some 
words  with  Jan  Bruessen,  soldier,  belonging  to  the  company  of 
Sir  Henry  Livingston,  and  that  the  words  cthou  liest'  were 
spoken,  though  she  knew  not  who  uttered  them.  Hereupon 
the  said  Jan  Bruessen  struck  the  said  sergeant  in  the  face. 
On  which  the  sergeant  seized  the  chamberpot,  and  threatened 
to  strike  with  it.  Then  as  she  the  witness  prevented  him  from 
doing  so,  the  sergeant  felt  for  his  rapier,  drew  it,  and  ran 
at  Jan  Bruessen.  After  which  she,  witness,  noticed  that  the 
said  Jan  Bruessen  was  wounded  in  the  body,  from  which 
wound  he  died  during  the  night,  between  the  3rd  and  4th  day 
of  February  1619.  But  the  witness  declared  that  she  did  not 
observe  in  what  manner  the  wound  was  made.  This  was 
signed  with  the  following  mark  + 

Andrew  Grant,  corporal  under  Captain  Henderson,  declared 
that  on  the  3rd  of  February  1619  he  sat  on  the  redoubt  with 
Jan  Bruessen,  above  the  town  of  Tijel;  and  as  the  company 
were  about  to  separate,  some  words  passed  between  Sergeant 
Geddi  and  Jan  Bruessen  the  deceased  about  betting,  running, 
and  shooting;  and  that  they  had  a  dispute  about  the  two 
pounds  of  the  bet  that  was  arranged.  After  which  he  the 
witness  saw  that  Jan  Bruessen  the  deceased,  with  hot  words, 
struck  Sergeant  Geddi  in  the  face ;  and  after  this  happened 
then  Geddi  and  Jan  Bruessen  shook  hands,  but  I  know  not  on 
what  terms.  And  on  separating,  Sergeant  Geddi  unsheathed 
his  rapier  and  stabbed  the  deceased,  but  he  the  witness  did  not 
observe  how  the  wound  was  made.  He  the  witness  declared 
that  he  knew  nothing  more  about  the  wound,  and  he  signed 
his  declaration  with  the  following  mark  A. 

John  Watson,  soldier  in  the  company  of  Sir  Francois  Hen- 
derson, declared,  that  he,  witness,  sat  on  the  redoubt  drink- 
ing with  other  soldiers,  on  the  3rd  February  1619,  and  that 
in  the  company  there  remarks  were  made  about  leaping  by 
Sergeant  Geddi  and  Jan  Bruessen.  And  finally  there  was  a  bet 
between  them  for  two  tuns  of  beer,  as  to  who  should  be  first  in 
a  foot  race  to  Nimmegen.  For  which  Jan  Bruessen  pledged  his 
coat,  desiring  that  Geddi  likewise  should  give  his  mantle  in 
pawn ;  who  immediately  ran  to  Sergeant  Fressell  and  brought 


1619]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC.  301 

his  mantle,  saying  there  is  my  pledge.  Whereupon  Jan  Bruessen 
said,  that  is  not  your  mantle,  I  wish  to  have  your  mantle,  you 
are  not  worthy  to  carry  such  a  mantle.  Which  conversation 
being  ended,  remarks  were  afterwards  again  made  about  the  same 
bet  and  the  mantle,  which  Geddi  would  have  given  in  pledge,  of 
such  a  nature  that  Jan  Bruessen,  after  some  passing  words,  again 
said,  you  are  not  worthy  of  such  a  mantle.  After  which  he, 
witness,  saw  that  Jan  Bruessen  struck  Sergeant  Geddi  on  the 
left  cheek,  but  he  could  not  make  a  pertinent  declaration  as  to 
the  reasons.  He,  witness,  also  declared  that  he  saw  the  said 
Geddi  with  his  rapier  under  his  arm,  which  he  unsheathed, 
and  struck  with  it  towards  Jan  Bruessen ;  but  he,  witness,  did 
not  observe  in  what  direction  the  stab  was  made,  and  the  above 
was  signed  with  the  following  mark — M  I. 

John  Mueleman,  Cadet,  declared,  that  he  along  with  other 
soldiers  sat  on  the  redoubt  above  the  town  Tijel,  on  the  3rd 
February  ult.,  where  there  were  present  among  others  Sergeant 
Geddi,  and  Jan  Bruessen,  soldier,  under  Sir  Henry  Livingston, 
Knight,  etc.,  between  which  two  persons  words  were  exchanged 
about  betting.  And  finally  a  bet  was  made  between  the  two 
for  the  sum  of  two  pounds,  as  to  who  should  gain  a  foot-race 
to  Nimmegen.  For  which  bet  Jan  Bruessen  pledged  his  coat, 
which  he  undid  from  his  person,  asking  Sergeant  Geddi  that 
he  in  like  manner  would  pledge  his  mantle.  And  as  Sergeant 
Geddi  had  no  mantle  by  him,  he,  witness,  declared  that  he  had 
seen  the  said  Geddi  go  to  Sergeant  Fressel  and  request  from 
him  his  mantle,  which  Fressel  handed  to  him.  And  as  Geddi 
offered  to  pledge  it  against  the  coat,  Jan  Bruessen  would  not 
receive  it,  saying,  it  is  your  comrade's  mantle,  I  will  have  your 
own  mantle.  After  which  he,  witness,  saw  that  Jan  Bruessen 
gave  the  said  Geddi  a  slap  on  the  cheek,  and  forthwith 
Bruessen  immediately  ran  to  the  gun,  which  lay  on  the  bed  in 
the  room.  And  he,  witness,  saw  that  Sergeant  Geddi  immedi- 
ately on  receiving  the  slap  drew  his  rapier  and  passed  him 
the  witness,  going  towards  Jan  Bruessen  with  a  naked  rapier. 
Thereafter  he,  witness,  heard  that  Jan  Bruessen  was  wounded, 
but  he,  witness,  did  not  see  how  he  came  by  the  wound. 

Piere  La  Rame,  soldier  in  the  company  of  Mr.  Brichenau, 
capt.,  declared  that  he,  witness,  was  on  the  redoubt  above 


302  THE  TWELVE  YEARS1  TRUCE  [1619 

the  city  Tijel  on  the  3rd  February  1619,  when  among  others 
sat  Sergeant  Geddi  and  Jan  Bruessen,  that  the  last  named 
Jan  Bruessen  slapped  the  said  Geddi,  and  Sergeant  Geddi 
immediately  drew  his  rapier  and  stabbed  Jan  Bruessen, 
through  which  he  died  during  the  night.  He,  witness,  declared 
that  he  knew  not  out  of  what  the  dispute  arose. 

Thus  done  and  sworn  in  the  Assembly  of  the  Court  Martial 
at  Tijel  on  the  8th  February  1619,  by  me  the  Auditor, 

(Signed)         JOHAN  DIEREN. 


Recommendation  by  the  Council  of  Scotland  of  Margaret  Hamil- 
ton^ daughter  of  the  late  Captain  John  Hamilton.     (1620.) 

TRES-HAUTS  ET  TRES-ILLUSTRES  SEIGNEURS, — Le  Capitaine  Jean 
Hamilton,  qui  vous  a  fidelement  servi  plus  de  quarante  ans  en 
vos  guerres,  estant  depuis  peu  de  jours  mort,  sans  laisser 
aucuns  enfans  legitimes  en  vie  excepte  Damoiselle  Marguerite 
Hamilton,  sa  fille  unique,  qui  pour  recouvrer  la  succession  de 
son  feu  pere  allant  aux  pai's  de  vostre  obeissance,  nous  a  supplie 
de  la  recommander  a  vos  Seigries  afin  que  par  vostre  juste 
faveur  elle  puisse  obtenir  la  possession  et  paisible  jouissance 
des  biens  appartenans  a  son  feu  pere  et  recouvrer  payement  de 
ses  debtes  et  descomptes.  Et  si  la  malice  des  parties  interessees 
la  contraint  d'entrer  en  proces  pour  ses  legitimes  affaires  et 
actions,  qull  plaise  a  vos  Seignes  de  commander  que  bonne  et 
brieve  justice  luy  soit  faicte.  Encore  que  soyons  asseurez  que 
requite  de  sa  requeste  soit  suffisante  pour  impetrer  de  voz  Seigries 
ce  que  ne  refusez  a  personne,  ayant  recours  a  vostre  j  ustice.  Ne- 
antmoins  le  respect  que  nous  portons  a  beaucoup  de  gens  de  bien 
et  d'honneur  en  ce  Royaume,  ausquels  lad.  damoiselle  appar- 
tient,  nous  a  induit  a  vous  supplier  bien  affectueusement  de  la 
proteger  et  favoriser  en  toutes  ses  bonnes  affaires  et  actions,  et 
la  recommander  aux  Magistrats  et  autres  ayans  jurisdiction  et 
charge  es  lieux  ou  les  biens  de  son  pere  seront  trouvez,  Afin  que 
par  leur  faveur  equitable,  elle  puisse  obtenir  bonne  et  brief ve 
depesche  de  ses  affaires.  Ce  que  nous  obligera  de  continuer  ou 
plustost  augmenter  envers  les  subjects  de  vos  Seigneuries,  ayans 
affaire  par  deca,  la  bienveillance  que  de  tout  temps  nous  leur 
avons  monstre  a  toutes  bonnes  occasions,  selon  Festroite  amitie 


1 620]  RESOLUTIONS,  REQUESTS,  ETC. 

que  vous  porte  nostre  treshonore  Seigneur  et  Roy,  et  le  devoir 
et  respect  des  tresassurez  et  bien  humbles  amis  de  vos  tres- 
illustres  Seigries  pour  vous  servir. 

Le  Chancelier  et  Conseillers  de  sa  Majeste  au  Conseil 
et  Estat  de  son  Royaume  d'Escosse. 


DUNFERMLIN. 

MAR. 

Cancell. 

SANCTANDREW 

JA.  GLASGOW. 

WlNTOUN. 

LOTHIOME. 

WlGTOUNS. 

MELROS. 

ARSKYNE. 

Lislebourg,  ce  premier  jour  de  Fevrier  1620. 


DIVISION  III 
THE  THIRTY  YEARS'  WAR 

1621-1648 


THE  THIRTY  YEARS'  WAR  307 


INTRODUCTORY 

'  THE  gold  and  treasure  of  the  Indies,'  wrote  Sir  Thomas 
Urquhart  of  Cromarty,  '  not  being  able  to  purchase  all  the 
affections  of  Scotland  to  the  furtherance  of  Castilian  designs, 
there  have  been  of  late  several  Scottish  colonels  under  the 
command  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  in  opposition  of  the  Spa- 
gniard,  viz.,  Colonel  Edmond,  who  took  the  valiant  Count  de 
Buccoy  twice  prisoner  in  the  field;  Sir  Henry  Balfour,  Sir 
David  Balfour,  Colonel  Brog,  who  took  a  Spanish  general  in 
the  field  upon  the  head  of  his  army ;  Sir  Francis  Henderson, 
Colonel  Scot,  Earl  of  Bucliugh,  Sir  James  Livistoun,  now  Earl 
of  Callendar,  and  lately  in  these  our  turmoyles  at  home,  lieu- 
tenant-general of  both  horse  and  foot ;  besides  a  great  many 
other  worthy  colonels,  amongst  which  I  will  only  commemorate 
one  Colonel  Dowglas,  who  to  the  States  of  Holland  was  often 
serviceable  in  discharging  the  office  and  duty  of  general 
engineer.'  Of  the  worthy  colonels  specified  by  the  Knight  of 
Cromarty,  some  had  closed  their  service  by  honourable  deaths 
in  the  preceding  war,  and  the  others  were  to  be  equally  illus- 
trious in  the  long  struggle  which  recommenced  in  1621. 

When  hostilities  were  resumed,  the  Scottish  Infantry  con- 
sisted of  two  regiments,  the  old  one  under  Sir  William  Brog, 
and  Lord  Buccleuch's,  to  the  command  of  which  Sir  Robert 
Henderson  had  succeeded.  The  son  of  Lord  Buccleuch, 
Walter  Scott,  created  Earl  of  Buccleuch  in  1619,  had  obtained 
an  '  Act  Expectative '  from  the  States- General  in  1615,  pro- 
mising him  the  command  of  the  first  regiment  that  should  fall 
vacant,  or  of  any  new  one  that  might  be  formed.  When,  how- 
ever, Sir  Robert  Henderson  died  in  1622,  Prince  Maurice 
insisted  upon  the  command  passing  to  his  brother,  Sir  Francis, 
the  lieutenant-colonel,  and  when  Sir  Francis  died  in  1628,  the 
condition  of  affairs  in  the  field  was  such  that  Prince  Frederick 


308  THE  THIRTY  YEARS1  WAR 

Henry,  who  regarded  the  Scottish  troops  in  his  own  famous 
phrase  as  '  the  Bulwark  of  the  Republic,'  again  thought  it 
inadvisable  to  pass  over  the  experienced  lieutenant-colonels,  in 
favour  of  a  nobleman  from  Britain,  who,  however  brave,  had  not 
yet  had  practical  training  in  Low  Country  campaigning.  The 
States-General  therefore  resolved  to  divide  the  two  regiments 
into  three.  Sir  John  Halkett  was  promptly  appointed  to 
succeed  Sir  Francis  Henderson,  with  Sir  David  Balfour  as  his 
lieutenant-colonel, and  Archibald  Bethune  as  his  sergeant-major, 
while  the  Earl  of  Buccleuch  was  in  1629  given  the  command  of 
the  newly  organised  third  regiment,  with  Sir  William  Balfour  as 
lieutenant-colonel,  and  George  Coutts  as  sergeant-major.  In 
a  very  short  time,  however,  there  was  a  considerable  change  in 
the  personnel  of  the  field  officers.  Halkett  was  killed  at  Bois- 
le-Duc,  and  succeeded  by  Sir  David  Balfour.  Sir  William 
Balfour  left  the  service  of  the  States,  and  was  succeeded  by 
George  Coutts,  who  received  promotion,  and  the  Earl  of  Buc- 
cleuch having  died  in  1633,  the  higher  officers  of  the  three 
regiments  in  1634  were  : 

1.  Colonel,  Sir  William  Brog  ;  lieutenant-colonel,  Sir  James 

Sandilands  (in  succession  to  Allan  Coutts) ;  sergeant- 
major,  James  Erskine. 

2.  Colonel,  Sir  David   Balfour;   lieutenant-colonel,  James 

Henderson  ;  sergeant-major,  Archibald  Douglas. 

3.  Colonel,  Sir  James  Livingstone,  Lord  Almond  (formerly 

lieutenant-colonel   of  Sir  David  Balfour's   regiment)  ; 

lieutenant-colonel,  George  Coutts;   sergeant-major,  Sir 

Philip  Balfour. 

It  will  be  convenient,  therefore,  to  refer  to  the  three  regi- 
ments for  purposes  of  identification  as  Sir  William  Brog's  (or 
Sir  Henry  Balfour's  and  Brog's)  old  regiment,  Lord  Buccleuch's 
regiment,  and  Lord  Almond's  regiment,  it  being  remembered 
that  the  Earl  of  Buccleuch  was  the  first  colonel  of  the  third 
regiment,  and  was  succeeded  by  Lord  Almond. 

In  August  1621  the  war  was  resumed,  and  Spinola  promptly 
laid  siege  to  Juliers,  which  surrendered  in  February  1622. 
The  Dutch  camp  at  Emmerick  was  surprised  one  night  by  the 
Spaniards,  and  among  the  prisoners  taken  was  '  Sir  William 
Balfour,  a  Scoche  man  whoe  is  returned  upon  his  ransom.' 


INTRODUCTORY  309 

The  army  of  the  Estates  was  formed  in  three  brigades,  the 
first  under  the  Prince  of  Orange,  consisting  of  English  and 
Dutch ;  the  second  under  Count  Henry  of  Nassau,  of  Walloons 
and  French,  and  the  third  under  Count  Ernest  of  Nassau,  of 
Dutch  and  Scotch.  '  They  (the  Dutch),'  remarks  an  English 
observer,  '  mingle  and  blend  the  Scottish  among  them,  which 
are  like  Beans  and  Peas  among  chaff.  These  (the  Scots)  are 
sure  men,  hardy  and  resolute,  and  their  example  holds  up  the 
Dutch.' l 

Concealing  his  intentions  by  a  feint  on  the  borders  of  Cleves, 
Spinola  sent  Velasco  to  seize  Steenbergen,  and  following  with 
the  mass  of  his  army  laid  strenuous  siege  to  Bergen-op-Zoom. 
But  the  fall  of  Steenbergen  having  unveiled  his  intentions, 
Prince  Maurice  sent  Colonel  Sir  Robert  Henderson  with  a  con- 
siderable body  of  troops  to  reinforce  and  command  the  garrison. 
A  gallant  defence  was  made.  '  Colonel  Henderson,1  says  the 
English  eyewitness, '  being  a  discreet  and  valiant  gentleman, 
conferred  with  General  Cecil,  who  was  his  great  friend  and  his 
general  at  Gulick.1  In  one  great  sally  of  three  or  four 
thousand  men,  the  English  and  Scots  had  the  van,  the  Dutch 
the  battle,  and  the  French  the  rear,  and  Colonel  Henderson 
was  subsequently  killed  '  in  a  terrible  fight  which  lasted  a  night 
and  a  whole  morning.' 

'  I  will  say  nothing,"1  says  the  chronicler  of  the  siege,  *  in 
commendation  of  Colonel  Henderson ;  his  own  actions  commend 
him  in  the  highest  degree,  for  he  stood  all  the  fight  in  as  great 
danger  as  any  common  soldier,  still  encouraging,  directing, 
and  acting  with  his  Pike  in  his  hand.  At  length  he  was  shot 
in  the  thigh :  he  received  his  wound  at  the  front,  or,  as  most 
say,  being  over  earnest  he  stepped  into  his  enemy's  trenches.2 
So  he  was  nothing  but  spirit  and  courage.  He  shewed  it 
chiefly  in  his  devotion,  and  in  his  earnest  calling  upon  God  in 


1  Account  of  siege  and  relief  of  Bergen-op-Zoom,  1622,  by  an  English  eye- 
witness, in  Royal  MSS. — Dalton's  Cecil. 

In  1624  *  Colonel  Sir  Andrew  Gray,  and  one,  Ramsay,  were  spoken  of  to 
command  Scots  regiments  for  the  Palatinate.' 

2  In  the  Memoirs  of  Frederick  Henry,  Prince  of  Orange,  it  is  stated  that 
'entre  autres  le  Coronel  Henderson  fut  blesse  dont  il  mourut  peu  de  temps 
apres  combattant  valeureusement  a  la  deffence  d'un  ouvrage  qu'il  avoit  commence, 
que  1'ennemi  ne  put  emporter,  quelque  effort  qu'il  fist.5 


310  THE  THIRTY  YEARS1  WAR 

his  time  of  sickness,  and  he  was  so  willing  to  die  that  he  made 
but  a  recreation  of  it,  for  after  he  had  received  the  Sacrament 
he  remembered  his  friends  very  cheerfully,  and  being  extremely 
hot,  he  asked  his  physician  [for  leave]  to  drink  some  water ;  so 
his  Physician,  seeing  he  was  but  a  dead  man,  let  him  have  his 
will.  He  drank  five  healths  ;  the  first  was  to  the  King,  the 
second  to  the  Prince,  the  third  to  the  Queen  of  Bohemia,  the 
fourth  to  the  Prince  of  Orange,  and  the  last  to  the  Earl  of 
Marre.  When  he  had  done  he  desired  his  brother  to  thrust 
him  down  into  his  bed,  and  so  took  his  leave  of  this  miserable 
life/ 

On  the  2nd  October  Spinola  reluctantly  raised  the  siege, 
having  lost  10,000  men,  and  the  reduction  of  Fort  Papenmuitz 
on  the  western  frontier  was  but  a  small  success  to  set  against 
so  great  a  failure. 

In  1624,  Spinola  laid  siege  to  Breda.  The  Scots  and  Dutch 
are  recorded  as  having  held  the  Antwerp  Gate.  The  defence 
was  gallant,  but  unsuccessful,  and  the  fall  of  the  place  hastened 
the  death  of  Prince  Maurice.  His  mantle  fell  upon  his  brother, 
Prince  Frederick  Henry,  born  a  few  months  before  the  murder 
of  their  father,  William  the  Silent.  In  1626,  the  Dutch  took 
Oldenzeel,  after  a  siege  of  eight  days,1  and  in  July  1627,  Prince 
Frederick  Henry  laid  siege  to  Groll,  on  the  confines  of  Zutphen. 
Before  the  lines  of  the  besiegers  were  finished,  they  were 
furiously  attacked  by  the  enemy  in  an  attempt  to  relieve  the 
place,  but  after  a  sharp  action  '  the  Spaniards  were  at  length 
repulsed  by  some  companies  of  Scots  who  were  there  on  guard.' 2 
Sergeant-major  Drummond  of  the  Scots  was  killed  before  the 
city,3  which  surrendered  after  a  siege  of  one  month. 

In  1628  Spinola  was  recalled,  and  Prince  Frederick  Henry 
began  a  series  of  triumphs.4  On  the  30th  of  April  1629,  he 


1  The  notes  of  promotion  in  succession  to  officers  '  deceased '  supply  some 
indication,  although  not  in  all  cases  a  reliable  one,  of  the  losses  in  the  field.     In 
1623,  Captain  Home  ;  in  1625,  Captain  William  Hudson,  and  in  1626,  Captains 
Mowbray  and  Sir  Henry  Livingstone  had  their  places  filled  upon  their  decease. 

2  '  Historical  Account,'  Memoirs  of  Prince  Frederick  Henry. 

8  The  death-roll  of  1627  also  included  Captains  Scott,  Donaldson,  and  Sir 
Walter  Bruce. 
4  Colonel  Sir  Francis  Henderson  died,  or  was  killed,  in  1628. 


INTRODUCTORY  311 

laid  siege  to  Bois-le-Duc,  a  famous  fortress,  and  the  capital  of 
North  Brabant,  the  three  Scots  regiments  forming  part  of  his 
army  when  assembled  on  the  heath  of  Mook,  and  their  conduct 
in  that  famous  siege,  where  Sir  John  Halkett,  one  of  the 
colonels,  was  killed,1  was  such  that  the  Prince  of  Orange 
publicly  described  them  as  the  '  Bulwark  of  the  Republic,'  and 
ever  afterwards  c  shewed  them  many  marks  of  his  favour  and 
esteem.'  In  the  month  of  June  Count  Ernest  Casimir,  lately 
reinforced  by  two  thousand  Scots,  carried  on  his  trenches 
against  the  Horn-work  before  the  gate  leading  to  Hintem.  A 
formidable  irruption  of  strong  Spanish  forces  into  the  Betuwe, 
to  cope  with  which  the  Prince  had  to  detach  a  large  part  of  his 
force,  under  Count  Ernest,  including  the  new  Scottish  regiment 
of  Lord  Hay  of  Kinfauns,  temporarily  taken  into  service,  was, 
however,  checked  by  the  surprise  of  Wesel,  where  their  maga- 
zines and  stores  were,  by  the  garrison  of  Emmerick ;  and  the 
result  of  this  stroke,  and  the  jealousies  between  the  Spanish 
leaders,  and  those  of  the  Imperial  army  under  Montecuculi,  was 
that  the  efforts  of  an  army  of  fifty  thousand  men  were  rendered 
fruitless,  and  the  city  being  reduced  to  a  two  days'  supply  of 
gunpowder  surrendered  on  14th  September  on  honourable 
terms.  The  siege  took  rank  with  those  of  Ostend,  Breda,  and 
Rochelle  among  the  military  achievements  of  the  age ;  and 
Prince  Frederick  Henry  was  henceforth  regarded  as  equal  in 
conduct  and  courage  to  his  father,  William  the  Silent,  and  his 
brother,  Prince  Maurice.  A  fourth  Scottish  regiment,  that  of 
the  Earl  of  Morton,  commanded  by  Lord  Kinfauns,  was  tem- 
porarily employed  for  five  months  during  this  campaign.2 

The  Dutch  were  also  successful  on  the  Lower  Rhine ;  in  the 
following  year  in  the  country  of  Juliers,  and  in  various 
encounters  in  1631.3  In  1632,  an  alliance  having  been  con- 
cluded between  the  States  and  Gustavus  Adolphus,  then  in  the 


1  There    also    fell   in    1629,    Sergeant- Major   Archibald    Bethune,    Lieut. - 
Colonel  James  Haddon,  and  Captain  William  Douglas,  an  officer  of  inventive 
genius.     See  pp.  358-368. 

2  See  pp.  396-405. 

3  In    1630,    Captain    Kinninmond,    and    in     1631,    Lieut. -Colonel    Allan 
Coutts,   Captain    Bellenden,  and  Captain   Brock  were  succeeded  upon  their 
decease. 


312  THE  THIRTY  YEARS'  WAR 

midst  of  that  career  of  victory  in  Germany,  which  owed  so 
much  of  its  success  to  the  hardy  valour  of  his  Scottish  brigades, 
Prince  Frederick  Henry  made  another  great  effort  to  per- 
manently increase  the  dominions  of  the  United  Provinces. 
Venlo,  Stralen,  and  Ruremonde  successively  surrendered,  and 
on  the  10th  of  June  he  invested  Maestricht,  the  three  Scots 
regiments  forming  part  of  his  army.  In  vain  did  the  fiery 
Pappenheim,  at  the  head  of  an  Imperial  army,  again  and  again 
assault  the  besiegers1  lines,  in  the  attempt  to  relieve  the  place, 
and  in  vain  did  the  besieged  make  furious  sallies,  in  repelling 
which  gallant  English  lives  were  lost.  The  city  surrendered 
on  2£nd  August,  and  its  fall  was  followed  by  those  of  Limburg, 
and  of  Orsoy.  Rheinberg  also  fell  in  the  following  year, 
one  of  the  two  approaches  having  been  intrusted  to  the 
English  and  Scots,  and  the  other  to  the  French,  Germans, 
Walloons,  and  Dutch.  In  the  campaign  of  1635,  in  which  a 
French  army  co-operated  with  the  Dutch,  the  Scots  troops 
formed  the  vanguard,  and  the  left  next  to  the  cavalry  when 
encamped  before  Louvain,  the  Germans  being  in  the  centre, 
and  the  English  on  the  right  or  in  the  rear.  The  combined 
forces,  however,  failed  to  reduce  Louvain.  The  Fort  of  Schenck 
was  taken  by  the  Spaniards,  and  the  only  successes  were  the  cap- 
ture of  several  small  towns.  The  Fort  of  Schenck  was  recovered 
in  the  following  spring.  In  1637  the  Prince  of  Orange  laid 
formal  siege  to  Breda,  which  in  spite  of  frequent  sallies  was 
forced  to  surrender  on  6th  October,  the  garrison  receiving  the 
same  terms  as  had  been  granted  by  Spinola  twelve  years 
before.2 

In  1638  the  Scots  Brigade  experienced  the  greatest  disaster 
they  had  suffered  since  the  morning  on  which  so  many  brave 
men  fell  on  the  Flemish  Downs.  Groll,  Hertogen-Bosch,  and 
Maestricht  had  in  succession  fallen  before  Prince  Frederick 


1  Captain  Elphinstone  is  noted  as  dead  in  1632,  and  Sergeant- Major  M. 
Hamilton  in  1632. 

a  In  1635  Captain  Patrick  and  Captain  William  Brog,  in  1636  Colonel  Sir 
William  Brog,  and  Captain  Marjoribanks,  and  in  1637  Lieut. -Colonel  George 
Coutts  and  Captain  Williamson  were  succeeded  upon  their  decease. 

The  position  of  the  three  Scots  regiments  (Balfour's,  Sandilands',  and 
Almond's)  at  the  siege  of  Breda,  under  Count  William  of  Nassau,  was  at  La  Hage, 
a  village  on  the  Antwerp  road. 


INTRODUCTORY  313 

Henry's  victorious  arms,  and  he  burned  to  crown  his  triumphs 
by  the  capture  of  Antwerp.  It  was  necessary  to  get  posses- 
sion of  the  Flanders  side  of  the  Scheldt  to  prevent  the  enemy 
succouring  the  city,  and  the  plan  adjudged  most  practicable, 
though  very  difficult,  was  to  pass  through  the  inundations  of 
the  island  of  Doel  to  the  dike  of  Fort  Calloo.  The  Prince 
ordered  Count  William  of  Nassau,  with  six  thousand  men,  on 
this  expedition.  The  troops  selected  were  '  part  of  the  three 
Scots  regiments  of  Balfour,  Sandilands,  and  Hammond  (Lord 
Almond),  of  the  three  German  regiments  of  Count  Henry,  of 
Eerenruyter,  and  his  own,  a  Walloon  regiment,  and  two  national 
Dutch,  those  of  Brederode  and  North  Holland,  with  six  half 
cannons  and  twelve  field  pieces.1 1 

Count  William  met  with  greater  difficulties  than  were 
expected,  the  water  of  the  inundations  being  much  deeper 
than  had  been  represented,  and  the  bottom  almost  a  mire. 
These  inundations  had  to  be  waded  through  for  six  or 
seven  miles  before  Fort  Calloo  was  reached,  '  but  the  soldiers 
having  overcome  all  these  difficulties  by  their  labour,  patience, 
and  valour,  the  fort  was  taken.'  The  Spaniards,  however, 
collected  a  strong  army  of  twenty  thousand  men,  among  whose 
chiefs  was  the  famous  Piccolomini,  who  attacked  the  Dutch  in 
their  lines  in  five  places  at  once,  on  the  20th  of  June.  The 
Spaniards  were  repulsed  after  an  engagement  of  eleven  hours, 
eighteen  hundred  of  their  troops  and  five  hundred  of  the  Dutch 
being  killed.  Before,  however,  reinforcements  sent  by  the 
Prince  of  Orange  could  arrive,  the  Spaniards  renewed  the  fight, 
and  took  some  forts  which  covered  the  Dutch  lines.  '  Count 
William,  not  thinking  himself  any  longer  in  a  condition  to 
maintain  his  ground,  retreated  in  the  night-time,  the  22nd  of 
June,  in  order  to  rejoin  the  Prince  of  Orange  on  the  side  of 
the  Schelde,  but  was  charged  so  furiously  by  the  Spaniards 
that  the  Scotch,  who  marched  in  the  rear,  were  for  the  most 
part  cut  off,  which  caused  such  a  consternation  in  the  whole 
army  that  they  retired  in  great  confusion,  and  with  so  much 
precipitation  that  many,  who  could  not  soon  enough  get 
aboard  the  ships,  were  drowned  in  the  river.'  The  Dutch  lost 


1  Memoirs  of  Prince  Frederick  Henry,  '  Hist.  Acct.,'  Hist,  of  Holland. 


314  THE  THIRTY  YEARS'  WAR 

fifteen  hundred  killed  and  drowned,  and  twenty-two  hundred 
taken  prisoners,1  and  the  Scots  captives,  consisting  of  four 
officers  and  six  hundred  soldiers,  were  sent  to  the  Fort  of  Lillo. 

A  sharp  but  indecisive  action  subsequently  took  place  near 
Bergen-op-Zoom,  where  the  Prince  of  Orange  was  collecting 
the  remains  of  Count  William's  army,  and  the  Prince  of  Orange 
was  subsequently  forced  to  raise  the  siege  of  Gueldres.  The 
campaign  of  1639  was  also  without  definite  result.2  In  1640  the 
Prince  of  Orange  besieged  Hulst,  and  a  severe  battle  was  fought 
with  a  relieving  force,  which  drove  the  Dutch  into  their  lines 
with  the  loss  of  many  brave  officers,  and  the  Prince  was  ultimately 
compelled  to  raise  the  siege.3  In  1641  he  took  Gennep,  and 
his  son  was  married  to  Princess  Mary  of  England.  In  1642 
the  whole  of  the  States  army,  nearly  one-half  of  which  were 
British  and  French,  were  reviewed  by  Queen  Henrietta  Maria, 
and  in  1643  the  young  Prince  William  distinguished  himself 
in  a  hot  skirmish  near  Antwerp.4 

In  1644  Prince  Frederick  Henry  transported  his  army  to 
Flanders,  his  first  operation  being  the  passage  of  the  Lys,  to 
which  the  troops  advanced  in  the  following  order.  'The 


1  On  June  25th  the  Prince,  when  with  'the  army  on  the  Noortgeest,'  gave 
a  commission    in  succession    to   Lieut. -Colonel   Henderson,   deceased,  whose 
funeral  was  attended  by  representatives  of  the  States-General.     On  I3th  Sep- 
tember, by  a  commission  given  at  Velp,  near  Grave,  Captain  James  Halkett, 
deceased,  was  succeeded.      On  October  25th  Colonel  Sir  James  Sandilands, 
deceased,  and  on  December  4th  Colonel  Sir  David  Balfour,  deceased,  were 
succeeded  in  command  of  their  companies.     For  King  Charles's  interposition  on 
behalf  of  the  Scottish  prisoners,  see  p.  449,  and  for  a  complete  list  of  their  names, 
pp.  450-455.      They  included  Sergeant- Major  Caddell,   and   Captain  Patrick 
Stewart,  of  Sandiland's  regiment  (formerly  Colonel  Brog's),  as  well  as  several 
subalterns  of  all  three  regiments. 

2  Colonel  Sir  Archibald  Douglas  died  in  this  year,  who  had  succeeded  Sir 
David  Balfour  in  command  of  Lord  Buccleuch's  regiment.     He  was  succeeded 
by  Colonel  John  Kirkpatrick.    Colonel  James  Erskinehad  succeeded  Sandilands 
in  command  of  Sir  William  Brog's  old  regiment,  and  Lord  Almond  being  engaged 
in  the  Covenanting  troubles  in  Scotland,  his  regiment  was  given  to  his  lieut.- 
colonel,  Sir  Philip  Balfour. 

3  Lieut. -Colonel  A.  Caddell  died  in  1640. 

4  This  review  was  in  a  great  plain  near  Voorne.     '  The  infantry,'  says  the 
'  Historical  Account,'  '  was  drawn  up  in  three  lines,  at  the  distance  of  100  yards 
from  each  other  ;  the  cavalry  in  rear  of  the  third  line  of  infantry.     The  Queen 
passed  along  each  line  in  her  coach,  the  Prince  of  Orange  accompanying  her  on 
horseback,  and  telling  her  the  names  of  the  colonels  and  officers  as  they  dropped 


INTRODUCTORY  315 

Prince  of  Orange's  Horse  Guards ;  the  three  regiments  of  the 
Scots  Brigade,  whose  colonels  were  Erskine,  Kirkpatrick,  and 
Balfour ; l  four  French  regiments,  the  colonels  of  which  were 
Hauterive,  d'Estrades,  Douchant,  and  Coligny ;  four  English 
regiments  commanded  by  Craven,  Herbert,  Goring,  and  Crom- 
well. The  national  Dutch  regiment  of  Count  Hoorn  and  nine 
regiments  of  horse  in  the  rear.'  During  the  construction  of  a 
bridge  of  boats  over  the  Lys,  '  Colonel  Erskine,  not  having 
the  patience  to  wait  till  it  should  be  finished,  passed  upon  the 
bridge  of  reeds  with  his  regiment,  and  seeing  some  troops  of 
the  enemy  near  a  fort  named  St.  Angel,  marched  up  to  them : 
they  put  on  the  appearance  of  waiting  an  engagement,  but 
upon  seeing  that  instead  of  halting  he  still  advanced  against 
them,  they  retired.  Erskine  pursued  them,  took  the  fort, 
killed  some,  and  made  prisoners  of  the  rest,  whom  he  sent  to 
the  Prince.  The  bridge  being  finished,  the  Prince  led  over  the 
whole  army,  and  drew  them  up  in  order  of  battle.'2  The 


their  pikes  and  colours  to  salute  her.  Near  one-half  of  the  infantry  being  British 
and  French,  saw  in  Her  Majesty,  these  their  own  Queen,  and  those,  their  late 
heroic  monarch's  daughter.  After  passing  along  the  front  of  the  lines,  the  Queen 
stood  in  a  tent  while  the  whole  army  passed  in  review.'  Queen  Henrietta  Maria 
had  brought  with  her  the  most  precious  jewels  of  the  Crown,  which  she  pledged 
or  sold  to  obtain  military  stores  for  the  King,  her  husband,  to  whose  service  several 
of  the  officers  of  the  Brigade  went.  'Le  Prince  d'Orange,'  records  Cerisier, 
'  engagea  plusieurs  officiers  et  soldats  a  passer  en  Angleterre  pour  le  secourir.' 

The  Resolutions  of  Holland  contain  the  following  : 

'  1643,  Jamtary  i$th.—  The  committee,  through  the  Grand  Pensionary,  repre- 
sents the  difficulties  arising  from  the  Resolution  of  the  States  of  December  iQth, 
1642,  respecting  captains  and  other  officers  of  war,  and  also  soldiers,  who  went 
from  here  to  England,  the  committee  not  being  able  to  judge  who  of  them  entered 
foreign  service,  otherwise  than  from  a  list  sent  into  this  Assembly  by  the  Envoy6 
of  the  English  Parliament.  Resolution  :  The  committee  to  obtain  a  list  of  absent 
officers  and  soldiers  from  the  Council  of  State,  or  from  His  Highnesses'  secretaries, 
or  from  the  English  and  Scottish  colonels ;  the  pay-orders  for  officers  found  to  be 
absent  not  to  be  forwarded  until  it  is  known  whether  they  entered  foreign  service 
or  not,  and  in  the  first  case  the  parties  to  be  prosecuted.  The  pay-orders  for 
those  that  are  not  absent,  of  either  nation,  to  be  forwarded  as  heretofore.' 

The  Records  of  the  House  of  Lords  [1641]  contain  a  copy  of  a  petition  to 
the  King  of  the  Scottish  officers  taken  on  by  the  Marquis  of  Hamilton  for  his 
Majesty's  service,  in  which  they,  inte